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Field Guides Tour Report
Holiday Costa Rica: Rancho Naturalista I 2013
Dec 19, 2013 to Dec 27, 2013
Jesse Fagan & Cali Rodriguez

This spectacular Sunbittern was runner-up to Scaled Antpitta for bird of the tour. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

This was a fun holiday tour. In contrast to the last few years, this year was dry (and sunny), which made for ideal birding conditions -- the weather was just about perfect and the birds cooperated. We saw more than 300 species (307 to be exact), one of our best totals to date. Thanks again to a fun group and our excellent local guides, Cali Rodriguez and Vernon Campos, along with Harry Barnard, who helped us out around Rancho. The guide-to-client ratio was excellent on this tour!

Bird highlights according to y'all included that Scaled Antpitta at Tapanti, the bird of the trip for most. The Sunbittern and Sharpbill ran a close second, but you also mentioned the tiny Green Thorntail, Rufous Motmot, Long-billed Gnatwren, and Montezuma Oropendola. Your list of highlights was extensive, and it just shows that on this tour we see a lot of birds and there is a lot to like!

I wish you good birding and safe travels in 2014.

--Jesse Fagan aka Motmot (from Lima, Peru)

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – One glimpsed as it disappeared into the undergrowth at EARTH. Heard by everyone.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – This was a good find. At least 5 birds were along the distant shoreline at Turire Lake.
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors)
LESSER SCAUP (Aythya affinis)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – Several small groups were a regular visitor to the patio feeders.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – Just one at CATIE.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)

An immature Fasciated Tiger-Heron standing in its preferred habitat -- running water. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – After several passes along the river below Rancho, we eventually found a small family (?) group of three. This species prefers swifter moving waters than the other tiger-herons.
BARE-THROATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma mexicanum) – One juvenile was in the banana farm at EARTH>
GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – Just one at CATIE.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – Also at CATIE.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – Seen at CATIE and again at Turire Lake.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Singles over Rancho and our day at EARTH.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – These were seen hunting within the city of San Jose.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – One very distant over Silent Mountain.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – One immature was seen briefly soaring above the forest at Tapanti NP.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – One over the forest at EARTH.
BICOLORED HAWK (Accipiter bicolor) – A regular visitor to the Rancho grounds; seen most mornings on its favorite perch.
BARRED HAWK (Morphnarchus princeps) – Silent Mountain.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus)
GRAY HAWK (Buteo plagiatus) – It still isn't clear to me where Gray vs. Gray-lined Hawk occur in Costa Rica. According to the AOU in 2012, Gray Hawk was split from Gray-lined Hawk based on strong morphological, plumage, and vocal differences. They describe Gray Hawk from southern Texas south to northwest Costa Rica (this is why we had Gray-lined Hawk on the checklist for this tour). However, it seems we were seeing Gray Hawks on this tour, so the break between the two populations must occur further south (the two populations are allopatric). [A look at Stiles and Skutch (1989) mention Gray-lined Hawk only occurring in the southwest!]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
SWAINSON'S HAWK (Buteo swainsoni) – At this time of year, this was probably a rare wintering raptor for Costa Rica. Our bird was seen soaring over Rancho.
RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis) – The resident subspecies is costaricensis.
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – Fantastic looks along La Mina Road. One of the group's favorites.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) [*]
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – A few around the lake at CATIE.
AMERICAN COOT (Fulica americana)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A pair in the open field near Lake Turire. A recent colonist to the region from the south.
KILLDEER (Charadrius vociferus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)

Participant Merrill Lester shared this sharp image of a Northern Jacana.

NORTHERN JACANA (Jacana spinosa)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes) – One at Birris Reservoir.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – These were common in the Caribbean lowlands (like around EARTH).
RED-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas flavirostris)
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – One seen at Rancho from the patio. Heard another day.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) [*]
WHITE-WINGED DOVE (Zenaida asiatica)
MOURNING DOVE (Zenaida macroura) – Just in the highlands like at Volcan Irazu. They don't get much further south than central Costa Rica.
INCA DOVE (Columbina inca)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-CHESTED DOVE (Leptotila cassini) [*]
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga sulcirostris)
Strigidae (Owls)
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We searched and searched for this little guy at CATIE. Eventually we found him and had great scope views!
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata)
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Seen well feeding underneath the lights at Rancho.
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
VAUX'S SWIFT (Chaetura vauxi)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – A couple were soaring above Rancho. We talked about their downy nests and the belief that having one in your house will bring you good luck with the opposite sex. ;-)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
BAND-TAILED BARBTHROAT (Threnetes ruckeri) [*]
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – A regular visitor to the Rancho patio feeders. The females have longer bills than the males.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris)
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis) – Not many around, but this tiny hermit was seen a few times.
GREEN-FRONTED LANCEBILL (Doryfera ludovicae)
BROWN VIOLETEAR (Colibri delphinae)
GREEN VIOLETEAR (Colibri thalassinus) – This highland hummingbird was seen well at Volcan Irazu.
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – Amazing to see this striking hummingbird bathing at the hummingbird pools. The bright white underparts really catches the eye!
GREEN-BREASTED MANGO (Anthracothorax prevostii)
GREEN THORNTAIL (Discosura conversii) – This tiny hummingbird was seen a few times from the Rancho patio.

Violet-crowned Woodnymph is one of two dozen hummingbird species we encountered. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

MAGNIFICENT HUMMINGBIRD (Eugenes fulgens) – Volcan Irazu. The larger subspecies in Costa Rica and western Panama is called spectabilis. It has been treated as a separate species in the past.
FIERY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Panterpe insignis) – This Chirqui endemic was seen well at Volcan Irazu. [E]
WHITE-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-GEM (Lampornis hemileucus) – Seen well at Tapanti NP. Found only in Costa Rica and western Panama. [E]
PURPLE-THROATED MOUNTAIN-GEM (Lampornis calolaemus) – Also seen well at Tapanti NP on our final day. Found only in Nicaragua and CR. [E]
VOLCANO HUMMINGBIRD (Selasphorus flammula) – This tiny hummingbird was quite common at Volcan Irazu. This population has rose colored gorgets. [E]
VIOLET SABREWING (Campylopterus hemileucurus)
BRONZE-TAILED PLUMELETEER (Chalybura urochrysia) – One of the few hummingbirds with pink feet!
VIOLET-CROWNED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania colombica) – Now, this species is currently lumped by the AOU with another South American species, Green-crowned Woodnymph. This superspecies is called Crowned Woodnymph.
BLACK-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupherusa nigriventris) – Just one female at Tapanti NP. [E]
SNOWCAP (Microchera albocoronata) – The star of Rancho was around and even visiting the hummingbird pools.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) [*]
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus)
COLLARED TROGON (Trogon collaris)
Momotidae (Motmots)
BLUE-CROWNED MOTMOT (LESSON'S) (Momotus coeruliceps lessonii) – Always a favorite and motmots are just so cool. ;-) This species was seen most days. This particular taxon (Lesson's) occurs from Mexico to Panama; the "Blue-crowned" motmots have been split into several species.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) – This large motmot came into the moth cloth one morning. Also seen on the trails at Rancho.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus) – Seen well at EARTH.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – This smaller puffbird was also seen along the forest edge at EARTH.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
RED-HEADED BARBET (Eubucco bourcierii) – A pair were seen well feeding silently at Tapanti NP. Missed most tours.
Semnornithidae (Toucan-Barbets)
PRONG-BILLED BARBET (Semnornis frantzii) – This endemic was also seen at Tapanti. You guys really liked its call. [E]
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
EMERALD TOUCANET (BLUE-THROATED) (Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis) – Caught up with a pair at Tapanti NP. This taxon is sometimes split as a separate species, Blue-throated Toucanet, endemic to the Chiriqui highlands. When lumped it is considered a subspecies of Emerald Toucanet.

A Collared Aracari showing just a flash of its chestnut hind-collar. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus)
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
ACORN WOODPECKER (Melanerpes formicivorus) – This is one to watch as there has been talk of splitting the different populations of Acorn Woodpecker. The subspecies in Costa Rica is striatipectus found from Nicaragua to western Panama.
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani)
HOFFMANN'S WOODPECKER (Melanerpes hoffmannii) – This is a Pacific slope endemic (from Honduras to Costa Rica) that makes it over to the Caribbean slope only in Costa Rica.
YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (Sphyrapicus varius) – An annual, but uncommon winter visitor to Costa Rica. We saw one on Volcan Irazu.
HAIRY WOODPECKER (Picoides villosus) – Again, this subspecies (sanctorum) is interesting as it is smaller and darker plumaged than northern populations. This subspecies is found from southern Mexico to Panama.
GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER (Colaptes rubiginosus)
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) [*]
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – This species is a recent colonist from the south.
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans)
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – One in flight at EARTH.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
SULPHUR-WINGED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) – A somewhat rare Chiriqui highland endemic that we were lucky to see in flight (a flock of 20 or so birds) at Silent Mountain. [E]
OLIVE-THROATED PARAKEET (AZTEC) (Aratinga nana astec) [*]
GREAT GREEN MACAW (Ara ambiguus) – What an experience! We were very lucky to find a flock of 6 birds feeding on fruits at EARTH. Only my second time having them on tour!
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis)
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) [*]
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – Several in the mixed-species flocks on the upper Rancho trails.
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – A regular visitor to the moth cloth.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – Several working the dead leaf clusters on the trails behind Rancho.
SLATY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula schisticolor)
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra tyrannina)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza exsul) – Seen fairly well on the forest trail at EARTH.
DULL-MANTLED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza laemosticta) – Seen pretty well (along with the Dusky Antbird) on the La Mina Road.
IMMACULATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza immaculata) [*]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)

The showy Collared Trogon is always a crowd-pleaser. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

SCALED ANTPITTA (Grallaria guatimalensis) – A first for the tour and a great find! We were very surprised to find this egg-on-legs near the side of the road at Tapanti NP. It showed well for us.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SILVERY-FRONTED TAPACULO (Scytalopus argentifrons) [*]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus)
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa)
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus)
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – A close pair on the forest trail at EARTH. They seemed to be loosely associated with the army ant swarm.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – Great looks at the moth cloth.
SPOTTED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) – Also made visits to the moth cloth.
BROWN-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus pusillus) – A good find on the upper trails. Not seen by everyone unfortunately. Seen on maybe 40% of our trips to Rancho.
STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii)
SPOT-CROWNED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes affinis) [*]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
SCALY-THROATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia variegaticeps) – A good find at Tapanti. I believe the first time we have seen this on tour.
RED-FACED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca erythrops)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – A pair seen at EARTH.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
TORRENT TYRANNULET (Serpophaga cinerea)
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon superciliaris) – Fairly common (at least by voice) in the forest at Rancho.
PALTRY TYRANNULET (Zimmerius vilissimus) – Formerly known as the Mistletoe Tyrannulet. I prefer the old name.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps) – Heard more often than seen. This tiny flycatcher was seen well, however, on our first morning down the entrance road.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias sulphurescens)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) [*]
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus)
TAWNY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Aphanotriccus capitalis) – A near CR endemic (also found in Nicaragua) was seen well at the moth cloth. [E]
TUFTED FLYCATCHER (Mitrephanes phaeocercus)
DARK PEWEE (Contopus lugubris) [E*]
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax flaviventris) – The most common wintering Empidonax on this tour.
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) – Found in the Caribbean lowlands. It winters regularly from CR south into northern South America.

Our smilin' group with your trusted guides at front center: Jesse Fagan (r.) and Cali Rodriguez

WHITE-THROATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax albigularis) – Excellent looks at this local and uncommon species in the field near Turire Lake.
BLACK-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax atriceps) – Seen at Volcan Irazu. Endemic to the Chiriqui highlands. [E]
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) [*]
RUFOUS MOURNER (Rhytipterna holerythra)
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) [*]
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
GRAY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes granadensis)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – Nice looks at three birds in the lowlands at EARTH.
Pipridae (Manakins)
WHITE-RUFFED MANAKIN (Corapipo altera)
WHITE-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus candei) – The snap, crackle, and pop was from these guys.
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Pipra pipra) – This is the most difficult manakin to see at Rancho. We saw two different birds during our time in the forest.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – One female was seen at EARTH.
Vireonidae (Vireos)
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons)
PHILADELPHIA VIREO (Vireo philadelphicus) – Singles on the grounds at Rancho.
TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) [*]
LESSER GREENLET (Hylophilus decurtatus)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BROWN JAY (Psilorhinus morio) – Loud and raucous. Seen every day of the tour.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
NORTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) – This species doesn't winter any further south than central CR. It was neat seeing them side-by-side with the next species.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)

Southern Lapwing is a species showing significant range expansion. (Photo by participant Merrill Lester)

SCALY-BREASTED WREN (WHISTLING) (Microcerculus marginatus luscinia) [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
OCHRACEOUS WREN (Troglodytes ochraceus) – Heard at Irazu, but finally seen at Tapanti NP. [E]
TIMBERLINE WREN (Thryorchilus browni) [E*]
BAND-BACKED WREN (Campylorhynchus zonatus)
RUFOUS-NAPED WREN (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) – Often not seen on the tour because of our schedule. However, it was seen this year during our early morning walk at Hotel Bougainvillea.
BLACK-THROATED WREN (Pheugopedius atrogularis)
STRIPE-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus thoracicus)
PLAIN WREN (Cantorchilus modestus) [*]
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – A striking species that we saw well at EARTH. Heard more often than seen.
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) – Very nice studies at the moth cloth.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) [*]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
BLACK-FACED SOLITAIRE (Myadestes melanops) [E*]
BLACK-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus gracilirostris) – Seen at Volcan Irazu. [E]
ORANGE-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus aurantiirostris) [*]
SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus)
WOOD THRUSH (Hylocichla mustelina)
SOOTY THRUSH (Turdus nigrescens) – This large thrush, a Chiriqui highland endemic, was common on the slopes of Volcan Irazu. [E]
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – The national bird of CR was seen every day. Whew!
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
GRAY CATBIRD (Dumetella carolinensis)
Ptilogonatidae (Silky-flycatchers)
BLACK-AND-YELLOW SILKY-FLYCATCHER (Phainoptila melanoxantha) [E]
LONG-TAILED SILKY-FLYCATCHER (Ptilogonys caudatus) – Both silky-flycatchers seen on this tour are Chiriqui highland endemics. We saw Black-and-yellow at Volcan Irazu and Long-tailed at Tapanti NP. In both cases, excellent views. [E]
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia motacilla) – Singles along the rivers.
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis)
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – A fairly common wintering bird to Costa Rica. Seen on most days at Rancho.
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea)
FLAME-THROATED WARBLER (Oreothlypis gutturalis) – A pair were seen at Volcan Irazu. [E]
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina)
GRAY-CROWNED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis poliocephala) – One in the tall brushy field near Turire Lake.
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia)
KENTUCKY WARBLER (Geothlypis formosa) – One seen in the humid forest understory at EARTH.
OLIVE-CROWNED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis semiflava) – We saw one singing within the marshes at EARTH.
AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica)
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (Basileuterus rufifrons)
BLACK-CHEEKED WARBLER (Basileuterus melanogenys) – This endemic was seen at Volcan Irazu. We often don't see this species on tour. A good one to find. [E]
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda)
WILSON'S WARBLER (Cardellina pusilla)
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
TAWNY-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus delatrii) – A good find was a small flock of 5 to 6 birds along the Silent Mountain road.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
CRIMSON-COLLARED TANAGER (Ramphocelus sanguinolentus)
PASSERINI'S TANAGER (Ramphocelus passerinii)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
SPECKLED TANAGER (Tangara guttata)
SPANGLE-CHEEKED TANAGER (Tangara dowii) – Seen at Tapanti NP. [E]
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata)
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola)
EMERALD TANAGER (Tangara florida) – Finally caught up with this one along the Silent Mountain road.
SILVER-THROATED TANAGER (Tangara icterocephala)
SCARLET-THIGHED DACNIS (Dacnis venusta) – Not sure we ever saw the scarlet "thighs", but we saw the bird nicely in the scope several times.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
BLACK-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Chrysothlypis chrysomelas) – At least ten were in the flock that we watched at Silent Mountain. This is another endemic to the region. [E]
SLATY FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa plumbea) – This Chiriqui endemic was seen at Volcan Irazu. [E]
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (Sporophila corvina)
WHITE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila torqueola)
THICK-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Oryzoborus funereus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
DUSKY-FACED TANAGER (Mitrospingus cassinii) – Missed on most tours so it was good to catch up with them again at EARTH.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
BLACK-HEADED SALTATOR (Saltator atriceps)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
LARGE-FOOTED FINCH (Pezopetes capitalis) – Another endemic that we saw nicely at Irazu. However, don't look for the big feet! [E]
SOOTY-FACED FINCH (Arremon crassirostris) – This sharp looking endemic was seen at Tapanti NP. [E]
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BRUSH-FINCH (Arremon brunneinucha)
ORANGE-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon aurantiirostris)
BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW (Arremonops conirostris)
WHITE-EARED GROUND-SPARROW (Melozone leucotis) – We caught up with this species in the coffee fields as we exited Tapanti NP.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
VOLCANO JUNCO (Junco vulcani) – A pair just outside the entrance to Irazu NP. [E]
COMMON BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus)
SOOTY-CAPPED BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus pileatus) – Seen at Volcan Irazu. [E]
ASHY-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus canigularis) – A tough bird to see on this tour. One group had several on the higher trails above Rancho.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra)
FLAME-COLORED TANAGER (Piranga bidentata)
CARMIOL'S TANAGER (Chlorothraupis carmioli) [*]
BLACK-THIGHED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus tibialis) [*]
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus ludovicianus)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED BLACKBIRD (Sturnella militaris) – Another southern colonist that is expanding its range north in response to habitat changes.
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus)
BRONZED COWBIRD (Molothrus aeneus)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
BLACK-COWLED ORIOLE (Icterus prosthemelas)
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula)
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus uropygialis) – Just two at EARTH was a bit surprising. Often they are around the patio feeders at Rancho.
MONTEZUMA OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius montezuma) – The alpha males were fun to watch doing their "dip" display.
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – Quite a good tour for euphonias. We had six species in total including this one. Yellow-crowned is often the more difficult one to find, but this year they were around in good numbers.
YELLOW-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia hirundinacea)
ELEGANT EUPHONIA (Euphonia elegantissima) [*]
WHITE-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia minuta) – Surprisingly, around in good numbers this year on the Rancho grounds.
GOLDEN-BROWED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia callophrys)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – Several seen at EARTH.
CENTRAL AMERICAN SPIDER MONKEY (Ateles geoffroyi) – Also seen well at EARTH.
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides) – This large pretty squirrel was seen in various places during the tour.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – Seen on a few days from the balcony at Rancho. Smaller than Variegated with a bright red tail.
MONTANE SQUIRREL (Syntheosciurus brochus) – This is the smaller highland squirrel we saw at Volcan Irazu.
DUSKY RICE RAT (Melanomys caliginosus) – Some of you saw this species below the feeders at Rancho.
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – Just one habituated individual near the visitors' center at Tapanti.


Other critters observed on the tour included:

1) Allen's Coral Snake (Micrurus alleni) -- seen along the entrance road to Rancho. This was the typical red on yellow "kill a fellow" variety.

2) Pug-nosed Anole (Norops capito) -- Seen at Rancho.

3) Wet Forest Toad (Incilius melanochlorus) -- Several on the upper trails at Rancho.

4) Blue-jeans Poison-Dart Frog (Dendrobates pumilio) -- Cali found one deep in the forest at EARTH.

5) Green Basilisk Lizard (Basiliscus plumifrons) -- A large bright green "Jesus Christ" lizard seen at Turire Lake.

Totals for the tour: 307 bird taxa and 7 mammal taxa