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Field Guides Tour Report
Safari Brazil: The Pantanal & More 2016
Oct 13, 2016 to Oct 28, 2016
Marcelo Padua

Sungrebes are usually rather hard to find, but they were remarkably common on our tour. We saw them several times a day at Fazenda San Francisco in the Pantanal. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

This year’s tour was a bit unusual for me as we had to do it backwards, starting the tour in Minas Gerais where we usually end the tour, and ending with the Pantanal and Emas National Park where we usually start the tour, but the results were just as wonderful as they always are. In Minas Gerais two major stops provided us with a great number of endemics, at Cipo we came across the localized Hyacinth Visorbearer, Gray-backed Tachuri and Cinereous Warbling-finch, all of which was combined with breathtaking scenic beauty making for a great start of the tour. Our next stop was Caraca, an old monastery where we enjoyed stunning looks at Maned Wolf, Serra Antwren, Rock Tapaculo, Pale-throated Pampa-finch and a wealth of Atlantic Forest endemics that included Tufted Antshrike, Pin-tailed Manakin, White-bibbed Antbird and fabulous looks at Tawny-browed Owl.

We then had a drastic change of scenery as we transferred to the southern Pantanal and discovered why this area is so famous among wildlife enthusiasts. Here we also had two bases, with the first being the cozy family run lodge called Aguape, where we enjoyed great looks at Black-banded Owl, Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner, Blaze-winged Parakeets and more Hyacinth Macaws than you could count. Our second lodging was at Fazenda San Francisco, a massive farm that combines cattle ranching, rice farming and a large area that has been set aside for conservation, providing an amazing wildlife spectacle with Sungrebes swimming in the irrigation channels, Maguari and Jabiru storks ornamenting the rice fields and Jaguars and Ocelots leaving the reserve at night to hunt in the rice fields.

Our last stop, Emas National Park, can look dull and monotonous to those who look superficially but with careful inspection one finds that it is in fact bursting with life. Here we found some of the most charismatic flycatchers one could see, such as Cock-tailed Tyrant, Sharp-tailed Tyrant, Streamer-tailed Tyrant and the very scarce Bearded Tachuri. Other Cerrado specialties included Black-masked Finch, White-rumped Tanager, Curl-crested Jay and the endangered Yellow-faced Parrot. The tour also lived up to its reputation as one of the best tours for land mammals in South America, with an impressive mammal list that included Jaguars, Giant Anteaters, Giant Otters, Brazilian Tapir and Maned Wolf as the top five mammals in a list of 22 species seen.

I thoroughly enjoyed sharing some of the country’s culture, scenery and nature with you as well as learning a bit more about cultures so different from mine and I hope you all had a great time too.

Until we meet again,

Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – A common sight in the grasslands of Central Brazil.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – We managed to pull one of these shy forest birds into the open at Fazenda Aguape.
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – A few individuals flushed at Emas National Park. Tinamous only resort to flight as a last resort, so we were very close to them when they took off and were able to appreciate the reddish wings as they took off and flew over the grass fields.
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – This massive species is common in the wetlands of the Pantanal.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – Seen mixed in with the Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks in the Pantanal.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – The most common of the two species of Whistling-Ducks we saw in the Pantanal.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – Native from South America, even though its name suggests otherwise.

We saw some wonderful birds in an amazing landscape at Cipo National Park. Photo by participant Marshall Dahl.

BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – This small duck looks nice when it is sitting still but it is absolutely stunning when flying and displaying its colorful speculum.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis) – This noisy cracid is one of the most characteristic sounds of the Pantanal.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Seen readily around the gardens of our lodge at Caraca.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – Found in the Pantanal, this species is a geographical replacement of the Red-throated Piping-Guan which occurs further north in the Amazon basin.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – This ornate species used to be more common throughout its range but hunting and habitat loss made it quite scarce in the cerrado. Fortunately the Pantanal is still a stronghold for this species and we saw them on two occasions on our tour.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – By far the most scarce of the storks that occur in Brazil, but fairly common around the rice fields at Fazenda San Francisco.
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – This massive bird is the tallest flying bird in South America; its wing span is second only to the Andean Condor and it is a common sight in the Pantanal.
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – This species gathers in great numbers in the Pantanal during the dry season when they nest in large colonies.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – A common species throughout the tour.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – Seen on a daily basis in the Pantanal.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Seen daily in the Pantanal.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – A close relative of the Great Blue Heron from North America.

This Dusky-legged Guan was seen easily in the garden at Caraca. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – Another common bird in the Pantanal.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – Although this is a widespread and relatively common species, we only saw it on a couple of days in the Pantanal this year.
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – Always a scarce one but we found one individual at Fazenda Aguape.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Recorded on more than half of the days of the tour, making it by far the most common of the egrets seen on the tour even though it is not a native one.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – A close relative of the Green Heron from North America.
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – This brightly colored heron is quite common in the grasslands of the cerrado, and unlike most native herons does not require water to forage.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – Another colorful heron which is present in small numbers in the Pantanal.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – Seen on a rookery during a boat trip at Fazenda San Francisco.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Ospreys seen in South America are North American visitors. There are no known records of Ospreys breeding in South America.

A lovely family portrait of Burrowing Owls. Photo by participant Kiran Marthak.

Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – A single bird flew by our boat at Fazenda San Francisco.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis)
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – Great looks at one individual getting mobbed by several species of birds as they escorted it out of their territories.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
HARRIS'S HAWK (BAY-WINGED) (Parabuteo unicinctus unicinctus) – This species is very rare in the Pantanal, but Fazenda San Francisco has proven to be a very reliable site to see it.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – A common sight at Emas National Park where we saw several of them perched on trees and termite mounds.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – Our efforts to see this species were duly rewarded at Fazenda San Francisco where we saw these secretive crakes right out in the open.
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Formerly known as Gray-necked Wood-rail.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – An Atlantic Forest endemic that was seen very well at Caraca.
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) [*]
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis) – Another crake seen at Fazenda San Francisco. This one had its genus recently changed from Porzana to Mustelirallus. For more information visit the SACC webpage on the following link:
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris)
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – Typically a hard species to find, but this year it was present at San Francisco in incredible numbers, being seen multiple times a day while we visited the property.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)

Hyacinth Macaw is the poster-bird of the Pantanal. Participant Marshall Dahl captured a beautiful head shot of this spectacular parrot.

Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – A brief but good look at this massive Snipe near Emas National Park.
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
PICUI GROUND-DOVE (Columbina picui)
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – Always a scarce bird but we got some great looks at them at Aguape lodge.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)

In addition to birds, we saw many amazing mammals, including this Ocelot. Photo by participant Kiran Marthak.

EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – Particularly common in agricultural areas.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia)
PAVONINE CUCKOO (Dromococcyx pavoninus) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba)
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata)
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – Great looks at this Atlantic forest endemic at Caraca.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum)
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
BLACK-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba huhula) – Our local guide at Aguape Lodge had one of these staked out for us and we ended up getting great looks at it.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) [*]
STRIPED OWL (Pseudoscops clamator) – Common in the rice fields of San Francisco farm.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – This is the largest species of Nighthawk there is.
BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Systellura longirostris) – It took us a while to find this one at Cipo this year but even though we saw it from a distance we were able to watch it in flight displaying its characteristic white band on the wing.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
WHITE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus candicans) – This rare species took a hard hit a few years ago when a massive fires swept through Emas National Park. Fortunately, their numbers are coming back in the last years.
SPOT-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis maculicaudus)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis)

Striped Owls were common near Fazenda San Fancisco. Photo by participant Marshall Dahl.

COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Unusually high numbers of this species on the tour this year.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – A common sight around Caraca, where we would see groups of thousands of them feeding.
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – A hard species to distinguish from the more common White-collared Swift but we saw several of them around Caraca.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis) – The standard Chaetura swift in Minas Gerais state.
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata) – This species is closely related to Mauritia Palm Groves and nests exclusively in the dead leaves of this palm. We saw them well during our visit to Emas National Park.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – An Atlantic forest specialist that was seen well on this tour.
HYACINTH VISORBEARER (Augastes scutatus) – This flashy Hummingbird is endemic to the mountains of Minas Gerais state and has a very small world range. [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris) – A species that is typical of the savannas of central Brazil, and we saw well around Cipo and Emas National Park.
HORNED SUNGEM (Heliactin bilophus) – A brief look at this interesting hummingbird during our visit to Cipo.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Seen in Gallery forest at San Francisco farm in the Pantanal.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Another Atlantic Forest endemic that we were able to pick up.
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – This tiny hummingbird has the fastest wing beat of any species of hummingbird.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – Although this is a widespread species we only saw it on the first two days of the tour.
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – Resembling a Woodnymph on steroids, this species is always a crowd pleaser and we had great looks at it during our stay at Cipo.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – This Atlantic forest endemic is the geographical replacement of the more common and widespread Fork-tailed Woodnymph.
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – Another Atlantic Forest Endemic that we managed to pick up while visiting Caraca.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
GLITTERING-THROATED EMERALD (Amazilia fimbriata) – This species is widespread and has several sub species. The bird we saw belongs to the nigricauda sub species.
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – One of the most common species in the Pantanal.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – Great looks at this species in the Pantanal.
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – This species replaces the Blue-crowned Trogon in the Atlantic Forest, and there are two very distinctive subspecies of this bird. The one we saw has an orange belly and belongs to the subspecies aurantius while the birds found further south have a red belly.
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) – This was known until recently as Blue-crowned Motmot, but that species was recently split into five different species. If you would like to see the proposal which split them, you can read the proposal on the South American Classification Committee here:

Crescent-chested Puffbirds can be difficult to locate, but we had good looks at this one near Caraca. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – The largest of the kingfishers found in South America and it occurs all the way from the Southern United States to the extreme south of South America.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – This tiny kingfisher is often hard to see as it does not sit on exposed perches like many kingfishers do.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – I always enjoy seeing this one and I always think that the pattern on its head reminds me of an American football helmet.
SPOT-BACKED PUFFBIRD (CHACO) (Nystalus maculatus striatipectus) – Some authorities treat this bird as a separate species from the nominate species.
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – The genus Malacoptila consists of puffbirds that inhabit the understory of forested areas and that are usually quite hard to detect as their songs are quite discreet. Fortunately we knew just where to look and ended up have great looks at them around Caraca.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – We found this species on our way from Emas to Campo Grande. These birds are mainly an Amazonian species and we were in the extreme south edge of its range.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – This handsome and brightly colored species is a common sight in the forested areas of the Pantanal.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – We saw these ornate miniature toucans in the Pantanal.
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – Common and seen several times on the tour but seeing this magnificent bird visiting the feeders at Aguape is always a treat.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus cirratus) – There are six subspecies of this tiny woodpecker and we saw ours in the state of Minas Gerais. Keeping track of the subspecies of birds that have many subspecies is always a good idea as they often get split into several species.
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus albosquamatus) – This one has two subspecies and we managed to see both of them just one day apart. This is the one we saw in the Pantanal.
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus guttifer) – This is the subspecies we saw on our way to Emas National Park.
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
WHITE-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cactorum) – This species is very localized and scarce in the Pantanal but we knew exactly where to look and hag great looks at them at Aguape Lodge.
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus)
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons)
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros) – This species is actually more closely related to flickers than woodpeckers. We had an adult male right in the gardens of Aguape Lodge.
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris)
PALE-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus lugubris) – A handsome Celeus woodpecker that, in Brazil, is restricted to the Pantanal.

The colorful Blaze-winged Parakeet is a resident in the Pantanal. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – This is certainly the best tour see this species that is one of just two species in the Cariamidae family.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – This is the third year in a row that we manage to see this species in the same place.
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – Common and abundant throughout the tour.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – Common at Emas National Park.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus)
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani) – We saw two subspecies of this parrot. In the Pantanal, the birds have a prominent white eye ring and belong to the subspecies syi, and the birds we saw in the state of Minas Gerais belong to the subspecies melanoblepharus.
YELLOW-FACED PARROT (Alipiopsitta xanthops) – An endangered Cerrado species that has Emas National Park as one of its last strongholds.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
BLAZE-WINGED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura devillei) – This ornate parakeet is a Pantanal specialty and we had fantastic looks at them while staying at Aguape Lodge.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – By far the biggest star of the Pantanal, and one that we enjoyed on a daily basis while staying at Aguape Lodge, where we even had one bird nesting in the garden of the hotel.
NANDAY PARAKEET (Aratinga nenday) – One of the most common species of parakeets in the southern Pantanal and a regular visitor at the feeders of both lodges we visited in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis) – Great looks at this flashy Pantanal specialty.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – Emas National Park is a great place to see this large Macaw. It was particularly nice to see a large number of them coming to roost in the Mauritia Palms on a lake near the Park,
RED-SHOULDERED MACAW (Diopsittaca nobilis)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus torquatus) – Most Antshrikes are found in forested areas but this one inhabits open areas with scattered trees in the cerrado.

Participant Marshall Dahl took this atmospheric shot of a Giant Anteater, one of the quintessential mammals of the grasslands.

PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni)
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
BLACK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus atricapillus) – This species replaces the more common and wide spread Large-billed Antwren in the forest of Caraca.
LARGE-BILLED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus longirostris)
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana) – This Brazilian endemic is only found in the mountains of Southeast Brazil in the mountains of Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea)
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga)
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura)
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria)
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera)
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) – It took quite a bit of work to see this flashy Antbird at Caraca but eventually we all got great looks at it.
Melanopareiidae (Crescentchests)
COLLARED CRESCENTCHEST (Melanopareia torquata) – This species was considered a Tapaculo until recently, but in 2009 a new family was created to host the four species in this genus. We had great looks at a few individuals while visiting Emas National Park.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata)

Our Rock Tapaculo, seen so well near Caraca. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – White-breasted Tapaculo was included in the genus Scytalopus until recently, but a new genus was recently created for these tapaculos found in lowland Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil. The two species that were placed in the genus are actually closer to the bristlefronts (genus Merulaxis). Unlike the members of the genus Scytalopus, the members of Eleoscytalopus have largely white underparts and bluish-grey upper parts, as well as vocalizations that are quite different from the other birds in the genus Scytalopus.
ROCK TAPACULO (Scytalopus petrophilus) – This species of Tapaculo was described recently and it is endemic to altitudes of 900–2,100 meters (3,000–6,900 ft) in the Mountains in Minas Gerais. We had great looks at one bird during our visit to Caraca.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
CAMPO MINER (Geositta poeciloptera) – Great looks at a displaying bird in Emas National Park. This is a Cerrado endemic!
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus griseicapillus) – This is the subspecies we saw around Emas National Park.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – This is the subspecies we saw at Caraca.
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
GREAT RUFOUS WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes major)
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – This bird's strange bill is an adaptation to reach for insects in tree cracks and holes.
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) – The most common species of the open areas of the Pantanal and cerrado.
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – The name Xenops means strange billed.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – We had great looks at this species right from the docking area at Aguape Lodge.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Clibanornis rectirostris) – We saw this handsome woodcreeper at Aguape Lodge. This species is scarce everywhere and its range is restricted to central Brazil and eastern Paraguay.
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus)

A Rufous Hornero poses near the nest that gives these birds their name. Photo by participant Marshall Dahl.

RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons)
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – We saw both the bird and the large stick nest for which this species is named at Cipo.
CIPO CANASTERO (Asthenes luizae) – Seen briefly by just a few participants.
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina)
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida)
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa)
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus)
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens)
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens)
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi) [*]
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SUIRIRI FLYCATCHER (Suiriri suiriri burmeisteri) – Ketki found a nest at Emas National Park.
CHAPADA FLYCATCHER (Suiriri affinis)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
BEARDED TACHURI (Polystictus pectoralis) – Great looks at this scarce austral migrant at Emas National Park.
GRAY-BACKED TACHURI (Polystictus superciliaris) [E]
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis)
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca)
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata) – This is the predominant species of Elaenia in the Cerrado and we saw it multiple times on the tour.

Red-billed Scythbill is a very distinctive woodcreeper. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis)
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – An Atlantic forest specialty that we saw at Caraca.
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla)
PLAIN TYRANNULET (Inezia inornata)
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – This tiny flycatcher was seen on multiple occasions at Emas National Park.
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi)
RUFOUS-SIDED PYGMY-TYRANT (Euscarthmus rufomarginatus) – This species tends to colonize burned areas two to three years after the fire and can be quite hard to find. We had great looks at one at Emas National Park.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis)
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus)
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) [*]
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – This species is an Atlantic forest specialty and is a Brazilian endemic which we saw well at Caraca.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Seen nicely in gallery forest at Emas National Park where it is a very scarce species.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – Nesting in the buildings at Caraca.
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys)
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – Common in the grasslands of Emas National Park.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – The spectacular display of this species is always a crowd pleaser.
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula)
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)

This charming Yellow-chevroned Parakeet posed nicely for us. Photograph by participant Marshall Dahl.

COCK-TAILED TYRANT (Alectrurus tricolor) – This is certainly one of the most charismatic species of the cerrado and we saw a few displaying males at Emas National Park.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator)
RUFOUS CASIORNIS (Casiornis rufus)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – An austral migrant that is found in much lower numbers on the tour.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus)
Pipridae (Manakins)
HELMETED MANAKIN (Antilophia galeata) – A great spot by Ameeta.
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – Formerly known as Blue Manakin.
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris)
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) [*]

Buff-necked Ibis is a widespread species. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – A trip to a private property near Emas National Park provided great looks at this colorful gem.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens)
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus)
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas)
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus) – A very distinctive Cerrado Endemic that was seen very well at Emas National Park.
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops)
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW (Alopochelidon fucata) – Always a hard species to come by but we had great looks at them at Emas National Park.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
CLIFF SWALLOW (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
SEDGE WREN (Cistothorus platensis) – A paper was published recently proposing the split of Sedge Wren into eleven subspecies. The subspecies we saw is Polygottus.
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus unicolor) – A very different bird from populations in the Amazon.
FAWN-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus guarayanus)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola)

This Plumbeous Kite soared overhead, showing off its distinctive wing-tips and lovely colors. Photo by participant Bill Parkin.

Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – The national bird of Brazil.
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (GOLDEN-CROWNED) (Basileuterus culicivorus azarae) – We saw this subspecies at Caraca.
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Basileuterus culicivorus hypoleucus) – This is the subspecies we saw in the cerrado.
WHITE-STRIPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucophrys) – A cerrado endemic that was seen well in gallery forest at Emas National Park.
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata)
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
WHITE-BANDED TANAGER (Neothraupis fasciata)
WHITE-RUMPED TANAGER (Cypsnagra hirundinacea) – This strange tanager is a cerrado endemic and has an elaborate display, with the pair duetting, that we were able to see multiple times while at Emas National Park.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – A classical case of a bird that is named after a feature that you cannot see.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti)
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – These brightly colored tanagers are a common sight in forested areas at Caraca.
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)

The Yellow-rumped Marshbird looks much like an oriole. Photo by participant Kiran Marthak.

GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla)
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
BLUE FINCH (Porphyrospiza caerulescens) – Our hike in search of Cipo Canastero produced several great birds and this was one of them.
CINEREOUS WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza cinerea) – This species is quite rare anywhere but we found a nice pair of birds near Cipo.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola)
PALE-THROATED PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra longicauda) – Seen well at Caraca.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera)
PEARLY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila pileata) – A recent split from Capped Seedeater.
RUFOUS-RUMPED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypochroma)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
DUBOIS'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila ardesiaca)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris)
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator atricollis) – This species is very different from all other Saltators and it may actually be more closely related to Grass-finches and Pampa-Finches.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
HEPATIC TANAGER (LOWLAND) (Piranga flava flava)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella superciliaris) – This bird's name was recently changed from White-browed blackbird to White-browed Meadowlark.

The wide-open landscape of Emas National Park. Participant Marshall Dahl captured this view of a rainstorm in the distance.

CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus)
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus)
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius) – This species name was recently changed from Baywing Cowbird to Baywing and it was subsequently split into two species, the Grayish Baywing and the Pale Baywing.
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – These are the birds with the yellow epaulet.
VARIABLE ORIOLE (Icterus pyrrhopterus) – These are the birds with the rusty colored epaulet.
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus strictifrons)
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus)
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus)
BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya)
GIANT ANTEATER (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

We were delighted to see this Jaguar on one of our drives. Photo by participant Kiran Marthak.

SOUTHERN TAMANDUA (Tamandua tetradactyla)
SIX-BANDED (YELLOW) ARMADILLO (Euphractus sexcinctus) – Great looks at these charismatic creatures at Fazenda Aguape where they even feed one near the restaurant.
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
MANED WOLF (Chrysocyon brachyurus) – A young individual seen during a night drive at Fazenda San Francisco and an adult visiting the feeding tray at Caraca.
CRAB-EATING RACCOON (Procyon cancrivorus)
GIANT OTTER (Pteronura brasiliensis)
OCELOT (Felis pardalis) – Multiple good looks at this handsome feline during the night drives at Fazenda San Francisco.
JAGUAR (Panthera onca) – Certainly one of the highlights of the tour was watching a jaguar walking along the road right next to our Safari Vehicle.
BRAZILIAN TAPIR (Tapirus terrestris)
MARSH DEER (Blastocerus dichotomus) – Common in the rice fields of Fazenda San Francisco.
PAMPAS DEER (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) – Seen in large numbers in the recently harvested fields outside of Emas National Park.


Totals for the tour: 389 bird taxa and 22 mammal taxa