Field Guides
Home Tours Guides News About Us FAQ Contact Us
Field Guides Tour Report
Holiday Costa Rica: Rancho Naturalista III 2014
Dec 13, 2014 to Dec 21, 2014
Jay VanderGaast

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird was one of 21 species of hummingbirds that delighted us during this tour. (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

The thought of a warm, sunny week in Costa Rica is pretty appealing when December rolls around in the north, and I'm sure that was what everyone was expecting when they signed up for this additional offering of our popular holiday tour. But, unfortunately, the weather didn't quite match up to our expectations, as the Caribbean side of the country had been experiencing an unusually rainy stretch for this time of year, and things were considerably wetter than expected. All things considered though, we managed to stay pretty dry through most of the trip, other than that nasty first day up on Irazu, and things got better as we went along, and by week's end the weather was gorgeous, so we had at least a few days of the kind of climate we were hoping for. Not to mention that, rain or not, the birding was far better than in most parts of North America at this time of year!

This trip might have to be remembered as the "Sunbittern Special," as we had incredible luck with this much-coveted bird. Sightings on three different days, highlighted by the bird that preened on the rocks below us for several long minutes, treating us to multiple incredible views of its stunning wing pattern. Though I didn't take a vote, I'm pretty sure, judging from the reactions, that this was hands down the bird of the trip.

Among the 250+ species we encountered, there were many other standouts: a lovely Semiplumbeous Hawk screaming at us from a nearby dead tree; a fancy male Black-crested Coquette catching the sun on an exposed twig; an impressive male Snowcap plunging into a shady pool for a late-afternoon cleanup; a brilliant male Red-headed Barbet investigating a clump of dried Cecropia leaves; an impressive pair of Pale-billed Woodpeckers hammering at a dead tree trunk near the roadside; a trio of noisy Great Green Macaws feeding in an almendra tree just overhead.

Additionally we had a nice assortment of Furnariids, most enjoyably a very cooperative Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner and a an equally extroverted Streaked Xenops, both on our final day at Tapanti. A great mix of flycatchers, that most varied of Neotropical families, also made our acquaintance, with a feisty Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant, the highly local Tawny-chested Flycatcher, and a bold Rufous Mourner among the standouts. And a spectacular array of showy tanagers exhibited every color imaginable: the sparkling green of the Emerald Tanager, the sunny hues of a brilliant Black-and-yellow Tanager, the blood-red and inky black of the beautiful Crimson-collared, and the dazzling turquoise of the male Scarlet-thighed Dacnis.

As always, there were far too many memorable sightings to pack them all in here, and I haven't even gotten past the birds! I can't forget to mention the family of otters cavorting in the river at La Mina, or the young spider monkey hanging upside down in a treetop as its mother huddled nearby, or even the Godman's Montane Pit Viper coiled up, nearly invisible in the middle of the trail!

Thanks to all of you for joining me in sunny, and rainy, Costa Rica for this fun pre-Christmas celebration. I enjoyed the intimacy of this small group, and was so glad when it all came together and we were able to run this extra trip (special thanks to Cheryl for filling that critical fourth spot that allowed the trip to go ahead!). Thanks also to the wonderful staff at Rancho, who took such good care of us during the week, and our ever-cheerful and capable driver, Lenin, for getting us around safely and efficiently. Hope to see you all on another trip sometime soon!


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)

With the repeated fabulous views of Sunbittern we had, it was hard for it not to be the obvious bird-of-the-tour choice! (Photo by guide Jay VanderGaast)

GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – The tinamou we flushed from next to the trail at Rancho was almost certainly this one, though I'm not basing that on anything we saw, just that I've never ever seen a Little Tinamou flush like that. We also heard this species tremulous call one afternoon.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors) – About 50 of these migrants, including a male or two in breeding plumage, were at the small pond at Las Concavas. [b]
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – All over the bananas at Rancho's feeders.
CRESTED GUAN (Penelope purpurascens) – At least 5, possibly more, in the guava trees in the pasture at Rancho. Easily the largest number I've ever seen here. Always a good sign when large game birds are increasing!
BLACK GUAN (Chamaepetes unicolor) – One strolling on the upper trail at Rancho was a surprise. I've only seen them here rarely, and Harry, who was in his 4th season of guiding here, had never seen one on the property.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – Donna spotted a pair on the mud flats at the Angostura Reservoir, the first ones I've ever seen in the region!
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – A bunch along the channel at the drained down Angostura Reservoir.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – A lone bird roosting on the bamboo island at CATIE.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – Great views of one or two adults (hard to say if it was just the same one we kept seeing) along the river at La Mina.
GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias) – Four on the mud flats at Angostura Reservoir. [b]
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – Quite a few at the reservoir.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – A single at Las Concavas, and a few each at CATIE, Angostura, and the Cachi Reservoir (en route to Tapanti).
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – About half a dozen at Las Concavas, with a couple of others elsewhere.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Plenty seen every day.
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens) – A few scattered birds at various locations.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) – Maybe about a dozen roosting in the papyrus at CATIE. This species used to be quite scarce here; increase may in part be due to the construction of the Angostura Reservoir in the late 1990's.
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – A few nice adults along with the preceding species, offering a nice comparison. I don't remember ever seeing this species here prior to the reservoir's construction.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – Great looks at a bunch of these bizarre herons at CATIE, where they've been nesting for many years.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – Another species that increased locally after the reservoir's construction. We saw 4 at CATIE (where we recorded the first ever in the area back in the 1990's) and an incredible 14 on the grounds of the Casa Turire. And to think this used to be a tough bird to see!
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Lots daily.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Most days, though not as numerous as the Black Vulture.
Pandionidae (Osprey)

Roadside Hawk (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – One soaring over the valley below Rancho was a bit of a surprise.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – Carole spotted a perched bird on our way up to Irazu, and we had a perched pair along the back road en route to Tapanti.
BICOLORED HAWK (Accipiter bicolor) – Generally a scarce and hard to see species, but the resident one at Rancho has been pretty reliable, often sitting up on the same perch each morning, where we saw it a couple of times.
BARRED HAWK (Morphnarchus princeps) – Very brief views of one diving into the forest with some prey item in its talons at Silencio.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Nice views of several at CATIE and the Casa Turire.
SEMIPLUMBEOUS HAWK (Leucopternis semiplumbeus) – Spectacular looks at this attractive hawk after it flew in over our heads, then landed in the bare branches of a nearby tree, where it remained for several long minutes while we ogled it.
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – A pretty numerous winter visitor. We saw them on a few days, including a nice perched adult at Tapanti. [b]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – Carole spotted a dark morph bird perched high in a eucalyptus along the driveway at Finca Cristina. Then en route to Tapanti, we saw a confusing bird that we eventually determined to be a subadult light morph Short-tailed, perched along the roadside. I can run a half dozen tours or more here without ever seeing one perched!
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – Carole's nemesis looked like it would defeat her again when we left La Mina without seeing one of these. But that changed in a big way when we spotted a couple just as we got out on the main road. As if that wasn't enough, we had a great experience with another at Silencio, this one preening on the rocks below us, showing off its incredible wing pattern time and again. And to top things off, we had yet another, seen from the bus as we drove along a river en route to Tapanti!
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) – Devilishly hard to see this trip, though I think there were several glimpses had.
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis) [*]
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – One popped out next to us as we birded our way in to the forest reserve at EARTH. I think it was just about as surprised to see us as we were to see it!
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – Lots at CATIE, where the best was the pair feeding chicks right near where a large caiman was lurking! Fortunately this ended happily for the gallinules when the caiman slunk off empty-mouthed. [N]
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – A trio at Las Concavas.
AMERICAN COOT (Fulica americana) – A pretty local bird in CR. We saw a single at Las Concavas. [b]
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A recent invader from Panama, though now quite common and widespread throughout CR. We saw a lone bird at Las Concavas.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
NORTHERN JACANA (Jacana spinosa) – Lots at both Las Concavas and CATIE, many with chicks of various ages. [N]
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – A couple along the river at La Mina. [b]
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – One or two among the many teal at Las Concavas. [b]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]

Broad-billed Motmot (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Usually common on power lines in the Caribbean lowlands, but in the rainy weather we experienced, they must have all been in hiding, as we saw only one.
RED-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas flavirostris) – The common large pigeon in the mountains.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) – Definitely heard at EARTH. We did see either this species or Ruddy Pigeon at Rancho, but they are incredibly hard to separate on plumage, unless you get them side by side. Even then... I think the trio seen from the balcony on the first morning were 2 of these, one Ruddy, while the ones in the pasture appeared to be these.
INCA DOVE (Columbina inca) – A couple at the hotel on our first morning were the only ones we saw.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – First seen at EARTH, where we had a group of 4 feeding on the soggy soccer field.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – A lone bird seen our first full day at Rancho, with a couple flushed from the roadside at Silencio.
WHITE-WINGED DOVE (Zenaida asiatica) – This dove has exploded across the central valley and into the Turrialba region, and is now quite common in many areas. Formerly restricted to the dry northwest.
MOURNING DOVE (Zenaida macroura) – No one got too excited about these birds, about a dozen of which we saw on the slopes of Irazu, but really, it is a fairly local species in the country.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Nice looks at a couple as we waited for coquettes at Rancho Bajo, then three more along the roads at Tapanti.
GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga sulcirostris) – Rainy weather is apparently not to this species' liking, as they were just completely absent through most of the trip. We finally got a trio by the skin of our teeth, as we were leaving Tapanti for the final run into San Jose. Just no way we should miss this common species!
Strigidae (Owls)
CENTRAL AMERICAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium griseiceps) – Called once at EARTH but then went totally silent. [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – Great looks at one our first afternoon near our city hotel.
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) – Heard (at last) in the wee hours of our final morning at Rancho. [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – Great studies of one we flushed in front of the library at EARTH, especially after we managed to find it on its new roost.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – A male was flushed from the driveway below Rancho several times as we passed predawn.
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Easy to identify as they are huge, and have a distinctive white collar. We saw big flocks several times, with some excellent looks as some passed at eye level with the dark hills in the background.
VAUX'S SWIFT (Chaetura vauxi) – Carole spotted a couple of these small swifts at CATIE.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – Abundant and aggressive at Rancho's feeders.
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – Fidgety males at the Rancho feeders, and a couple of nice stripe-faced females at Silencio.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis) – Great views of one of these little bandits at the flowering verbena at Rancho Bajo. Also seen at Silencio and Tapanti.
GREEN-FRONTED LANCEBILL (Doryfera ludovicae) – It was a great hummingbird morning at Tapanti, and this unique species was one of several that put on a great show, feeding at a large flower cluster not far from where we stood on the edge of that gorgeous river.!
GREEN VIOLETEAR (Colibri thalassinus) – Common and noisy on the higher parts of Irazu Volcano. We scoped a singing bird at our first stop on the way up, then had much better views at the feeders at our lunch stop.
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – Wonderful views of one of these dainty birds, a female at the hummingbird pools on our first visit. Another female showed well as it fed at some roadside flowers at Silencio.
GREEN-BREASTED MANGO (Anthracothorax prevostii) – Along with the jacobin, the dominant hummingbird at Rancho's feeders.
GREEN THORNTAIL (Discosura conversii) – A lone female put in an appearance at the porch feeders on our first morning at Rancho, and we never saw her again.
BLACK-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis helenae) – Our trek down to Rancho Bajo paid off immediately when we spotted a female feeding at the verbena hedge as soon as we arrived. Before we left, we'd also found a handsome male, enjoying scope views of him as he perched on a bare twig in the canopy. A young male that started visiting the porch feeders a couple of days later was a big surprise- the first coquette to ever visit the feeders here!
GREEN-CROWNED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa jacula) – A lone male paid a few brief visits to the porch feeders.
MAGNIFICENT HUMMINGBIRD (Eugenes fulgens) – A couple of these big hummers were at the feeders at our lunch stop on Irazu.
WHITE-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-GEM (Lampornis hemileucus) – One of the main target hummingbirds at Tapanti, and sometimes about the only one we see there. Not this time, as there plenty of others, but we did see several of these, too.
PURPLE-THROATED MOUNTAIN-GEM (Lampornis calolaemus) – Larry spotted our first perched low in a shrub at our first stop on the slopes of Irazu. Later we saw several at Tapanti, where they seem pretty seasonal.
WHITE-THROATED MOUNTAIN-GEM (GRAY-TAILED) (Lampornis castaneoventris cinereicauda) – Females of this and the preceding species are notoriously difficult to separate, but we had an excellent look at one at Tapanti, and the tail color was pretty obviously dull gray, as opposed to the more steely tail of the Purple-throated. It's been a long time since I've seen this species at Tapanti, but this is the right season for them to be here.

A male White-necked Jacobin...simple is beautiful. (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

VOLCANO HUMMINGBIRD (Selasphorus flammula) – Common on the higher parts of Irazu Volcano, where we saw a bunch, including some shining males.
VIOLET SABREWING (Campylopterus hemileucurus) – A male (possibly two) was a sporadic visitor to Rancho's porch feeders.
BRONZE-TAILED PLUMELETEER (Chalybura urochrysia) – A lone male was a sporadic visitor to the feeders and hummingbird pools at Rancho.
CROWNED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania colombica) – Common and flashy at Rancho's feeders and the pools.
BLACK-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupherusa nigriventris) – Fair numbers showed well at Tapanti, including a couple of nice males.
SNOWCAP (Microchera albocoronata) – Scarce at Rancho this trip, with just a female at the flowering verbena at Rancho Bajo, and fortunately, a dapper male at the hummingbird pools on our first visit there.
RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – In good numbers daily.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) – Great looks at a male perched near an arboreal termitary (a prospective nest site?) in the forest reserve at EARTH.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) – A lovely pair in the cow pasture above Rancho on our final afternoon there.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – A male sat quietly next to the trail in the forest reserve at EARTH.
COLLARED TROGON (Trogon collaris) – Though heard at Rancho, we only saw this bird at Tapanti, where we had fine looks at a female.
Momotidae (Motmots)
BLUE-CROWNED MOTMOT (LESSON'S) (Momotus coeruliceps lessonii) [*]
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) [*]
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) – A bit tricky to track down, but Lenin found us one sitting up in the canopy in EARTH's forest reserve.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – Singles along the river at La Mina and at CATIE.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – Fine views at three different males on three different days. One each at La Mina, Silencio, and en route to Tapanti.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – A female at La Mina followed by a close pair chasing each other around at the Angostura Reservoir.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus) – We worked pretty hard to see that first one at EARTH, only to have our local minder, Paul, show us a pair sitting right above the track! We did spot our only howler monkey in our search for that first one, though.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – An elusive male finally perched briefly in the open at Silencio. I've never had to work so had for this species!
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
RED-HEADED BARBET (Eubucco bourcierii) – Donna found one doing its thing, poking around in curled up dead leaves, along the road at Tapanti.
Semnornithidae (Toucan-Barbets)
PRONG-BILLED BARBET (Semnornis frantzii) – Donna also spotted a pair of these at Tapanti, at about the time I was ready to give up and admit they really didn't exist;-)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
EMERALD TOUCANET (BLUE-THROATED) (Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis) – Wonderful views of one along the roadside, shortly after we arrived in Tapanti.
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – Daily visitors to the feeders at Rancho, though our first one, perched on a power line as we drove down to Turrialba, was a bit of a surprise, not usually being considered roadside power line birds.
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus) – The first sight of one of these spectacular birds is always pretty breathtaking. Our first was in a tree full of oropendolas at CATIE, taking in the sun after a bout of rain
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani) – A badly backlit pair in a Cecropia tree on our last afternoon at Rancho.
HOFFMANN'S WOODPECKER (Melanerpes hoffmannii) – The most regularly seen woodpecker, starting with a couple our first afternoon near the Bougainvillea.
SMOKY-BROWN WOODPECKER (Picoides fumigatus) – An excitable male in the pasture at Rancho was a bit hard to get the bins on. Another at Rancho Bajo the next day was only slightly better.
GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER (Colaptes rubiginosus) – A couple of these gorgeous woodpeckers were seen as we walked down the driveway to Rancho Bajo. Nice spotting Donna! We also had great views of a couple more at Tapanti.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – Much like our Pileated Woodpecker back home. We had great looks at a male in the pasture at Rancho.
PALE-BILLED WOODPECKER (Campephilus guatemalensis) – Fabulous views of one working over a dead tree next to the track at EARTH, thanks to Paul.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)

Montezuma Oropendola was a bold and boisterous species at the Rancho feeders. (Photo by guide Jay VanderGaast)

BARRED PARAKEET (Bolborhynchus lineola) – Heard as they hurtled overhead at Irazu and Tapanti, and Carole may have glimpsed them. A typical encounter.
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) – A trio flew over at Tapanti, though they didn't give us much to look at.
WHITE-CROWNED PARROT (Pionus senilis) – The common parrot species around Rancho, where we saw them daily.
RED-LORED PARROT (Amazona autumnalis) – Several pairs were in a large almendra tree at EARTH, just as the rain broke and bird activity started to pick up.
WHITE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona albifrons) – A single bird in the botanical gardens at CATIE was a surprise, being the first I've seen anywhere near here. According to the guides at Rancho, there is a small population here, but whether they arrived naturally or are escapees, who knows?
SULPHUR-WINGED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) – A screeching flock of about 30 birds flew overhead a couple of times at Silencio, showing off their sulphury wings.
OLIVE-THROATED PARAKEET (AZTEC) (Eupsittula nana astec) – A few of these showed pretty well at EARTH.
GREAT GREEN MACAW (Ara ambiguus) – Just when Lenin dropped us off at EARTH so he could go back and get the bus repaired, the rain finally stopped and a trio of these scarce macaws started screeching. We saw them flying around a bit before they finally settled into the roadside almendra previously occupied by the Red-lored Parrots. Always a nice find.
CRIMSON-FRONTED PARAKEET (Psittacara finschi) – The common large parakeet, often seen in noisy flocks, including over our hotel in San Jose.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) [*]
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – Good views of a pair in a mixed feeding flock at Tapanti.
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – A pair were regular visitors around the moth cloth, though they generally got their morsels from the foliage, never going to the sheet itself.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – Pretty good views of a male poking around in curled up dead leaves above the moth cloth one morning.
SLATY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula schisticolor) – So-so looks at this one at Tapanti for some.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra tyrannina) – A pair flitted across the trail ahead of us at Rancho, but whether this can be counted as a sighting is questionable.
DULL-MANTLED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza laemosticta) [*]
ZELEDON'S ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza zeledoni) – A regular at army ant swarms, and we had a pair attending the swarm we found at Rancho the first day there. We also had nice looks at a tail-pumping male at Tapanti. Formerly Immaculate Antbird, a name I'm finding it tough to let go of.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SILVERY-FRONTED TAPACULO (Scytalopus argentifrons) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
TAWNY-THROATED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus mexicanus) – The one that showed up at the hummingbird pools on our first visit was much earlier than usual as it was still light enough for us to get a great look!
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – A couple at the army ant swarm, and at least three feasting at the moth cloth in the early morning.
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus) – The smallest of the woodcreepers. We saw it a couple of times at Rancho and Tapanti.
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – A couple of these large woodcreepers showed nicely along the entrance road to the forest reserve at EARTH.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – Best seen one morning at the moth cloth, competing with Plain-brown and Spotted woodcreepers for food.
SPOTTED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) – The one with the big buffy eye ring. We had them several times at Rancho and Tapanti.
BROWN-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus pusillus) [*]
STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) – Seen a couple of times from Rancho's porch.
SPOT-CROWNED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes affinis) – Nice views of a pair high up on Irazu. Replaces the similar Streak-headed at these higher elevations.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – Super looks at a trio moving along the forest edge near the hummingbird feeders at Rancho.
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – Much less common in the country than the preceding species, and probably over-reported as Plain Xenops can look quite streaky, too. Carole spotted us a true Streaked Xenops though, on our way out of Tapanti, and we got to enjoy some excellent views of it.
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – A scarce bird at Tapanti, but every once in a while you get one. We had a beauty at our lunch spot, which offered up some excellent views, and posed for a few pictures as well. One of my favorite birds of the trip!
BUFF-THROATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus ochrolaemus) – Common but furtive, though it showed well at the moth cloth a few times.
SPOTTED BARBTAIL (Premnoplex brunnescens) – A bit tough at Tapanti, though I think we all eventually got on one.
RED-FACED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca erythrops) – A handful at Tapanti, though not as conspicuous as they usually are.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)

A different view of one of the fabulous Sunbitterns (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Singles of this bushy-crested flycatcher were seen both at Rancho Bajo and Silencio.
TORRENT TYRANNULET (Serpophaga cinerea) – A quick view of a couple along the river at La Mina.
OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes olivaceus) – This and the next species were both seen briefly by the army ant swarm at Rancho, but not by everyone.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon superciliaris) – One seen in the ravine by Rancho Bajo flew in practically right next to us for a real close look, and this was without any playback to lure him in.
PALTRY TYRANNULET (Zimmerius vilissimus) – This mistletoe specialist was seen pretty regularly through the week.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – I just love this little bird's big attitude, not to mention the name. We had great looks at a couple at Tapanti.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – Heard, heard, heard over several days, and then finally seen well at Silencio, where I actually caved to the growing pressure and had to resort to playback to lure one into view. Never thought that would happen.
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps) – We had this one more easily than the preceding species, oddly. We had one along the driveway our first morning, then better, scope views of a couple by Rancho Bajo.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) [*]
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias assimilis) – One with a group of birds that mobbed my pygmy-owl imitation at EARTH.
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Wonderful looks at a pretty responsive one near the army ant swarm at Rancho.
SULPHUR-RUMPED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius sulphureipygius aureatus) – This was the first bird we saw by the army ant swarm, the one that drew our attention to the activity, prompting us to climb the trail to see what was going on.
TAWNY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Aphanotriccus capitalis) – A real Rancho specialty, this attractive and very local species showed extremely well at the moth cloth.
TUFTED FLYCATCHER (Mitrephanes phaeocercus) – We finally managed to get this cute little sprite in view as we were heading down the road on our way out from Tapanti.
DARK PEWEE (Contopus lugubris) – Heard at the same spot as the Tufted Fly, but this one remained out of sight. [*]
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus) – Nice looks at one along the road at Silencio.
YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax flaviventris) – The common wintering Empid here, and we saw several, including one around the moth cloth. [b]
YELLOWISH FLYCATCHER (Empidonax flavescens) – A single one of these very yellow Empids was seen well at Tapanti.
BLACK-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax atriceps) – One of the few highland specialties we managed to see in the thick fog on Irazu. We had one perched low right next to the road.
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans) – Regularly seen near rivers and streams.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – Great looks at one that turned up by the moth cloth for a morning snack.
RUFOUS MOURNER (Rhytipterna holerythra) – The one at Tapanti seemed impressed with my whistled imitation; it came right in and sat out in the open for us!
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – Several records, including a regular one at the moth cloth.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) – We saw one at EARTH, heard another at Rancho, where I don't recall ever having one before. [b]
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – A common roadside bird during our drives.

Crimson-collared Tanager (Photo by participant Larry Purcey)

BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – Similar to the kiskadee, but generally less numerous. We had these huge-billed birds on several occasions.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Another very common roadside bird.
GRAY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes granadensis) – Less common than its close relative (Social Flycatcher) though we had a few sightings through the trip.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Every day, usually in numbers.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – A responsive trio gave us a great show at EARTH, showing their brilliant purple throats and all!
Pipridae (Manakins)
WHITE-RUFFED MANAKIN (Corapipo altera) – A couple of lovely males on our first day at Rancho, including one by the army ant swarm.
WHITE-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus candei) – They weren't displaying much, but we still had several good views of males at Rancho and EARTH.
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Dixiphia pipra) [*]
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis) – A glowing male popped up right in front of us along the forest trail at EARTH.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata) – Scarce this trip, and Cheryl found us our only one, a female, at EARTH. Nicely done, Cheryl!
BARRED BECARD (Pachyramphus versicolor) – A brief look at a male with a mixed flock that interrupted our lunch at Tapanti.
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) – A lovely pair near our first sloth at EARTH, and another pair the following day at Silencio.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – Good looks at a male in the cow pasture at Rancho our last afternoon there.
BLACK-AND-WHITE BECARD (Pachyramphus albogriseus) – A male along the roadside at Tapanti showed beautifully. An uncommon bird there that we miss more often than not.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons) – A fairly common wintering species. We saw a few at EARTH and Rancho. [b]
LESSER GREENLET (Hylophilus decurtatus) – Heard more often than seen, but we finally caught up with a few of these among the birds mobbing my owl call at EARTH.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BROWN JAY (Psilorhinus morio) – Noisy and common, and recorded daily.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – The common highland swallow, and the most numerous species we saw.
NORTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) – A few birds at Silencio and Tapanti. The ones here are resident rather than northern migrants.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Distinguished from the Northern by the whitish rump and peach-colored throat. Seen a little more often than the Northern.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – Quite a few on the wires around the Turrialba gas station.
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea) – A single bird feeding low over the soccer field at CATIE.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – Small numbers at Rancho, and a bunch over the soccer field at CATIE. [b]
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (WHISTLING) (Microcerculus marginatus luscinia) [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Seen or heard most days.
OCHRACEOUS WREN (Troglodytes ochraceus) – A couple were well-seen at Tapanti. This bird likes to creep around in bromeliads and along tree branches,
TIMBERLINE WREN (Thryorchilus browni) – This species was vocal on Irazu this visit (sometimes they are silent and impossible to find!) and we had excellent views of them.
RUFOUS-NAPED WREN (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) – A single bird in the gardens of the Bougainvillea, where this species is established after first turning up a few years ago.
BLACK-THROATED WREN (Pheugopedius atrogularis) – Heard often, and Carole and I had decent looks at a pair late one afternoon.
STRIPE-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus thoracicus) [*]
PLAIN WREN (Cantorchilus modestus) – Heard often, but the only ones we saw were a couple in the rain at the Casa Turire.
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – Quite furtive, but we managed pretty nice looks at a pair along the river at La Mina.
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) – Excellent studies of this tiny wren early morning at the moth cloth.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – A responsive pair at Tapanti gave a great vocal performance and an excellent show as well.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) [*]
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea) – Seen a few tims around Rancho.
Cinclidae (Dippers)
AMERICAN DIPPER (Cinclus mexicanus) – A pair along one of the streams en route to Tapanti showed well, and we could see how much paler this species is compared to the ones up north.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
BLACK-FACED SOLITAIRE (Myadestes melanops) – A couple of nice views at Tapanti.
BLACK-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus gracilirostris) – With the dense fog on Irazu, we had a tough time finding many birds, but this is one of the species we saw well below the crater, breaking Carole's nightingale-thrush curse.
ORANGE-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus aurantiirostris) – We stopped for one that flew across the road as we were leaving Tapanti, and though we never got great views of it, the stop gave us several other new birds, including Streaked Xenops and Crimson-collared Tanager!
SLATY-BACKED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus fuscater) – A very cooperative one showed beautifully at Tapanti.
SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus) – One popped in for a bath in the backyard pools at Rancho on our first afternoon there. [b]
WOOD THRUSH (Hylocichla mustelina) – Our only one was seen at Rancho on our first full day there. [b]
SOOTY THRUSH (Turdus nigrescens) – This large thrush is pretty common at high elevations, and we saw a few up on Irazu.
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – Ubiquitous. Seen daily in good numbers.
Ptiliogonatidae (Silky-flycatchers)
LONG-TAILED SILKY-FLYCATCHER (Ptiliogonys caudatus) – A female we found along the Oropendola Trail at Tapanti was a nice surprise. I hadn't seen one hear in a long time.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – It was heartening to see this declining species so often on the trip. One of the nicest sightings was of the brilliant male that came to bathe in the backyard pools one afternoon. [b]
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER (Mniotilta varia) – We saw this one in small numbers on several days. [b]
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – Just one bird was seen in the rain at the Casa Turire. [b]
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina) – A very common migrant seen daily in good numbers. [b]
GRAY-CROWNED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis poliocephala) – We were looking for an Olive-crowned Yellowthroat I had heard call at CATIE, when this species popped out, making me wonder if I'd misidentified the call at first. but the Olive-crowned also showed itself, and we even had both species together in the same scope view for a bit.
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia) – Not an uncommon migrant, but can be skulky and hard to see. We had a couple down at Rancho Bajo. [b]
KENTUCKY WARBLER (Geothlypis formosa) – Awesome views of one of these elusive migrants on both morning at the moth cloth. [b]
OLIVE-CROWNED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis semiflava) – Besides the ones at CATIE, we also saw this species at EARTH and heard them at a few other places.
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – Quite common and we saw this resident warbler a number of times.
MAGNOLIA WARBLER (Setophaga magnolia) – A female among the birds mobbing my pygmy-owl imitation was a nice find at EARTH. [b]
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – Seen regularly, with most birds being very dull females and/or first year birds. [b]
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia) – Seen mostly at lower elevations, and often near water, such as at CATIE and Casa Turire. We did also see one a bit higher, at the Hotel Bougainvillea. [b]
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica) – One of the most numerous migrant warblers, with many seen on most days> we missed this bird only up on Irazu, where the Wilson's Warbler takes over as the common migrant. [b]
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (Basileuterus rufifrons) – Seen several times including a beautiful bathing bird in the backyard at Rancho.
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – A small party were regular foragers at the moth cloth.
BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda) – Our lone bird was seen bathing along the river at La Mina.
WILSON'S WARBLER (Cardellina pusilla) – Often numerous at higher elevations, and we saw several on Irazu, with one or two also at Rancho. [b]
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus) – Strangely lacking at Rancho, but we finally glimpsed one at Silencio, then saw several at Tapanti.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – A few birds were seen along the road to the forest reserve at EARTH.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – A rufous female visited the feeders a couple of times, but her mate didn't put in an appearance until our final morning.
CRIMSON-COLLARED TANAGER (Ramphocelus sanguinolentus) – Many thanks to the Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush for this one! We had super looks at a gorgeous pair of these near Tapanti. but was it worth the fire ant attack to get a good shot Larry?
PASSERINI'S TANAGER (Ramphocelus passerinii) – Very common at Rancho's feeders.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – Common and widespread, and seen daily.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – The books make this species look kind of dull, but it has a subtle beauty and a lot more color when seen well. Seen most days.
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – Such a stunningly beautiful bird doesn't look like it should be so common, but it is, and we saw it almost daily.
SPECKLED TANAGER (Tangara guttata) – Another gorgeous tanager. We saw this one incredibly well at Silencio.
SPANGLE-CHEEKED TANAGER (Tangara dowii) – Some wonderful views of this beautiful Chiriqui specialty with some mixed flocks at Tapanti.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata) – In a genus full of brilliant, colorful species, this one sure got the short end of the stick. We saw 4 of these dull birds at CATIE.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola) – Another beauty, this one quite common and seen regularly.
EMERALD TANAGER (Tangara florida) – Generally much scarcer than many of the other Tangara. We saw only two at Silencio, but what fantastic views!
SILVER-THROATED TANAGER (Tangara icterocephala) – Among the more numerous of the tanagers, and we saw a bunch of these most days.
SCARLET-THIGHED DACNIS (Dacnis venusta) – Quite a few at CATIE, with several males absolutely glowing in the bright sunlight!
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Carole saw a male from the Rancho balcony one afternoon- the only one of the trip.
BLACK-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Chrysothlypis chrysomelas) – We had a fast-moving flock of these stunners working through the Cecropia trees along the upper trail on our final day at Rancho.
SLATY FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa plumbea) – Quite a few at Irazu, including some females that showed rather unusual whitish facial markings.
PEG-BILLED FINCH (Acanthidops bairdi) – A lone male showed well as we walked to the crater at Irazu. First time I've seen this species up there.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – A lone bird in a pasture near the Casa Turire.
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (Sporophila corvina) – The default seedeater in the area, and seen most days.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Often seen working through the verbena hedges in Rancho's backyard.
YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris olivaceus) – A couple of birds in the gardens around Rancho Bajo, and a few others along the Tapanti entrance road.
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – A pretty common visitor to Rancho's banana feeders.
BLACK-HEADED SALTATOR (Saltator atriceps) – Not as regular at the feeders as the smaller Buff-throated, but still seen a few times there.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens) – A lone bird at the Bougainvillea and a couple at CATIE were all we saw.
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
LARGE-FOOTED FINCH (Pezopetes capitalis) – With better weather on Irazu, we likely would have seen more of these, rather than the lone bird we had this visit.
SOOTY-FACED FINCH (Arremon crassirostris) – Amazing views of a singing bird that responded beautifully at Tapanti.
ORANGE-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon aurantiirostris) – Regular visitors below the backyard feeders at Rancho.
BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW (Arremonops conirostris) – This used to be pretty regular at Rancho's feeders, but not anymore. We saw just one bird on our walk down to Rancho Bajo.
WHITE-EARED GROUND-SPARROW (Melozone leucotis) – Getting hard to find around the Bougainvillea with all the development that's going on there. but we did manage to find one on our morning walk before leaving for Irazu.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Common in montane areas, and we saw them regularly in several areas.
VOLCANO JUNCO (Junco vulcani) – A high mountain specialist. We saw about half a dozen really well on Irazu.
COMMON CHLOROSPINGUS (Chlorospingus flavopectus) – One of the most numerous birds at Tapanti.
SOOTY-CAPPED CHLOROSPINGUS (Chlorospingus pileatus) – Replaces the preceding species at higher elevations (though there is some overlap). We saw a trio near the crater at Irazu.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – A pretty common migrant, and we saw them most days, but I don't think we had an adult male until our trip to Silencio on our last afternoon at Rancho. [b]
RED-THROATED ANT-TANAGER (Habia fuscicauda) – Great views at the moth cloth, where these birds have become quite bold and easy to see.
CARMIOL'S TANAGER (Chlorothraupis carmioli) – Seen a couple of times around the hummingbird pools.
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus ludovicianus) – A lone male on our morning walk around the Bougainvillea before we left the city. [b]
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) – Nice looks at a pair along the road to the forest reserve at EARTH.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
EASTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella magna) – A couple of birds in some lush pastures on our way up Irazu.
RED-BREASTED BLACKBIRD (Sturnella militaris) – Great looks at a couple of gorgeous males in the grassy meadows en route to Casa Turire.
MELODIOUS BLACKBIRD (Dives dives) – This relatively recent invader (from Nicaragua) is now widespread and quite common, and we saw them on several days.
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus) – Numerous pretty much throughout, though not actually on the Rancho site.
BLACK-COWLED ORIOLE (Icterus prosthemelas) – Carole spotted our lone bird high up in the canopy along the road to EARTH's forest reserve.
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula) – A numerous wintering bird, seen every day of the trip. [b]
YELLOW-BILLED CACIQUE (Amblycercus holosericeus) [*]
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus uropygialis) – Only Carole saw this bird at EARTH, though the rest of us did hear them calling.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – Usually the less common of the oropendolas at Rancho, but there were good numbers at the feeders this trip, and we saw them most days.
MONTEZUMA OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius montezuma) – Big, bold, boisterous, and numerous at the feeders.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – A male in the fruiting fig tree just off the balcony was our only one seen.
YELLOW-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia hirundinacea) – Seen just a couple of times at Rancho and Silencio.
OLIVE-BACKED EUPHONIA (Euphonia gouldi) – Regularly seen in the fruiting fig tree off the balcony.
TAWNY-CAPPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia anneae) – Best seen at Tapanti, where we had several.

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis) – Larry and Donna saw one on the feeders one night.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – Just one at EARTH, found while we were searching for a vocalizing White-necked Puffbird.
CENTRAL AMERICAN SPIDER MONKEY (Ateles geoffroyi) – A mother and her youngster were drying out in the sun, high in a tree as we left EARTH's forest preserve. The young monkey spent most of the time we were watching it hanging upside-down.
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – The emergence of the sun after several days of rain triggered the emergence of these animals, as we saw three on our visit to EARTH, each one sunning itself on some exposed branches.
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides) – The common large squirrel with the grizzled tail.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – One of these smaller squirrels was seen at Tapanti.
NORTHERN RACCOON (Procyon lotor) – Carole found one lounging in a tree top at Irazu, a first record of this animal there for me.
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – Two were foraging in the trash cans at Irazu.
NEOTROPICAL OTTER (Lontra longicaudis) – A mother (presumably) with two large youngsters came swimming down the river as we searched for Sunbitterns at La Mina, giving us a nice show as they emerged onto rocks and logs a couple of times before swimming off.
GREEN IGUANA (Iguana iguana) – Just a couple at CATIE.
CENTRAL AMERICAN WHIPTAIL (Ameiva festiva) – The wet weather wasn't really optimal for these, and we saw only a couple of blue-tailed youngsters in the forest reserve at EARTH.
SPECTACLED CAIMAN (Caiman crocodilus) – One was lurking dangerously close to the Purple Gallinule family at CATIE.
WET FOREST TOAD (Incilius melanochlorus) – One of these dark toads was found along the trails at Rancho.
STRAWBERRY POISON DART FROG (Dendrobates pumilio) – Surprisingly we saw only one of these tiny red frogs at EARTH; the wet weather seemed perfect for them.


Totals for the tour: 278 bird taxa and 9 mammal taxa