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Field Guides Tour Report
Feb 3, 2018 to Feb 12, 2018
Richard Webster & Daniel Uribe

We were fortunate that the clouds lifted above Jardin and the Yellow-eared Parrots came closer and closer and even perched. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

Good travels, lovely forests, and a rich and long birdlist: Our 2018 Escape to Medellin was a success. We enjoyed birding from low to high on the slopes of the Central and Western Andes of Colombia, and the diversity reflected the 10,000' (3,000m) of habitats from the pastures at the edge of the Magdalena Valley to forests just below treeline in the Western Andes.

Leaving Medellin's airport at Rionegro, we traveled east first, stopping at El Palacio de los Frijoles for lunch, birding first in secondary forest below it, finding several endemics, including White-mantled Barbet and Beautiful Woodpecker. Continuing to Rio Claro, we got a start to our three days of birding at this forested private reserve with its lovely river. A highlight our first evening was watching a long stream of Oilbirds emerge from their cave.

Birding at Rio Claro was slow at times, but produced steady, fun sightings, including Magdalena Antbird, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant and Sooty Ant-Tanager. Our views of perched and flying Black Hawk-Eagles were superb, and we also enjoyed Barred Puffbird, White-bearded Manakin, and some toucans, parrots, and woodcreepers to provide a very tropical feel to folks recently arrived from a boreal climate. An afternoon at the "screamer spot" was highlighted by two distant Northern Screamers, and overall "surged" the triplist with some waterbirds and open country species (think Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Russet-throated and Pied puffbirds, . . .).

A night on the outskirts of Medellin gave us an early morning in a local park, La Romera, where we had good views of Red-bellied Grackle, one of Colombia's most distinctive endemics. A late-morning stop in dry forest (quite green this year) near Bolombolo in the Cauca Valley produced sightings of the recently-discovered Antioquia Wren, although we had to try again later to find Grayish Piculet. We ended up in Jardin for two nights, our first afternoon taking us to one of the highlights of the tour, the spectacular lekking site of the spectacular Andean Cock-of-the-Rock. More Red-bellied Grackles, Green ("Inca") Jays, and tanagers added to the show.

Our weather was overall good on this trip, and it was especially helpful to avoid the worst on our day for Yellow-eared Parrots. We enjoyed repeated sightings of the parrots, with better and better looks, and a number of other new birds from high elevation, including Black-billed Mountain-Toucan and a Sword-billed Hummingbird at breakfast [but where were the damn bears!! :) ]. Birding our way down the mountain continued to produce new birds, including a good view of Ocellated Tapaculo, a quick Rufous Antpitta, a Chestnut-crested Cotinga, and a lovely Golden-crowned Tanager. Final birding the next morning added Parker's Antbird and yet more boreal migrants such as Cerulean and Golden-winged warblers.

Our final destination was Reserva Natural de los Aves Las Tangaras, where we birded in the reserve for three days with an additional trip to the higher elevations of La M. We had some mildly troublesome weather, and otherwise missed a couple more birds than we had hoped to miss, but one always misses a bunch of birds in such a rich and challenging environment. Successes were many, and missed birds like Black Solitaire and Fulvous-dotted Treerunner are always tough. A partial list of exciting birds is Velvet-purple Coronet, Violet-tailed Sylph, Empress Brilliant, White-tailed Hillstar, Golden-headed Quetzal, Red-headed and Toucan barbets, Tatama Tapaculo, Uniform Treehunter, Buffy (Pacific) Tuftedcheek, Orange-breasted Fruiteater, Olivaceous Piha, a speck Choco Vireo, White-headed Wren, Munchique Wood-Wren, Black-and-gold, Purplish-mantled, Rufous-throated, and Glistening-green tanagers, Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Tricolored ("Choco") Brushfinch, Crested Ant-Tanager, and three species of lovely Chlorophonia. A different highlight was the squadron of 120 Yellow-eared Parrots commuting high overhead.

Taxonomy is based largely on the latest Clements (Cornell) list, with additional comments. Conservation status is drawn from the publications of BirdLife International. Apologies are due the Spanish language because many marks that do not survive transfer across our multiple computer platforms are omitted.

We saw many species of threatened birds: Thanks are due to the Colombians who are working to conserve them! And to the Colombians who helped us throughout our journey, starting with our careful driver, "Johnny." (And patient lodge staffs that provided early breakfasts!),

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
TAWNY-BREASTED TINAMOU (Nothocercus julius) – Heard distantly in a couple of upper elevation forests. [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – Heard just a few times at Rio Claro. [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
NORTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna chavaria) – John spotted two birds, distant but in view for a long time, walking around a pasture at the edge of the Magdalena Valley. This is the screamer with the most restricted range, just Colombia and W Venezuela, and is seen on just a few itineraries. It is considered "Near Threatened" with a population of under 7,000.

Sturdy jeeps delivered us to the bird-rich clouds forests in the RNA Las Tangaras area. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – One seen well near the screamers.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
COLOMBIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis columbiana) – We started with good views near the hotel at Rionegro, followed by more views at La Romera and Morro Amarillo, with others heard at a couple of spots. [E]
SICKLE-WINGED GUAN (Chamaepetes goudotii) – We had nice views of two at La Romera, saw another feeding in the same tree as the Black-billed Mountain-Toucans, and saw the shape of another behind the feeders at RNA Las Tangaras.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
CHESTNUT WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus hyperythrus) – Heard just a couple of times: from the Yellow-eared Parrot observation ridge and way off in the forest at RNA Las Tangaras. It is considered "Near Threatened." [E*]
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – A couple along the river below El Palacio de los Frijoles.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – We had good views of a sub-adult along the forested foothill river of Rio Claro, the typical habitat; a juvenile seen at dusk nearby was probably this species.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – One was seen from a moving vehicle.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – Several in the wet pastures near the screamers.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – Ditto.

Our farm breakfast after the Yellow-eared Parrot show, the hummingbird feeders that hosted a Sword-billed in the background. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – One adult in the same area.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Daily in small numbers, seen in pastures well up into the Andes.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – One below El Palacio and fairly common in the screamer pastures.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – Good views of small numbers at the screamer pastures, with a few others seen from a moving vehicle.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Widespread and common, though no huge numbers.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Widespread in small numbers.

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture is common over wet pastures, but it was a treat to have such a close view of a bird on the ground. Photo by participant Martin Selzer.

LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Excellent views of two over the wet pastures of the screamer spot east of Rio Claro; typical habitat.
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Two adults were watched circling over a forested ridge above Rio Claro.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – A scattering of singles, plus a highlight of several calling and displaying, swooping low over us on a ridge above Rio Claro.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – A special experience: Two calling and flying by at Rio Claro, then perching twice in good viewing position for lengthy telescope studies. Not all that rare, but seldom so cooperative for so long.
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – Nice views of an adult, not that many fenceposts from the Savannah Hawk.
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (PLAIN-BREASTED) (Accipiter striatus ventralis) – An adult of this resident Andean type was seen gliding by at RNA Las Tangaras; fairly close but brief.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Nice views of a perched bird in the screamer pastures.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Regularly heard and seen, occurring as high as 3,000m in the Andes, where pastures provide habitat.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – We had several nice sightings at RNA Las Tangaras, where one was observed carrying nesting material (a stick) out of the forest. [N]
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – A perched adult on Morro Amarillo was on its Andean wintering grounds. [b]

After struggling with Toucan Barbets, one of the infinite number of amazing plants provided a photographic alternative at RNA Las Tangaras. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – A dark adult was seen soaring briefly near the adult King Vultures above Rio Claro.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – John spotted one along a forested track at Rio Claro, which was followed by another at the edge of a pond at our juice stop on the way back from the Magdalena Valley. A split of Gray-necked Wood-Rail.

Mud on the bill suggests that this Blackish Rail had been probing the ground of the dew-speckled pasture near Medellin. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – A responsive bird was seen near our hotel at Rionegro, and Steve had another on the grounds of our hotel at Jardin.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica) – One juvenile in the marshy pastures.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A noisy occupant of pastures throughout, especially including outside of our rooms at Jardin.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – We had great views at marshy ponds near the screamers. We saw a very black population typical of parts of Colombia.
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – One foraging along the forested river was seen from our breakfast table at Rio Claro. [b]

Our group surveying the forests at Rio Claro from a clearing; the vantage point proved great for birds from Black Hawk-Eagle to White-thighed Swallow. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – We saw three or four on our trip out to the edge of the Magdalena Valley. [b]
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca) – One was at the screamer pastures. [b]
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes) – Ditto. [b]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) – Feral pigeons were frequently seen in communities along the way. [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Good views of birds doing display flights over the screamer pastures and others were in cleared areas as high as 1900m around Jardin.
BAND-TAILED PIGEON (WHITE-NECKED) (Patagioenas fasciata albilinea) – Widespread in the Andes, including a flock of 40 at La Romera.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea chapmani) – Heard at Rio Claro and RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – In small numbers in disturbed area at lower and middle elevations.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – One seen by a few in flight at Rio Claro.
WHITE-THROATED QUAIL-DOVE (Zentrygon frenata) – Heard at RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – Common at our hotels in Rionegro and Sabaneta.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – We had good views of a few at the marshy screamer pastures.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – Widespread at lower and middle elevations, in small groups in disturbed areas.

We wanted to visit the cloud forest, and we certainly did! We had some weather problems, but overall we did very well with the weather (and the birds) in one of the wettest regions of earth. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – Heard below El Palacio and at the edge of the Magdalena Valley. [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Seen at Morro Amarillo and RNA Las Tangaras, and a couple more were heard.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – Heard at Jardin, and seen by part of the group on a fencepost at RNA Las Tangaras.
CRESTED OWL (Lophostrix cristata) – Heard by some from our rooms at Rio Claro; not responsive the next night (not surprising at this popular spot!). [*]
CLOUD-FOREST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium nubicola) – We put some effort into trying to pull one out of the cloud forest, but only succeeded in hearing a couple of distant birds. It is considered "Near Threatened." [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Systellura longirostris) – Seen in the road during three of our early-morning journeys.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Eric had a couple at dawn along the track in front of our cabins at Rio Claro.

Oilbirds flew along the river at dusk after exiting their cave at Rio Claro. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

Steatornithidae (Oilbird)
OILBIRD (Steatornis caripensis) – We had a great show at Rio Claro. One was perched on the rocks outside the mouth of the cave before dark, and as it got dark a steady stream of yowling (technical term!) birds emerged from the cave and headed off along the forested river. Daniel estimated 250 by the time we left, and they were still coming out. A neat phenomenon in a lovely setting.
Apodidae (Swifts)
CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne rutila) – After several sightings of birds that were likely this species, we had OK views of a small flock over Morro Amarillo.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Widespread, with small flocks seen throughout, most spectacularly the birds foraging a meter over the lawn outside our rooms at Jardin.
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – A few were seen in the Rio Claro-Magdalena Valley area.
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – Two were seen high overhead below El Palacio.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – Great views at Rio Claro, including a couple with a nest under fronts outside the restaurant. [N]
TAWNY-BELLIED HERMIT (Phaethornis syrmatophorus) – Two sightings of this montane hermit at RNA Las Tangaras, one a bird that perched nicely for most of the group.
PALE-BELLIED HERMIT (Phaethornis anthophilus) – One was seen perched briefly at Rio Claro.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis) – Seen twice foraging at Rio Claro. This is the western split of the former Little Hermit.
GREEN-FRONTED LANCEBILL (Doryfera ludovicae) – We had telescope views from the veranda at RNA Las Tangaras of a bird perched low over the rushing river.
LESSER VIOLETEAR (Colibri cyanotus) – We had nice views of one perched bird during our involuntary survey of the pass through the Western Andes (in other words, the wrecked truck closure!) (before we settled down to the serious business of watching the cranes pull it out). This is the southern split of the former Green Violetear.
SPARKLING VIOLETEAR (Colibri coruscans) – Lynn pointed out one above Jardin.
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – At Rio Claro we saw a couple of hovering birds of this striking species.

A view of the Rio Claro from right outside the open-air restaurant where we relaxed between bird walks. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Several were seen below El Palacio and at Rio Claro, including good views of a perched bird.
TOURMALINE SUNANGEL (Heliangelus exortis) – We had wonderful studies at the feeders near Las Ventanas, and observed several more at La M. A stunning species.
SPECKLED HUMMINGBIRD (Adelomyia melanogenys) – Some folks saw one above Jardin.
LONG-TAILED SYLPH (Aglaiocercus kingii) – We saw a couple above Jardin, and one at La M. This species occurs higher than Violet-tailed in the Western Andes, or on the east slope.
VIOLET-TAILED SYLPH (Aglaiocercus coelestis) – We had wonderful studies at the feeders at RNA Las Tangaras. This species is endemic to the montane Choco, occurring on the Pacific slope below Long-tailed.
TYRIAN METALTAIL (Metallura tyrianthina) – We saw several around our breakfast table at the farm near Las Ventanas.
GREENISH PUFFLEG (Haplophaedia aureliae) – Great views of one feeding at La Romera was followed by frequent sightings at RNA Las Tangaras, both in the forest and at the feeders.
BROWN INCA (Coeligena wilsoni) – Our first several of this Choco specialty were in the forest at RNA Las Tangaras, followed by good views of one at the feeders (not one of the more regular species at feeders).
COLLARED INCA (Coeligena torquata) – Common above Jardin, both at the feeders and in the forest, with more at La M.
SWORD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD (Ensifera ensifera) – One made several appearances at the feeder at breakfast near Las Ventanas above Jardin. Always a 'Wow' moment!
BUFF-TAILED CORONET (Boissonneaua flavescens) – Also at the feeders near Las Ventanas, doing those wing lifts and acting tough (and they are).
VELVET-PURPLE CORONET (Boissonneaua jardini) – One of the most beautiful hummingbirds. We enjoyed repeated good views during our visits to the ridgetop feeders at RNA Las Tangaras.
BOOTED RACKET-TAIL (Ocreatus underwoodii) – Seen occasionally at the RNA Las Tangaras feeders, with several also sighted in the forest; all females this trip.
WHITE-TAILED HILLSTAR (Urochroa bougueri) – One or two of this striking bird were admired at the RNA Las Tangaras feeders (the nominate form).
FAWN-BREASTED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa rubinoides) – One was seen periodically at the RNA Las Tangaras feeders.
EMPRESS BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa imperatrix) – We had repeated great studies of males and females at the RNA Las Tangaras feeders. Another Choco specialty.
WHITE-BELLIED WOODSTAR (Chaetocercus mulsant) – We saw several around Las Ventanas, including at the feeders.
WESTERN EMERALD (Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus melanorhynchus) – Three sightings, including a couple near Jardin and one at that involuntary survey at the crest of the Western Andes.
WHITE-VENTED PLUMELETEER (Chalybura buffonii) – We saw one below El Palacio.
ANDEAN EMERALD (Amazilia franciae) – There were several sightings for some folks watching the lodge feeders at RNA Las Tangaras.
BLUE-CHESTED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia amabilis) – We saw two on a ridge above Rio Claro.
STEELY-VENTED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia saucerottei) – Widespread in small numbers, with sightings from Rio Claro to RNA Las Tangaras.

Where were the bears? After many recent sightings, we looked long and hard for Spectacled Bears, which had been climbing palms to eat fresh leaves. No joy from the bears, but plenty else was around. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – Often in the same areas as Steely-vented, and even more widespread.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GOLDEN-HEADED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus auriceps) – We saw one semi-responsive bird at RNA Las Tangaras, and heard a couple more.
CRESTED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus antisianus) – Heard distantly at RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) – Heard repeatedly at Rio Claro, but not even a glimpse, despite some effort. Grrrr. A split of Violaceous Trogon. [*]
MASKED TROGON (Trogon personatus assimilis) – Heard a couple of times at RNA Las Tangaras, where we usually see it. [*]
Momotidae (Motmots)
ANDEAN MOTMOT (Momotus aequatorialis) – What a fine bird. We immensely enjoyed the couple of pairs along the track by our hotel (where Danalee saw them out her room window and John noted the apparent fresh diggings in a roadcut bank), with follow-up sightings at RNA Las Tangaras, where Steve, Pierre and others saw them eating bananas at the feeders behind the lodge. [N]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – Two were seen below El Palacio.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – Part of the group saw one perched on a wire at our fruit juice stop on the way back from the Magdalena Valley.

Coffee country in the Western Andes, looking from Jardin down valley. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – Singles were along several foothill streams.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – We had good views of two in the woodland behind the screamer pasture, including overhead on a low utility wire.
BARRED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus radiatus) – A responsive pair at Rio Claro took a while to locate, but when Lynn relocated them, we ended up with excellent views in the telescope.
RUSSET-THROATED PUFFBIRD (Hypnelus ruficollis) – This attractive puffbird was enjoyed behind the screamer marshes. The birds we saw are of the 'one-banded' group (split by some).
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – Heard above Rio Claro; we usually see it. [*]
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
WHITE-MANTLED BARBET (Capito hypoleucus) – We enjoyed excellent views of multiple birds of this endemic, first at El Palacio, then near Rio Claro. It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population of under 7,000. [E]
RED-HEADED BARBET (Eubucco bourcierii) – Definitely a crowd pleasing species. After hearing them at Morro Amarillo, we had excellent views at RNA Las Tangaras of both females and males.
Semnornithidae (Toucan-Barbets)
TOUCAN BARBET (Semnornis ramphastinus) – This specialty family of barbets has two species; we saw this Choco specialty very well at RNA Las Tangaras, the first time with some difficulty, then better when Eric spotted a couple two days later. It is considered "Near Threatened."
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SOUTHERN EMERALD-TOUCANET (Aulacorhynchus albivitta) – We had great views of one at La Romera (A. a. griseigularis), and heard birds of this genus at RNA Las Tangaras. Emerald Toucanet has been split into several species, this one 'in the middle' of the range.

Black-billed Mountain-Toucan and Sickle-winged Guan were in this field of view on a misty morning above Jardin. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

BLACK-BILLED MOUNTAIN-TOUCAN (Andigena nigrirostris) – We saw a pair eating fruit in a tree visible from our Yellow-eared Parrot viewing point, fruit that also tempted a Sickle-winged Guan. Several more were heard. Not something we see every trip.
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – Several brief views at Rio Claro.
YELLOW-THROATED TOUCAN (CHESTNUT-MANDIBLED) (Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii) – Several lengthy, excellent views at Rio Claro. It is considered "Near Threatened."
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus) – Heard regularly and seen several times at Rio Claro, but generally in transit with brief views. We saw the "Citron-throated" form, R. v. citreolaemus.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
OLIVACEOUS PICULET (Picumnus olivaceus) – We had good views of a responsive bird at Rio Claro.
GRAYISH PICULET (Picumnus granadensis) – It took a second attempt to find this endemic of the Cauca Valley area, but we ended up with good looks as they came lower and lower. [E]
ACORN WOODPECKER (ACORN) (Melanerpes formicivorus flavigula) – Heard and seen by part of the group at Jardin.
BEAUTIFUL WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pulcher) – It took a little while, but John got us on the right woodpecker, and we ended up with lengthy views at El Palacio, the kind of views that we wished we could have shared with a couple of groups years ago! They aren't more beautiful than many other woodpeckers, but this is a fine bird, and an endemic. [E]

Would a Red-bellied Woodpecker love bananas? Probably. This bird has a red belly, but this relative of Red-bellied is Red-crowned, a similarly common species in much of Colombia. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus) – The common 'zebra-backed' woodpecker of open country.
SMOKY-BROWN WOODPECKER (Picoides fumigatus) – Seen at Morro Amarillo and Las Tangaras, with a couple more heard. This species has been moved, based on genetic studies, from Veniliornis to Picoides.
RED-RUMPED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis kirkii) – We saw two of this small woodpecker at Rio Claro.
YELLOW-VENTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis dignus) – An uncommon species in much of its range, Yellow-vented seems more numerous in some parts of Colombia. We saw several at RNA Las Tangaras, the best view coming the last morning.
GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER (Colaptes rubiginosus) – Good sightings several times, first at Morro Amarillo.
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – This lovely woodpecker was enjoyed behind the screamer pastures and was heard in Jardin.
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – After hearing several of this forest bird, we found a responsive bird that provided good views at Rio Claro.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – Seen at El Palacio, Rio Claro, and Morro Amarillo.
POWERFUL WOODPECKER (Campephilus pollens) – Heard distantly in the Yellow-eared Parrot caldera, where sound carries so well and we heard several juicy things a long way off. [*]
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – Heard several times at Rio Claro. [*]
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) – Usually another "heard only", we heard one at close range at RNA Las Tangaras, and ended up with several good views as it checked us out. Not a rare bird, but a rare treat to see it so.
CRESTED CARACARA (Caracara cheriway) – Small numbers in open areas along the way.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima chimachima) – Ditto.
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – Heard daily at Rio Claro, where we saw one distant bird perched, and seen again at La Romera, in flight carrying a snake.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – We saw one in an open area in the Western Andes.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
BARRED PARAKEET (Bolborhynchus lineola) – Heard in flight above Jardin. [*]
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis) – Heard regularly the first three days, and seen in flight at Rio Claro.
SAFFRON-HEADED PARROT (Pyrilia pyrilia) – This scarce forest parrot was heard in flight at Rio Claro, but unfortunately we did not get even a glimpse. It is considered "Near Threatened." [*]
SPECKLE-FACED PARROT (Pionus tumultuosus) – We saw eight fairly well in flight at Las Ventanas while watching for Yellow-eared Parrots.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – This lowland Pionus was seen several times the first three days of the tour.
BRONZE-WINGED PARROT (Pionus chalcopterus) – This parrot is often a black shape in flight, as they were near Jardin, but we did much better on Morro Amarillo, where we looked down on perched birds, and enjoyed some of the bright colors, like the blue in the flight feathers.

The view back toward Jardin from the high forests above it. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

SPECTACLED PARROTLET (Forpus conspicillatus) – We saw them several times our first three days, including eating cecropia fruit. It is not an endemic, but it has a limited range outside of Colombia, where it usually is a lifebird.
CHESTNUT-FRONTED MACAW (Ara severus) – We had several pairs in flight during our screamer search in the Magdalena Valley, and then saw them perched.
YELLOW-EARED PARROT (Ognorhynchus icterotis) – Another good year for viewing, thanks in part to the weather. We spent several hours in a nesting area, and had repeated views of flocks of up to 14 circling around, and perching progressively closer. They were never really close, but were very good in the telescope. Then we had a bonus at RNA Las Tangaras, where we saw a squadron of 120 commuting between feeding areas. They were high overhead, but to see almost 10% of the population at once was a thrill. It is considered "Endangered," with a population of 212 breeding adults; the BirdLife website no longer lists the 1,400 total birds used on last year's triplist, so the total population is ???
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
RUFOUS-RUMPED ANTWREN (Euchrepomis callinota) – We had excellent views of this canopy antwren a couple of times at RNA Las Tangaras, including of its rufous rump. Genetic studies have shown that it is in one of the oldest lineages of antbirds.
BAR-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus multistriatus) – This near endemic (also in W Venezuela) was seen well twice below El Palacio, both female and male. Heard again at Morro Amarillo.
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha) – Seen first at Rio Claro, with more in the dry forests near Bolombolo in the Cauca Valley. a.k.a. Western Slaty-Antshrike, formerly part of the now much-split "Slaty Antshrike" (but it turns out genetically to not even be a "Slaty Antshrike").
UNIFORM ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus unicolor) – This skulker of the cloud forest understory was seen well (= less trouble than normal), both females and males, at RNA Las Tangaras.
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – Heard distantly at Morro Amarillo. [*]
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – We saw a pair that was part of a group of birds mobbing the arboreal Bothrops at Rio Claro.
PACIFIC ANTWREN (Myrmotherula pacifica) – Seen both below El Palacio and at Rio Claro. As split from Streaked Antwren.
YELLOW-BREASTED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus axillaris) – Another canopy antwren genus, about half of the group got on one with a flock at RNA Las Tangaras, and one or two more were heard. It is considered "Vulnerable."
PARKER'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides parkeri) – You may not think we had great views, but the folks last year would think so! The pair was hard to see and it took some time, but we managed views of both female and male (and both for some) in the understory near Jardin. The bird was especially memorable for John, who has an historical association with Ted Parker through their local bird club. [E]
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Poliocrania exsul) – Fairly common by voice at Rio Claro. [*]

On the trail of the Magdalena Antbird, a successful pursuit thanks to a star performer. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

MAGDALENA ANTBIRD (Sipia palliata) – Daniel does not get tired of showing this bird, partly because of the lovely setting of the boulder-strewn gorge. We ended up with excellent views. A split of Dull-mantled Antbird, both moved out of the genus Myrmeciza. [E]
BICOLORED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys bicolor) – We had good views of one that Eric pointed out, and which came back for more; unfortunately, this army ant specialist seemed to be in transit, rather than at a swarm.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
UNDULATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria squamigera) – Heard above Jardin. [*]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED ANTPITTA (Grallaria ruficapilla) – Heard near Medellin. [*]
CHESTNUT-NAPED ANTPITTA (Grallaria nuchalis) – Heard above Jardin (some of these heard-only antpittas were distant, and most were in places offering little opportunity to see them) (excuses, excuses!).
YELLOW-BREASTED ANTPITTA (Grallaria flavotincta) – Heard at RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
RUFOUS ANTPITTA (Grallaria rufula) – We had repeated views of one above Jardin, fairly good for some, quicker for others, as it moved along a roadside bank and crossed the road several times. Rufous Antpitta is likely to be split into many; we saw a population that is part of the rufula group.
SLATE-CROWNED ANTPITTA (Grallaricula nana) – Heard above Jardin and at La M. [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
OCELLATED TAPACULO (Acropternis orthonyx) – It was yelling at us, and with time we had better and better views after Steve got us onto it the first time. A striking and very different tapaculo that was a highlight for us above Jardin.
BLACKISH TAPACULO (Scytalopus latrans) – After only hearing it above Jardin, we had OK or better views at La M.
STILES'S TAPACULO (Scytalopus stilesi) – We tried to see the couple that we heard at La Romera, but if they came in, we failed to detect that. [E*]
TATAMA TAPACULO (Scytalopus alvarezlopezi) – We had a good look at this recently-described species at RNA Las Tangaras. On our checklist as sp. nov., after a decade of research by Colombian ornithologists, it was described in 2017. It is related to Stiles's and El Oro tapaculos, and is restricted to the W Andes of Colombia.

Travel does not always go smoothly in the Andes. Lynn and many new-found friends survey the scene as three cranes pulled a truck back up to the road. It was inconvenient, but not the worst time for a delay. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

NARI–NO TAPACULO (Scytalopus vicinior) – We had good views at RNA Las Tangaras, and heard many more.
SPILLMANN'S TAPACULO (Scytalopus spillmanni) – We heard them above Jardin, and saw one at La M.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides) – We saw one at Rio Claro. This species is likely to be split; this subspecies is part of a widespread group in Central America and NW South America.
TYRANNINE WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla tyrannina) – Another bird heard distantly from the Yellow-eared Parrot spot. [*]
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus) – Several were seen at Rio Claro, typically with mixed flocks.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) – Another distant voice at the Yellow-eared Parrot caldera. [*]
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – Seen twice at Rio Claro, with many more heard. As split from Buff-throated Woodcreeper.
OLIVE-BACKED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) – Several were seen traveling with flocks at RNA Las Tangaras.
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – This striking woodcreeper was seen in the open woodland near the screamer pastures.
STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) – A regular voice at Rio Claro, where we saw one of this widespread bird.
MONTANE WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger) – As its name says, a bird of the mountains, where we saw it with flocks above Jardin and at RNA Las Tangaras. An old split of Spot-crowned Woodcreeper.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – Martin got us on one below El Palacio, and a couple more were seen at Rio Claro, including clinging to a long vine hanging over the road.
BUFFY TUFTEDCHEEK (PACIFIC) (Pseudocolaptes lawrencii johnsoni) – We saw one responsive bird with the large flock along the Las Tangaras trail. This form may be split from the Central American population.
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – After hearing several, we saw one at RNA Las Tangaras.
SCALY-THROATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (SPOT-BREASTED) (Anabacerthia variegaticeps temporalis) – We had fairly good views of two with a mixed flock at RNA Las Tangaras.
MONTANE FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia striaticollis) – Two were with the Cerulean-Golden-winged-Warbler flock on Morro Amarillo.
LINEATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla subalaris) – After hearing several and failing to see them, we had good views of this understory furnariid at RNA Las Tangaras.
UNIFORM TREEHUNTER (Thripadectes ignobilis) – Another understory skulker, but we got it out enough for telescope views, a rare event. This is another Choco specialty at RNA Las Tangaras.
PEARLED TREERUNNER (Margarornis squamiger) – Nice views of pairs with mixed flocks above Jardin and at La M.
RED-FACED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca erythrops) – We saw them several times around RNA Las Tangaras, but the best views came in the yard at the lodge.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – Seen well in the marshy pastures of Screamer Land.

With another week or two, we might have become really, really interested in grasshoppers. As it was, we became increasingly aware of the diversity present. Photo by participant Martin Selzer.

PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens) – We had good views will relatively little effort below El Palacio, and heard them in similar grassy terrain thereafter.
AZARA'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis azarae) – Common by voice on the Andean upper slopes, seen above Jardin and at RNA Las Tangaras.
RUFOUS SPINETAIL (Synallaxis unirufa) – Heard above Jardin and at La M; one attempt to see one was a flop. [*]
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus) – Good views of one at Rio Claro that descended enough from its canopy home to be seen well.
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – Heard on Morro Amarillo. [*]
YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET (Tyrannulus elatus) – Another canopy tyrannulet, we had fairly good views of several during the first three days of the tour.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – We saw one in front of our rooms at Rio Claro, and heard another.
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) – Several were seen in the dry forest of the Cauca Valley near Bolombolo.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Widespread in disturbed areas of the lower and middle slopes, including in the yard at RNA Las Tangaras.
MOUNTAIN ELAENIA (Elaenia frantzii) – Seen first behind our hotel in Rionegro, with more around Jardin.
STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes striaticollis) – Brief views for a few of two at RNA Las Tangaras.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – This fruit-eating flycatcher (but "fruit-tyrant" seems a bit much!) was seen several times at Rio Claro, Bolombolo, and Morro Amarillo.
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – Seen twice at Rio Claro.
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon superciliaris) – A few--below El Palacio and Morro Amarillo.
VARIEGATED BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes poecilotis) – Several were seen with a couple of mixed flocks at RNA Las Tangaras.
ANTIOQUIA BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes lanyoni) – This is a poorly-known, very local species, and a prize for those reasons, but for some 'just another small flycatcher,' which is understandable. We had our best views ever (part way down from the canopy) at Rio Claro. It is considered "Endangered," with a population of 600 to 1,700. [E]
SOOTY-HEADED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseiceps) – Heard regularly, and seen several times, although views were no better than OK.

That brilliant new bridge above the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock lek at Jardin; a great vantage point over the river. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

BLACK-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias nigrocapillus) – OK views of one above Jardin.
ASHY-HEADED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias cinereiceps) – Heard at RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET (GOLDEN-FACED) (Zimmerius chrysops chrysops) – Vocal and widespread. Seen several times. We believe all the birds north of SW Colombia are this species and not Choco Tyrannulet, but the situation is complicated.
ORNATE FLYCATCHER (Myiotriccus ornatus) – A couple our first day at RNA Las Tangaras, then great views of multiples the last morning there.
RUFOUS-HEADED PYGMY-TYRANT (Pseudotriccus ruficeps) – We had excellent views of one at La M, low in the forest, but apparently moving with a mixed flock above it. A very attractive little bird.
BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis atricapillus) – Lynn, Eric, and Steve saw one at Rio Claro our first afternoon.
BLACK-THROATED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus granadensis) – With persistence, a responsive bird was found at La M, and we had good views.
RUFOUS-CROWNED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus ruficeps) – Heard above Jardin, but it did not emerge, and we didn't find anymore. [*]
SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus sylvia) – Heard in the Magdalena Valley, and a responsive bird was seen at Bolombolo.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – Many good views, starting behind our first hotel.
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps) – We had lengthy views of one at Rio Claro, although it was a speck half way up in a huge tree; it is typically a bird of forest and of the canopy.
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – With spotting by Eric and Steve, we had several views at Rio Claro, including a bird working on a nest. [N]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (ASEMUS) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens asemus) – Seen (and heard, part of the ID process) at Rio Claro and Bolombolo. Note the subspecies: This species is likely to be split into multiple species.
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus) – Heard well, and one was seen briefly at Rio Claro.
CINNAMON FLYCATCHER (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus) – Daily at RNA Las Tangaras.
HANDSOME FLYCATCHER (Nephelomyias pulcher) – We had excellent views of energetic groups of this small flycatcher at RNA Las Tangaras. We saw nominate N. p. pulcher.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – One was seen below El Palacio.
SMOKE-COLORED PEWEE (Contopus fumigatus) – We saw one above Jardin and heard another at /RNA Las Tangaras.
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) – Heard on most days of the tour, and seen twice. Wintering birds are fairly common in Colombia, but scarce farther south. [b]
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans) – Widespread in small numbers along Andean streams (a resident form with white wing edgings).
VERMILION FLYCATCHER (Pyrocephalus rubinus) – A few (Magdalena V., hotel in La Romera, Rionegro).
STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT (Myiotheretes striaticollis) – Heard first, then seen well around the Yellow-eared Parrot area at Las Ventanas.
PIED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola pica) – A half dozen were enjoyed in the wet pastures of the screamer site.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Ditto.
YELLOW-BELLIED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca diadema) – Heard at La M. [*]
SLATY-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris) – We ended up with good views (even in the telescope) of one above Jardin.
RUFOUS-BREASTED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) – Good views of one in the scrub around our Yellow-eared Parrot viewing point.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – First below El Palacio, then at Rio Claro. We had good looks at several pairs of this distinctive tyrant.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – Great views of this terrestrial tyrant, first at Rionegro, then at Rio Claro and around our hotel at Jardin.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – Heard at Rio Claro. [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – Heard above Rio Claro. [*]
PALE-EDGED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus cephalotes) – We saw two of this montane Myiarchus at Las Ventanas above Jardin.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) – Common at Rio Claro, with another near Bolombolo. This is toward the southern end of the wintering range. [b]
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – One in the open woodland of the Magdalena Valley.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Several were seen in the marshy pastures east of Rio Claro.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Daily, occurring from the lowlands to middle elevations in disturbed areas.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – First seen at the screamer site, then carrying nesting material at Rio Claro. [N]
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – Like many other large flycatchers, widespread in disturbed areas at lower and middle elevations.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Seen in the marshy pastures of the Magdalena Valley (the screamer area), with one at nearby Rio Claro.
GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) – This relative of Sulphur-bellied was heard above Jardin and seen twice at RNA Las Tangaras.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Our first was foraging outside the mouth of the Oilbird cave at Rio Claro, followed by several more at Rio Claro and near Bolombolo.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Common by voice below El Palacio and at Rio Claro; we saw several well.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Daily throughout, occurring well up into the Andes in pastures.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher may be widespread, but it is spectacular, and was a welcome treat in the pasture country at the edge of the Magdalena Valley. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – Some great views of this lovely bird in the pastures around the screamers, with another during our involuntary survey of pastures at the crest of the W Andes.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GREEN-AND-BLACK FRUITEATER (Pipreola riefferii) – Seen first above Jardin, with a couple more at La M.
ORANGE-BREASTED FRUITEATER (Pipreola jucunda) – Lynn and Martin made the key spot at RNA Las Tangaras, where we enjoyed views of this lovely Choco specialty along the trail. Excellent!
RED-CRESTED COTINGA (Ampelion rubrocristatus) – One distant bird was seen later closer by half the group during our bear scanning.
CHESTNUT-CRESTED COTINGA (Ampelion rufaxilla) – Guillo helped us greatly above Jardin by spotting this distinctive bird on a high perch. It was fairly good in the telescope (and stayed put for a long time). Although widespread in the Andes, it is rare or absent at many localities, and generally local and scarce in Colombia. A good find.

Andean Cock-of-the-rock was one of the highlights, thanks to a well-managed lek near Jardin. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

ANDEAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Rupicola peruvianus) – One of the highlights of the tour was basking in the glow of males on the lek at Jardin. They were as wonderful as ever, just blocks from the lovely town square in Medellin. A fine situation. Steve also saw a female at the Las Tangaras lodge.
OLIVACEOUS PIHA (Snowornis cryptolophus) – Although widespread in the Andes, it is generally hard to find and see well. The Western Andes of Colombia seem like the best area, and we again had good views of several at RNA Las Tangaras.
Pipridae (Manakins)
GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN (Masius chrysopterus) – Several sightings of foraging females at RNA Las Tangaras.
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) – Heard and seen at Rio Claro, where we saw both male and female well.
STRIPED MANAKIN (WESTERN) (Machaeropterus regulus striolatus) – We saw one, perhaps a young male, mobbing the arboreal Bothrops at Rio Claro, and heard another on a nearby ridge.

Photographing the Andean Cock-of-the-Rocks is made easier by their remarkable tameness; those orange spots to the lower right are three males. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

GOLDEN-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra erythrocephala) – One female was seen at Rio Claro.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata) – Seen below El Palacio, at Rio Claro, and at RNA Las Tangaras.
BARRED BECARD (Pachyramphus versicolor) – We encountered this becard above Jardin and at RNA Las Tangaras; heard, and only seen as a shape in flight, so treated as "heard only." [*]
CINEREOUS BECARD (Pachyramphus rufus) – A pair carrying nesting material was seen coming and going below El Palacio. [N]
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) – Seen several times, with more heard, at Rio Claro. [N]
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – Several sightings at Morro Amarillo and RNA Las Tangaras. These birds are part of the montane P. p. dorsalis group.
ONE-COLORED BECARD (Pachyramphus homochrous) – We saw a young male with a mixed canopy flock at Rio Claro.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – We saw a singing bird settle down onto its nest behind the screamer pastures, where it continued to sing (a vireo trait, to sing from the nest) (5 February). [N]
BLACK-BILLED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis nigrirostris) – A responsive bird came very close in the fog at La M, so our views in clear air at RNA Las Tangaras were appreciated.
SCRUB GREENLET (Hylophilus flavipes) – Seen below El Palacio.
CHOCO VIREO (Vireo masteri) – We had terrible views of one with a large mixed flock in the canopy at RNA Las Tangaras. It was apparently a young bird. Probably not countable for most, and not the kind of experience we wanted. It is considered "Endangered," with a population of around 15,000.
BROWN-CAPPED VIREO (Vireo leucophrys) – We saw a couple at middle elevations above Jardin.
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – We heard singing birds near Bolombolo and Morro Amarillo, and saw a couple of them. These are probably all local residents, V. o. caucae, part of the "Chivi" Vireo group, a potential split from North American birds.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BEAUTIFUL JAY (Cyanolyca pulchra) – One glimpsed in the fog at RNA Las Tangaras didn't count; others were heard distantly several times, but stayed apart from us. It is considered "Near Threatened." [*]
BLACK-COLLARED JAY (Cyanolyca armillata) – Heard above Jardin, where one part of the group saw one during the bear search. C. y. quindiana.
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – Mostly heard, but one flock was seen by part of the group.
GREEN JAY (Cyanocorax yncas) – We had great views of a group at the Cock-of-the-Rock lek, and heard more at Morro Amarillo. We saw C. y. galeatus, part of the "Inca Jay" group, split by some from the jays of North America.

Blue-and-white Swallow was a frequent companion in our Andean lodgings, nesting under the eaves, for instance. Photo by participant Lynn Jackson.

Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – Widespread, e.g., nesting under the roof outside our rooms at Las Tangaras. [N]
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis) – Seen perched at Rio Claro, where the fortunate few were looking through the telescope when the birds scratched, revealing the namesake white thighs.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Widespread in small numbers.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – A few at lower elevations.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – Over the marshy pastures of the screamer spot.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – Common over the same pastures. [b]
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) – Heard all three days at Rio Claro. f.k.a. Nightingale-Wren. [*]
HOUSE WREN (SOUTHERN) (Troglodytes aedon musculus) – Almost daily, a familiar song.

White-headed Wrens were in view at this clearing at RNA Las Tangaras. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

WHITE-HEADED WREN (Campylorhynchus albobrunneus) – It took a while, but eventually we had fairly good looks (a little distant) at a family group in the pasture at RNA Las Tangaras.
BAND-BACKED WREN (Campylorhynchus zonatus) – Another arboreal big wren of the Cactus Wren genus, this one seen daily in forest canopy at Rio Claro.
BICOLORED WREN (Campylorhynchus griseus) – A pair in woodland by the screamer spot put on a fine show with a duet in front of us.
SOOTY-HEADED WREN (Pheugopedius spadix) – We heard two territories sing very nicely, but both times we failed to see them at RNA Las Tangaras. [*]
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris) – We did much better with this master skulker, seeing it well below El Palacio and then hearing more at Rio Claro.
WHISKERED WREN (Pheugopedius mystacalis) – A third master skulker; we had a series of quick views of a singing pair on Morro Amarillo.
ANTIOQUIA WREN (Thryophilus sernai) – Number four in a series of hidden singers, all formerly in the genus Thryothorus, but now divided into four genera. This newly described species, only recently discovered in the dry forests of the Cauca Valley, was seen near Bolombolo, a challenge but eventually seen well, and was heard again when we returned to find the Piculet. It is considered "Endangered," with population size unknown. [E]
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – The fifth of the former Thryothorus was skulky, but easier than the others, with several sightings at Rio Claro.
RUFOUS WREN (Cinnycerthia unirufa) – Widespread in the Andes, but a bird we usually miss at Las Ventanas above Jardin. However this year we had some nice views of a family.
SHARPE'S WREN (Cinnycerthia olivascens) – We missed them vocally and visually for two days at Las Tangaras, and then had nice encounters with two family groups our last morning. This is the northern of the three species into which Sepia-brown Wren has been split.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – After hearing many we started seeing them, with and without trying, at RNA Las Tangaras, where we saw H. l. brunneiceps (after hearing the nominate form in the Central Andes).
MUNCHIQUE WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina negreti) – A highlight for sure--such a beautiful song. Endemic to the Western Andes of Colombia, this species was only recently described. We had great views of one at La M, and heard several more. It is considered "Critically Endangered," with a population of 250-1,000. [E]
CHESTNUT-BREASTED WREN (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) – Another great song, but only heard in a couple of places at RNA Las Tangaras that gave little hope of seeing one (even skulkier than the Thryothorus assemblage). [*]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea) – Pairs were seen on both visits to the dry forests of the Bolombolo area in the Cauca Valley.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
ANDEAN SOLITAIRE (Myadestes ralloides) – Lynn and Steve saw one, but otherwise just heard (though fairly common by voice) at RNA Las Tangaras.
ORANGE-BILLED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (Catharus aurantiirostris) – Another skulker, we heard great song from a skulking bird that was seen several times, mostly naked eye as it crossed the road (orange bill quite visible naked eye!) on Morro Amarillo.
SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus) – Fairly common below El Palacio and at La Romera, with one more below La M. [b]
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) – Fairly common at Rio Claro.
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – We saw singles around Jardin, including on a banana feeder at the Cock-of-the-Rock lek, and at Morro Amarillo. This Andean population, south of the rest of the range, is the subject of study.
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (Turdus ignobilis) – One paper that recently studied the genetics of this species proposed several splits. We saw T. i. ignobilis and T. i. goodfellowi, the "Drab" group (none of them are other than drab!), an Andean set of populations different from several in Amazonia. These birds were seen daily throughout the trip.

Our host farm in the old caldera above Jardin. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

GREAT THRUSH (Turdus fuscater) – Seen at our hotel in Rionegro (carrying nesting material), above Jardin, and at La M. [N]
GLOSSY-BLACK THRUSH (Turdus serranus) – Heard at La M. [*]
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus gilvus) – One was seen from a moving vehicle en route to Jardin.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis) – Several sightings at Rionegro, the screamer spot, and by Steve at our hotel in Jardin. [b]
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – One male with a mixed flock (same flock as the Ceruleans) on Morro Amarillo. It is considered "Near Threatened." [b]
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER (Mniotilta varia) – At least two, at La Romera and RNA Las Tangaras. [b]
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina) – Wintering birds were seen at Rionegro and Morro Amarillo. [b]
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia) – We saw one at Rionegro (and heard another) and Pierre had one near the RNA Las Tangaras lodge. [b]
AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla) – One female was seen below El Palacio. [b]
CERULEAN WARBLER (Setophaga cerulea) – We were excited to see two males with a mixed flock in a forest patch on Morro Amarillo. It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population of 380,000. [b]
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – This resident warbler was a yardbird at RNA Las Tangaras.
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea) – Fairly common at lower elevations the first few days of the trip (El Palacio, Rio Claro); two at 1900m on Morro Amarillo were toward the upper end of typical wintering elevation. [b]
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – The most common wintering warbler at higher elevations, seen daily at middle and upper elevations, sometimes 8-10/day. [b]
YELLOW WARBLER (NORTHERN) (Setophaga petechia aestiva) – Several at low elevations: the screamer spot, Rio Claro, and our restaurant near the Rio Cauca. [b]
BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER (Setophaga virens) – Martin spotted what was the 'rarity' of the trip, a male with a mixed flock at 2400m above Jardin. Regular in northern Colombia, but scarce this far south. [b]
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (Basileuterus rufifrons) – Several were admired below El Palacio. We saw B. r. mesochrysus in the "Chestnut-capped" group.
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – Several were watched in the dry forest of the Cauca Valley near Bolombolo.
THREE-STRIPED WARBLER (Basileuterus tristriatus) – A few were seen at middle elevations at La Romera, Jardin, and RNA Las Tangaras.
CITRINE WARBLER (NORTHERN) (Myiothlypis luteoviridis richardsoni) – We saw two pairs at Las Ventanas above Jardin. This dully marked subspecies has been proposed as a split, but it sounds similar to other populations.

Buff-rumped Warbler was one of many birds in front of our cabins at Rio Claro, which were large, spartan, and provided easy access to the surrounding forests. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda) – After several quick views, we watched one foraging on the ground at Rio Claro.
RUSSET-CROWNED WARBLER (Myiothlypis coronata) – Seen twice, first at La Romera, then at La M.
CANADA WARBLER (Cardellina canadensis) – We saw about five wintering in the Andes: La Romera, Morro Amarillo, and RNA Las Tangaras. [b]
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus) – Widespread at middle elevations in the Andes. a.k.a. Slate-throated Whitestart.
GOLDEN-FRONTED REDSTART (Myioborus ornatus) – This stunning bird was enjoyed above Jardin and then at La M; this is the upper elevation "whitestart" of the two.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BLACK-CAPPED HEMISPINGUS (Kleinothraupis atropileus) – Several were with a mixed flock at Las Ventanas above Jardin.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – A couple were seen at Rio Claro and one at Las Tangaras.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – Several sightings of this highly dimorphic tanager: Both female and male at banana feeders at Jardin, a male at Morro Amarillo, and a male at the feeders at RNA Las Tangaras.
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (FLAME-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus flammigerus) – We saw brightly-colored birds of this form at Rionegro, around Jardin, and at RNA Las Tangaras. We saw some hybrids (could be called "Citrus-rumped") at Rionegro.
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (LEMON-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus) – We saw several at Rionegro, below El Palacio, and on the other side of RNA Las Tangaras from the Flame-rumped. These two forms hybridize in a number of places where habitat change has brought them together, and yet pure birds may occur in close proximity to each other, as as Las Tangaras.
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus) – Another beauty in the Silver-beaked group. We saw beauties below El Palacio, at Rio Claro, and around Jardin.

Black-and-gold Tanager was one of the birds seen well here, after which it was time for a mid-morning coffee break. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

BLACK-AND-GOLD TANAGER (Bangsia melanochlamys) – We had repeated good views of this endemic at RNA Las Tangaras, at times perched ("oddly" for a tanager) like a sentinel or Olive-sided Flycatcher on a high snag. It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population of 600-1,700. [E]
GRASS-GREEN TANAGER (Chlorornis riefferii) – Two were seen with a flock at Las Ventanas.
LACRIMOSE MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus lacrymosus) – Small groups were seen at high elevation near Las Ventanas and at La M.
BLUE-WINGED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus somptuosus) – This glowing species was seen first above Jardin, and we had much more pleasure to come at RNA Las Tangaras.
BLACK-CHINNED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus notabilis) – We had good views of one group of this Choco specialty with a large mixed flock along the trail at RNA Las Tangaras, but atypically did not find others.
BUFF-BREASTED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Dubusia taeniata) – After hearing it from our Yellow-eared Parrot post, we had good views of a responsive bird at La M.
PURPLISH-MANTLED TANAGER (Iridosornis porphyrocephalus) – We missed it above Jardin, but found them daily at RNA Las Tangaras, with repeated good views of this Choco specialty. It is considered "Near Threatened."

Golden-crowned Tanager is widespread but uncommon, occurring in upper montane forest above the elevation of Purplish-mantled. We had good views of this one above Jardin, as captured by participant Lynn Jackson.

GOLDEN-CROWNED TANAGER (Iridosornis rufivertex) – We saw one close bird with a small flock at Las Ventanas above Jardin. An uncommon and stunning tanager.
GLISTENING-GREEN TANAGER (Chlorochrysa phoenicotis) – The remarkable green of this Choco specialty takes good views to fully savor. We saw about a dozen at RNA Las Tangaras, with progressively better views.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – Common from the start, literally, like the window list of Danalee and Pierre's room at Rionegro.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – Also common and seen nearly daily.
BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanocephala) – We saw several above Jardin and at La M. Genetic studies have shown that it is not a Thraupis, and probably should be moved into the mountain-tanagers, perhaps under its original generic name, Sporathraupis.
RUFOUS-THROATED TANAGER (Ixothraupis rufigula) – We saw pairs of this distinctive Choco species twice at RNA Las Tangaras.
BLACK-CAPPED TANAGER (Tangara heinei) – This dimorphic Tangara was seen several times: Rionegro, La Romera, and Morro Amarillo.
SCRUB TANAGER (Tangara vitriolina) – Widespread in secondary habitats throughout.
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – This beauty was enjoyed on several days at El Palacio and Rio Claro.
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanicollis) – Another beauty, seen well below El Palacio and at Morro Amarillo.
BLUE-AND-BLACK TANAGER (Tangara vassorii) – This high-elevation Tangara was seen at Las Ventanas and La M.
BERYL-SPANGLED TANAGER (Tangara nigroviridis) – Another high-elevation Tangara, seen above Jardin and at La M, and as low as RNA Las Tangaras.
METALLIC-GREEN TANAGER (Tangara labradorides) – One was seen by part of the group at La Romera.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata) – Seen several times below El Palacio and at Rio Claro.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola) – Scattered small numbers were seen along the route: El Palacio, Jardin, Morro Amarillo, and the lodge at Las Tangaras.
SAFFRON-CROWNED TANAGER (Tangara xanthocephala) – Several sightings at RNA Las Tangaras.
GOLDEN TANAGER (Tangara arthus) – This glowing bird was seen at La Romera, Jardin, Morro Amarillo, and Las Tangaras.

Silver-throated Tanager was one of many tanagers that we enjoyed at the appropriately-named RNA Las Tangaras, one of ProAves' Colombian reserves. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

SILVER-THROATED TANAGER (Tangara icterocephala) – Silver-throated was seen by most of the group in a couple of quick encounters at RNA Las Tangaras.
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – We saw this tanager, apparently somewhat migratory, at El Palacio and on a ridge above Rio Claro.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – One male was seen by part of the group at Bolombolo.
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Two were seen at Rio Claro.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Two were at El Palacio, and a couple more were seen around Jardin, including Morro Amarillo.
SCARLET-BROWED TANAGER (Heterospingus xanthopygius) – A pair at Rio Claro were specks in a towering tree, a marginal sighting for most.
CAPPED CONEBILL (Conirostrum albifrons) – We saw tail-pumping pairs below Las Ventanas above Jardin and at La M.
BLACK FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa humeralis) – Several were seen around the Yellow-eared Parrot area.
WHITE-SIDED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa albilatera) – Heard at Las Ventanas. [*]
INDIGO FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa indigotica) – This Choco specialty was seen well a couple of times and one more was heard at RNA Las Tangaras.
RUSTY FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa sittoides) – One male was in secondary and plantations at Morro Amarillo.
BLUISH FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa caerulescens) – One was seen at La M.
MASKED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa cyanea) – Seen at our two higher-elevation areas, Jardin and La M.
GRAY-HOODED BUSH TANAGER (Cnemoscopus rubrirostris) – We had small groups with two mixed flocks at Las Ventanas and La M.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – Seen first behind the hotel in Rionegro, with a few more in cleared areas at lower elevations.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – A couple were seen below El Palacio and another was at the screamer spot.

Ruddy-breasted Seedeater is not a great rarity, but common birds can be lovely, as this portrait by participant Lynn Jackson shows.

RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila minuta) – One was below El Palacio and a handful were at the screamer spot.
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – A few in grassy areas early in the trip: Rionegro, El Palacio, and the screamer pastures.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Bananaquits were widespread in small numbers, seen almost daily.
YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris olivaceus) – We had good views at Morro Amarillo.
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – Seen our first three days, below El Palacio and at Rio Claro.
BLACK-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator atripennis) – This striking saltator was enjoyed daily on the feeders at the lodge at RNA Las Tangaras after our first sightings on Morro Amarillo.
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus) – Our first were at Rionegro, followed by a few at El Palacio, Jardin, and Morro Amarillo.

The beautiful town square at Jardin, just a ten-minute walk from all those great birds below the brilliant yellow bridge. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

Passerellidae (New World Buntings and Sparrows)
GRAY-BROWED BRUSHFINCH (Arremon assimilis assimilis) – Some sharp spotting located one in the shrubbery at La M. A split of the former Striped-headed Brush-Finch.
ORANGE-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon aurantiirostris) – Eric pointed out one of this striking species foraging along the edge of the forested road at Rio Claro.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Never abundant, but common and widespread in disturbed areas of the slopes.
WHITE-NAPED BRUSHFINCH (YELLOW-THROATED) (Atlapetes albinucha gutturalis) – This lovely brushfinch (now spelled with no hyphen!) was seen on Morro Amarillo and at RNA Las Tangaras, but just a few.
TRICOLORED BRUSHFINCH (CHOCO) (Atlapetes tricolor crassus) – We had progressively better views over two days at RNA Las Tangaras, where one was carrying nesting material on 11 Feb. This form is almost certain to be split from the other population from central Peru. [N]
SLATY BRUSHFINCH (Atlapetes schistaceus) – We had great views in the telescope of this lovely brushfinch at our Parrot viewing perch near Las Ventanas.
Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
DUSKY-FACED TANAGER (Mitrospingus cassinii) – We had good views of several large, chattering flocks at Rio Claro. Genetic studies have shown that this genus does not belong in the tanagers, and it is now placed in this new, limited family.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
HEPATIC TANAGER (Piranga flava) – One was on Morro Amarillo.

A segment of the Rio Claro between the steep ridges leading to its exit into the Magdalena Valley. Photo by guide Richard Webster.

SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – Wintering birds were heard or seen almost daily. [b]
SOOTY ANT-TANAGER (Habia gutturalis) – After missing both endemic ant-tanagers last year, it was great to see both this year. We had good views of Sooty at Rio Claro. It is considered "Near Threatened." [E]
CRESTED ANT-TANAGER (Habia cristata) – And Crested was in a small group within a large mixed flock along the trail. Seen clearly, but it was hard not to be distracted by everything else. [E]
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus ludovicianus) – One young male was seen at La Romera. [b]
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia cyanoides) – Seen by at least Eric and heard by all at Rio Claro.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella militaris) – We had nice views of this small meadowlark in the pastures at the screamer site.
RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius angustifrons) – We had great views of this huge bird (which can inhale bananas at feeders, if they don't carry the whole thing off) at La Romera, Jardin, Morro Amarillo, and the RNA Las Tangaras feeders.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – A few were seen in flight at Rio Claro and around a colony tree below El Palacio.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – We saw birds visiting their nests in a large tree above the Rio Cocorna below El Palacio. [N]
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – One was seen at Rio Claro.
MOUNTAIN CACIQUE (GOLDEN-SHOULDERED) (Cacicus chrysonotus leucoramphus) – After hearing some, we had good views of a flock moving through the understory of forest above Jardin.
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater) – We had views of several on Morro Amarillo, and enjoyed the lovely song.
YELLOW ORIOLE (Icterus nigrogularis) – A couple of distant birds were seen at the screamer pastures.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – Several were at Rionegro, with singles at Rio Claro and Morro Amarillo.
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – One was seen in flight high over El Palacio (not too far from that oropendola colony!).
CARIB GRACKLE (Quiscalus lugubris) – We saw about eight at the screamer pasture. This species has expanded greatly in western Colombia.

Our domicile on the edge of Medellin was the jumping off point for Red-bellied Grackle and hummingbirds and brushfinches and warblers and . . . . Photo by guide Richard Webster.

RED-BELLIED GRACKLE (Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster) – One of Colombia's finest endemics! We had several views of a flock in the forest patches at La Romera, and a quick, close encounter with a small group coming to banana feeders at the Cock-of-the-Rock lek. Excellent! It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population of 2,500 to 10,000. [E]
YELLOW-HOODED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus icterocephalus) – Common in the marshy pastures at the screamer spot.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – We saw this species twice at RNA Las Tangaras, perhaps a transient here?
CHESTNUT-BREASTED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys) – We had excellent views of a pair of this lovely bird on our last morning at RNA Las Tangaras.
YELLOW-COLLARED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia flavirostris) – Essentially a Choco specialty, we were pleased to watch a small group of foraging birds in the forest at RNA Las Tangaras.
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris) – Common at Rio Claro and around Jardin.
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – A couple were seen at Jardin, and it was fairly common at RNA Las Tangaras.
YELLOW-BELLIED SISKIN (Spinus xanthogastrus) – We had good views of several around our Yellow-eared Parrot viewing spot, and saw some again on Morro Amarillo.

SILVERY-BROWN BARE-FACE TAMARIN (Saguinus leucopus) – Seen first when John spotted them below El Palacio, and we had closer ones two days later above Rio Claro. [E]
WHITE-FRONTED CAPUCHIN (Cebus albifrons) – A quick view one day at Rio Claro was followed by good views of a troop (including "baby aboard"!) the next morning.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – The common squirrel of the tour, seen on five days.

No one fed one of these animals, did she or he? Photo by guide Richard Webster, who remembers another element of breakfast: Fighting off the temptation to commit further doughnut self-abuse.

ANDEAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus pucheranii) – We saw one on a ridge above Rio Claro. [E]
AMAZON DWARF SQUIRREL (Microsciurus flaviventer) – Several were seen in the cloud forest at RNA Las Tangaras. The common name is not fully appropriate!


Bothrops snake, or a similar genus: We had telescope views of a poisonous snake of this type in the mid-canopy at Rio Claro. It was being mobbed by small birds.

Iguana: Danalee pointed them out at the screamer spot and at the juice stop on the way back.

A few lizards such as Anolis and geckos.

Rhinoceros Beetle at the Trucheria above Jardin.

That 'yellow beetle' at Rio Claro.

Lovely grasshoppers at RNA Las Tangaras, many species.

More cicadas than we always wanted to hear.

A fair variety of butterflies (Lynn kept the best track), including (on the big end of the scale) Morphos, Owl Butterflies (Caligo), and Urania moths.

Some birds seen by group members pre-tour around Rionegro included Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Blue-winged Teal, Common Gallinule, Killdeer (rare here), Torrent Tyrannulet, and Lesser Goldfinch.

Totals for the tour: 406 bird taxa and 5 mammal taxa