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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil: Great Rivers of the Amazon (Madeira-Tapajos) 2019
Aug 2, 2019 to Aug 17, 2019
Bret Whitney, Tom Johnson, & Micah Riegner

Amazonia is home to some remarkable sunsets, which we enjoyed daily. Photo by group member Fiona McKay.

This exploration of the fascinating area between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers was met with a excellent run of birding luck, dry weather (rubber boots barely used this time!), and relaxing accommodations on our riverboat, the Tumbira. The remarkably complex avifauna of Amazonia is dictated in large part by the history of water flow across the region, so we made special efforts to seek out species and subspecies that have evolved in isolation in this particular interfluvium. We began with three nights in the town of Borba on the right bank of the Rio Madeira, then boarded the Tumbira and explored eastward toward Maués, and then upriver (to the south), visiting some pristine areas that have never been birded aside from our tours here. The return trip along the main branch of the Amazon allowed us time to explore river edge and island habitats, adding some nice specialty sightings to the end of the tour. Some bird highlights of our adventure included White-winged and Rufous potoos, Bald Parrots, Golden Parakeets, Cryptic Forest-Falcon, Harlequin Antbird, Pale-faced Bare-eye, Hoffmanns's Woodcreeper, Brown-breasted Barbet, and much, much more.

In Manaus, we kicked things off with a pre-tour stroll around the grounds of the Tropical Hotel, spotting our first birds as well as the specialty mammals of the area, Brazilian Bare-faced Tamarins. Once the entire group was assembled, we caught our charter flight from Manaus to Borba; as we flew to the southeast, we passed over the famous "meeting of the waters" where the black water of the Rio Negro contacts the sediment rich white water of the Rio Solimoes to form the Amazon River. The bustling town of Borba was our home for three nights before we boarded the riverboat; we used Borba as a base of operations to explore surrounding terra firme forest and white sand campina habitats. This area was an important Natterer collecting locality, and so our discussions of biogeography here were steeped in ornithological history. Our visits to open campina produced wonderful views of dusk-foraging Least Nighthawks, Plain-crested Elaenia, and Spotted Puffbird. By day, visits to upland (terra firme) forest led us to find wonderful birds like Fiery-tailed Awlbill, Slender-billed Xenops, Red-billed Woodcreeper, Glossy-backed Becard, White-tailed Cotinga, and the exciting, as-yet-undescribed shrike-vireo that Bret discovered nearby in 2010. It's quite a special feeling to see a bird like this that hasn't yet been named - try it, you'll like it! A night outing yielded a fantastic White-winged Potoo and a roosting Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant. It is worth mentioning that Portuga and his family arranged special meals for our group while in Borba, so we enjoyed several memorable barbecues and never-ending tanks of caipirinhas during our stay here.

A short speedboat transfer down the Rio Madeira took us from Borba to Nova Olinda do Norte, where we stepped onto the Tumbira, our riverboat home for the rest of the tour. From here, we began our eastward transit along the Paraná Urariá while meeting the boat's crew from Amazonia Expeditions and getting settled into our air-conditioned staterooms. On the very first afternoon on Tumbira, a 2.5 hour-long watch from the top deck netted us about 95 species of birds, a testament to the monumental diversity in this area.

On our first morning of birding from Tumbira, we got into the motor canoes for a short transfer to a trail along the bank of the Rio Paraconí. The terra firme forest near the river hosted our first Bald Parrots, Ihering's Antwren, and Long-tailed Woodcreeper. In the late afternoon, a motor canoe trip along the edge of flooded river edge forest helped us find Amazonian Tyrannulet, Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, and nest-attending Short-crested Flycatchers. A night outing here produced a great scope view of the dead-leaf mimic Rufous Potoo. A second morning in this same area netted a remarkably different set of birds including Black-faced Hawk (rare south of the Amazon), Banded Antbird, Hoffmanns's Woodcreeper, Black-spotted Bare-eye, and Snow-capped Manakin. An afternoon transit back to the Urariá and then eastward brought us to to the town of Maués after dark. We reviewed our bird list, toasted the bounty of the Paraconí, listened to Micah's presentation on primates of the Central Amazon (illustrated with a lovely slideshow on the flat screen TV in the restaurant), and headed off to our quarters; meanwhile, the Tumbira's crew safely piloted us upriver on the Maués-Açu toward our next destination.

Beginning our exploration of the Maués-Açu, we walked a narrow trail through the forest to investigate a campina that was visible on satellite photos of the region; campina birds were quiet, but we enjoyed close studies of Crimson-bellied Parakeets and our first Sucunduri Yellow-margined Flycatchers. At night, we returned to this area and found a bounty of nightbirds including Blackish Nightjar, Rufous Nightjar, calling Dark-winged Trumpeter, Spectacled Owl, and Common Potoo. A second morning in this area turned up an Ash-colored Cuckoo that we watched at leisure through our scopes - a rarely seen bird in this portion of Amazonia. Returning to Tumbira, we navigated onto the Rio Parauari (a tributary of the Maués-Açu), and continued our way upriver, surrounded by Hoatzins and both species of river dolphins. No Golden Parakeets... yet.

Our target birding destination was an area of the Parauari with a steep, high terrace of forest above the river; in 2017, we found Harlequin Antbird at a nice army ant swarm here, so we returned this year with high expectations. Spending the day here, with two visits into the terra firme forest and a boat trip through flooded river forest, we found a skulky pair of Harlequin Antbirds, Blue-cheeked Jacamar, excellent views of Sucunduri Yellow-margined Flycatcher, a Cryptic Forest-Falcon in the scope, and two White-crested Guans!

At this point, on the morning of 12 August, we reached our farthest point away from Manaus by river, so it was time to turn the Tumbira around and start heading back. As we cruised down the Parauari, we kept our eyes and ears out for Golden Parakeets, and eventually, a group of 5 of these gorgeous green-and-yellow macaw-lets flew past calling. With a little bit of repositioning of the boat, we had them right in front of us for excellent views - 4 adults and 1 immature. Yip yip! We also spent some time watching pods of pink and gray river dolphins feeding under an amazing column of hundreds of migrating Plumbeous and Swallow-tailed kites. In the late afternoon, we pulled into a side stream and explored with the motor canoes, eventually reaching a small forest trail that took us to a splendid Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon just before dusk. As we motored on down the Maués-Açu, Bret gave us an after-dinner presentation on biogeography and hybridization in Amazonia, complete with satellite images and discussion about the historical patterns of water coverage in this fascinating region.

For our final morning along the Maués-Açu drainage, we took the motor canoes ashore and birded a nice terra firme trail along the Igarapé Jacundá. At the eleventh hour, we hit a jackpot with a busy army ant swarm attended by 4 Harlequin Antbirds, Pale-faced Bare-eye, Xingu Scale-backed Antbirds, Spix's Warbling-Antbird, and more. We also enjoyed good views of Bald Parrot and a silent Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher that Bret called in from some river edge forest. For our last morning in tall terra firme forest, it sure was a memorable one! During lunch and our afternoon break, the Tumbira repositioned northward to Maués and then northeast along the Paraná Urariá. We watched near dusk and enjoyed hundreds of Brown-chested Martins gathering for roost and a spectacular show of over 500 Band-tailed Nighthawks taking off from riverside trees to hunt for the evening. A night outing in the motor canoes turned up a bounty of birds and mammals including 5 Ladder-tailed Nightjars, 2 Great Potoos, a hole-roosting White-throated Woodpecker, and quite a few Giant Tree Rats (very impressive - the size of small terriers!) - our thermal imaging scope has been re-named "the rat scope".

On 14 August, we met dawn at the junction of the Paraná Dos Ramos and the Paraná Urariá in a patch of low stature river edge forest that was absolutely loaded with birds. As we stood in a muddy clearing, we spotted one new bird after another - Varzea Piculet, Scaled Spinetail, Plain Softtail, Zimmer's Woodcreeper, Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher, Lined Seedeater, and more! The day grew quite hot along the open river edge, so we headed down the Dos Ramos toward the main branch of the Amazon, spotting goodies like nesting Buff-necked Ibis and White Woodpecker from the top of Tumbira along the way. Our afternoon birding was scrubbed due to a massive rainstorm (our first big rain of the whole trip), so we hung out in the restaurant and took in a few more slideshows (including Micah's masters research on riverine woodcreepers) and examined photos from the trip.

The morning of 15 August began along the north bank of the Amazon River, where we took the motor canoes up a side stream and found very high levels of bird activity - Great Potoo with a chick, Ash-breasted Antbird, Klages's Antwren, Leaden Antwren, Green-tailed Jacamar, Guira Tanagers, Oriole Blackbirds, and three Crane Hawks. We went ashore on a muddy beach and found a recently downed tree with two active bird nests in it - Green-rumped Parrotlet and Spot-breasted Woodpeckers up close! In the afternoon, the "Buffalo Island" in the mouth of the Rio Madeira was good for Green-throated Mango, Black-and-white Antbirds, Wing-banded Hornero, riverine Fuscous Flycatchers, Bicolored Conebills, and Orange-headed Tanagers - classic river island birds. One final night outing in the canoes led us to find many roosting birds, an amazing display from a responsive Ladder-tailed Nightjar, and a small Spectacled Caiman that Cantogallo caught and showed to us.

For the final day of birding, we aimed our sights on the Marchantaria area of river islands near the mouth of the Rio Solimoes. Migrant shorebirds like Pectoral Sandpiper, Lesser Yellowlegs, and Solitary Sandpiper strode across pastures littered with roosting Nacunda Nighthawks and Collared Plovers. During the day, we explored some young river islands, finding responsive and visible Gray-breasted Crakes, Azure Gallinules (amazing views!), Lesser Hornero, Parker's Spinetail, Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Brownish Elaenia, Pearly-breasted Conebill, and Dull-capped Attila. A final canoe outing let us get back into the flooded forest of Marchantaria Island, and we spotted Castelnau's Antshrikes, Little Woodpecker, and a whole suite of staging parrots and parakeets. This took us right up until dusk, and then we re-boarded the Tumbira to head back to Manaus. This gave us plenty of time to pack up, review one final day's bird checklist, and get ready for our overnight flights from Manaus back to North America.

Thanks to everyone who participated in this exciting installment of our Great Rivers program; it's always an adventure out there on the rivers of Amazonia, and with variations in weather and water levels each year and the amazing pool of biodiversity from which we sample, we find slightly different species results each time. This was a particularly good year for finding marquee specialties such as Harlequin Antbird, Golden Parakeet, Brown-chested Barbet, Cryptic Forest-Falcon, and more. We hope to see you out in the field again soon, whether it's for another trip on the mighty Tumbira or somewhere else on this great big Earth of ours.

-Good birding, and safe travels!

Tom (for Bret, Micah, the staff at Field Guides, and the crew of Amazonia Expeditions)

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
WHITE-THROATED TINAMOU (Tinamus guttatus) [*]
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]

A typical scene from our trip - birders on the prowl in a motor canoe with Tumbira (our "mother ship") in the background. Photo by leader Bret Whitney.

LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) [*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
HORNED SCREAMER (Anhima cornuta) – Scattered sightings in wet pastures along the banks of large rivers.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – Very common in pastures along river edges.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
WHITE-CRESTED GUAN (Penelope pileata) – Two of these big guans perched up in treetops along the Rio Parauari as we watched from the motor canoes.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)

Bret sent his drone up into the sky several times during the tour, and came home with fine imagery from on high — enjoy! Video by leader Bret Whitney.
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – Several sightings in the white sand forest near Borba.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – One of these open-land cuckoos came in to whistling and landed in trees next to the bank of the Dos Ramos.
LITTLE CUCKOO (Coccycua minuta) – We enjoyed a great look at this striking small cuckoo in river edge forest near the junction of the Parana Uraria and the Parana Dos Ramos.
ASH-COLORED CUCKOO (Coccycua cinerea) – Wow! This red-eyed beauty was a rare sighting in a treetop along forest edge near Nova Jerusalem. This Austral migrant is rarely seen this far north in Amazonia.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
BLACK-BELLIED CUCKOO (Piaya melanogaster) – Our best look came in the high canopy overhead at the same spot where we studied the shrike-vireo near Borba.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – Ten roosted in a pasture along the bank of the Rio Solimoes on our final day of birding together.
LEAST NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles pusillus) – We saw over a dozen of these lovely, small nightjars in a campina near Borba. This population shows heavily barred undertail coverts.
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – Small numbers were seen in the evenings as they bounded up into the sky with strong, direct wingbeats.
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Lurocalis semitorquatus) – Just a few of these big, stout nighthawks fed at dusk and dawn along forest edges.

Even though this particular Bald Parrot is in flight, we enjoyed some great looks of these very strange birds when they were perched. Photo by leader Tom Johnson.

BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – Hundreds were seen in flight along river edges in the evenings.
BLACKISH NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus nigrescens) – One was perched on a log at the edge of a manioc plantation near Nova Jerusalem during a night walk there.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Fairly common.
SPOT-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis maculicaudus) – We heard these nightjars singing on a few occasions as we cruised along the Amazonas at night near the end of the trip. [*]
LADDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis climacocerca) – These open country nightjars were quite common along river edges during our nocturnal canoe cruises.
RUFOUS NIGHTJAR (Antrostomus rufus) – We heard at least two birds calling and spotted one for good views during a night outing in the canoes near Nova Jerusalem.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – At least two of these massive night birds were foraging from fenceposts and dead trees at the junction of the Parana Uraria and the Parana Dos Ramos. Day-roosting birds were also seen during canoe explorations along the Amazonas and Solimoes.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
WHITE-WINGED POTOO (Nyctibius leucopterus) – After a catered dinner on the porch of a nearby home, we took a walk and found this excellent potoo in the canopy of a mature forest patch near Borba.
RUFOUS POTOO (Nyctibius bracteatus) – We found a cooperative individual during a night walk along the Rio Paraconi. This species is, notably, a dead-leaf mimic.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – We saw some courtship flights of these striking "sky pandas" from the top deck of Tumbira one afternoon.
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
NEEDLE-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis philippii)
LONG-TAILED HERMIT (Phaethornis superciliosus)
STREAK-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis rupurumii amazonicus) – This river edge bird put in a brief appearance where we pulled Tumbira up to the left bank of the Amazon late in the tour.

Here is a compilation of images from the first half of our tour, mostly in chronological order, from Bret’s iPhone. Video by leader Bret Whitney.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber)
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
GREEN-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus theresiae) – The most memorable sighting was one that perched up and then foraged in front of us in the Borba campina.
FIERY-TAILED AWLBILL (Avocettula recurvirostris) – The genus name means "Avocet bill", and we were delighted to see the odd upturned bill tip of this scarce hummingbird in our scopes in a canopy flock near Borba.
GREEN-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax viridigula) – A female perched up briefly on a river island at the mouth of the Rio Madeira.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – We enjoyed a few sightings, including a female feeding nestlings in a tall dead tree near Borba.
BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus)
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina)
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus)
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – These bizarre, ancient birds flopped along river edges throughout our journey. We enjoyed particularly good views of vocal birds along the edges of forest on Marchantaria Island.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris) – At least 8 of these small gallinules were in a marsh along the edge of a young island at Marchantaria. We found a few responsive birds and even got to see a fascinating aggressive display from one individual.
RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE (Anurolimnas viridis) [*]
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis) – On our final day of birding, we saw two responsive individuals on a young river island while we stood aboard Tumbira! Check out the photo from Bill Crins further down the checklist.
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica)
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Psophiidae (Trumpeters)
DARK-WINGED TRUMPETER (Psophia viridis) – During our night birding near Nova Jerusalem, we heard the mumbling moans of these strange forest dwellers. [*]
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus)

It was great to be out on forest trails with plenty of large birds and mammals around. This Red-throated Piping-Guan posed nicely for group member Cathy Douglas.

SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla) – These boreal migrants were in small puddles in riverside pastures on our final day of birding.
PECTORAL SANDPIPER (Calidris melanotos) – A few were seen in riverside ponds and pastures on the final day of the tour.
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – Boreal migrants; just beginning to appear in small numbers late in the tour.
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – One flew across in front of the motor canoes near Nova Jerusalem.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – All told, we probably saw a few dozen of these striking white and butter-colored herons with the electric blue facial skin. Stunning!
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Fiona spotted a few of these massive vultures while we were driving near Borba. We pulled over and got out for much improved views.
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)

In the dark forest understory, the pale lime green skin around the eyes of this Harlequin Antbird really stood out! Photo by leader Tom Johnson.

TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Fairly common along river edges.
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – We saw a few of these big vultures soaring over terra firme forest.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – About 75 of these gorgeous raptors joined the large flocks of Plumbeous Kites on August 12th.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis)
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – Though we enjoyed scattered sightings throughout the tour, we were amazed to see over 500 of these slim raptors kettling over the Rio Parauari on August 12th.
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens)
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)

On our final day, we were enthralled with the close views of Azure Gallinules in a river island marsh. Photo by group member Fiona McKay.

WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis)
BLACK-FACED HAWK (Leucopternis melanops) – The bird we scoped in terra firme forest along the Rio Paraconi was a rare sighting south of the Amazon.
WHITE-BROWED HAWK (Leucopternis kuhli) – One perched up above the forest as we scoped from the top deck of Tumbira along the Rio Parauari.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – Brief views of a couple of challenging individuals.
TAWNY-BELLIED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops watsonii) [*]
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) [*]
AMAZONIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium hardyi) [*]
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – One was perched on a roadside wire during a predawn drive near Borba.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
AMAZONIAN TROGON (Trogon ramonianus)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui)
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus hyperrhynchus) – A few individuals were perched next to termite nests in the middle story of forest. Striking, large puffbirds!
BROWN-BANDED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus ordii) – Our best view was of a bird that approached for a scope view along the "Potoo trail" near Borba.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – A few pairs of these small puffbirds showed nicely along forest edges at Borba.
SPOTTED PUFFBIRD (Bucco tamatia) – Several wonderful sightings, including a close bird in the Borba campina.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons)
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
BLUE-CHEEKED JACAMAR (Galbula cyanicollis) – One posed beautifully near the Pearly Antshrikes on a terra firme trail along the Rio Parauari.
GREEN-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula galbula)

When we tracked down an active army ant swarm, this Black-spotted Bare-eye did not disappoint! Photo by leader Micah Riegner.

BRONZY JACAMAR (Galbula leucogastra) – Excellent views of a responsive bird along the Igarapé Jacundá.
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) [*]
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
BROWN-CHESTED BARBET (Capito brunneipectus) – The deep voice of this canopy species carries a great distance, and we were able to find a pair for good views overhead near Borba. Later, we heard and saw this bird several more times. The species has quite a small range in central Amazonia, and is a target species of this tour.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis)
RED-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus bitorquatus)
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – During one late afternoon watch from the top deck of Tumbira along the Paraná Urariá, we saw 15 of these big, stunning toucans.
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BAR-BREASTED PICULET (Picumnus aurifrons)
VARZEA PICULET (Picumnus varzeae) – We found these river edge & island specialists twice near the end of the trip.
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – The one we found along the Paraná Dos Ramos was in a cleared pasture area along the river bank, typical habitat for this range-expanding woodpecker. In central Amazonia, we were well north of the core of the range, and indeed, this was only the second eBird record for the species in Amazonas state.
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus)
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus) – One flew over on our final afternoon as we explored the river channels of Marchantaria Island.
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Dryobates affinis)
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis)
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RINGED WOODPECKER (Celeus torquatus)

Bret’s iPhone dutifully stored these images from the second half of the tour. Video by leader Bret Whitney.
SCALE-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Celeus grammicus) – A few sightings of this lovely Celeus in terra firme forest.
WHITE-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus leucolaemus) – During one nocturnal outing, we used the thermal scope to spot one of these woodpeckers peeking out of its roosting hole. The next morning, we also had a nice daylight view.
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros)
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – The nestlings we found in a downed tree trunk were rather surprised to see us - one even took off on unsteady wingbeats into the Amazon River, where it was immediately scooped up and saved by our boatmen. [N]
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
CRYPTIC FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mintoni) – The one we found along the "Harlequin Trail" along the Rio Parauari offered some great scope views and a nice vocal chorus. This recently described species is basically the replacement of Lined Forest-Falcon east of the Madeira.
SLATY-BACKED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mirandollei) – A bird responded to playback along the Maués-Açu late one evening, eventually flying in and showing off very nicely for scope views.
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater)
RED-THROATED CARACARA (Ibycter americanus)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
TUI PARAKEET (Brotogeris sanctithomae)
WHITE-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris versicolurus)

Near the end of the tour, we spent some time perusing the avifauna of river islands - this Orange-headed Tanager was one prize for these efforts. Photo by group member Larry Peavler.

GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera)
BALD PARROT (Pyrilia aurantiocephala) – These peculiar Pyrilias made several wonderful appearances for us in riverine corridors and terra firme forest along the route.
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
SHORT-TAILED PARROT (Graydidascalus brachyurus) – Large numbers along the Paraná Urariá and on islands in the Amazon.
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva) – Especially common on whitewater river islands.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – One sang a memorable duet with a Laughing Falcon one morning near Borba.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
GREEN-RUMPED PARROTLET (Forpus passerinus)
RED-FAN PARROT (Deroptyus accipitrinus fuscifrons)
CRIMSON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura perlata) – During our hike to the campina near Nova Jerusalem, we stopped to admire these classy parakeets as they watched us and called sharply from the subcanopy.
RED-BELLIED MACAW (Orthopsittaca manilatus)
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus)
GOLDEN PARAKEET (Guaruba guarouba) – A major highlight of the trip was the group of five of these splendid parakeets that came swooping in to visit us along the Rio Parauari. They almost appear more like small macaws than parakeets.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
ASH-WINGED ANTWREN (Euchrepomis spodioptila)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)
GLOSSY ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus luctuosus)
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus)
CASTELNAU'S ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus cryptoleucus) – We tracked down a pair of these antshrikes on our final evening of birding on Marchantaria Island.
NATTERER'S SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus stictocephalus)

We enjoyed an unusual angle of this Gray-breasted Crake from on board the riverboat! Photo by group member Bill Crins.

WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus aethiops)
AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus)
PEARLY ANTSHRIKE (Megastictus margaritatus) – A pair showed fairly well along the "Harlequin Trail" near the Rio Parauari.
SATURNINE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes saturninus)
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius)
PLAIN-THROATED ANTWREN (Isleria hauxwelli)
SPOT-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Pygiptila stellaris)
WHITE-EYED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma)
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura) – The singing bird that we found on our first evening near Borba put on an amazing show at the edge of a small grove of trees in a campina.
SCLATER'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula sclateri)
AMAZONIAN STREAKED-ANTWREN (Myrmotherula multostriata)
KLAGES'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula klagesi)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
LONG-WINGED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longipennis)
IHERING'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula iheringi)
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii)
LEADEN ANTWREN (Myrmotherula assimilis) – A super close male approached our canoes during some river birding along the north bank of the Amazon.
BANDED ANTBIRD (Dichrozona cincta) – WOW. This incredible little antbird sang and walked around on the forest floor for some excellent views. Check out Bret's video!
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis)
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea)
SPIX'S WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis striata implicata)
BLACKISH ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides nigrescens)
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens)
ASH-BREASTED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus lugubris femininus) – A male came out and sang in full view as we watched from our canoes along the north bank of the Amazon.
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus)
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon)
BLACK-AND-WHITE ANTBIRD (Myrmochanes hemileucus) – This was a nice river island specialty that we located during the final days of the tour.
RUFOUS-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmelastes rufifacies) – A pair responded and showed in a deep ravine as we explored terra firme forest near Borba.
HARLEQUIN ANTBIRD (Rhegmatorhina berlepschi) – Yip yip! One of the top birds of the trip made us really work for good views. Our first sighting of a territorial pair was in a challenging spot that left us all wanting more - and more we eventually got! On our final morning of birding in terra firme forest along the Maués-Açu, we found an army ant swarm with 4 of these gorgeous bare-eyed antbirds in attendance. The so-called "professional" ant-following antbirds in the genus Rhegmatorhina are surely some of the coolest birds in South America.
SPOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevius)
DOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax punctulatus)
COMMON SCALE-BACKED ANTBIRD (GRAY-BREASTED) (Willisornis poecilinotus griseiventris) – These were in the western portion of our route, near Borba.
XINGU SCALE-BACKED ANTBIRD (TAPAJOS) (Willisornis vidua nigrigula) – In the eastern portions of the Madeira-Tapajos interfluvium, this was the scale-backed antbird that we found with army ants.
BLACK-SPOTTED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) – Awesome views at army ant swarms - what a striking antbird!
PALE-FACED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis borbae) – This range-restricted antbird was challenging to see well at the Harlequin Antbird army ant swarm, but most of us managed views.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
RUSTY-BELTED TAPACULO (Liosceles thoracicus) – We followed a singing bird around, but couldn't coax it into view. What a song, though! [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus amazonus)
LONG-TAILED WOODCREEPER (Deconychura longicauda)
WHITE-CHINNED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla merula olivascens)
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa)

We were all ready for action when these Golden Parakeets showed up and flew back and forth over the Rio Parauari. Incredible birds! Photo by leader Tom Johnson.

WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (CUNEATUS GROUP) (Glyphorynchus spirurus inornatus)
LONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Nasica longirostris)
AMAZONIAN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (PLAIN-COLORED) (Dendrocolaptes certhia concolor) – Surprise! This particular barred-woodcreeper is largely unbarred, just to make things confusing.
HOFFMANNS'S WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi) – This is another species that is only found in the Madeira-Tapajos interfluvium; we enjoyed a few nice studies in terra firme forest along the Rio Paraconí and Parauari.
RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER (UNIFORM) (Hylexetastes perrotii uniformis) – Spectacular views of this big woodcreeper near the edge of a forest clearing near Borba.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus paraensis)
STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus)
OCELLATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus ocellatus)
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (DUSKY-BILLED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni)
ZIMMER'S WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex kienerii)
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris snethlageae)
CURVE-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (RONDONIA) (Campylorhamphus procurvoides probatus)
RONDONIA WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus) – This is the local version of what was formerly called "Lineated Woodcreeper."
SLENDER-BILLED XENOPS (Xenops tenuirostris) – We saw this scarce, arboreal ovenbird on three different days throughout the trip. The best sighting was clearly the responsive individual near Borba that approached us closely.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
RUFOUS-TAILED XENOPS (Microxenops milleri) – We saw a pair in forest south of Borba. This "Xenops," placed in the genus Microxenops, is actually not very closely related to the similar-looking members of the genus Xenops.
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus)
LESSER HORNERO (Furnarius minor) – Good views on river islands on the final days of the tour.
RUFOUS-RUMPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor erythrocercum)
CHESTNUT-WINGED HOOKBILL (Ancistrops strigilatus)
PARA FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus paraensis) – This ovenbird of deep forest showed pretty well on two occasions - once along the Paraconí, and again along the Parauari.

Described to science in 2013 and currently considered a subspecies of widespread Yellow-margined Flycatcher, the Sucunduri Flycatcher is among the most special, range-restricted birds of the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium. Stay tuned, it will almost certainly be returned to species rank before long! Video by leader Bret Whitney.
PLAIN SOFTTAIL (OBIDENSIS) (Thripophaga fusciceps obidensis) – These very odd ovenbirds occur in vine-y tangles along big rivers; ours were along the Paraná Dos Ramos and along the main Amazon.
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina)
PARKER'S SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpecula) – This river island species, named for Ted Parker, showed well for us on our final afternoon at Marchantaria.
SCALED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca muelleri) – From the muddy bank of the Paraná Dos Ramos, we enjoyed great views of this scarce, well-marked spinetail as it climbed around in viney tangles.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RED-AND-WHITE SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis mustelinus) – A few good views along the grassy, shrubby banks of the Paraná Dos Ramos.
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis)
DARK-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albigularis)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens)
RUDDY SPINETAIL (Synallaxis rutilans)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA (Myiopagis flavivertex)

This stunning Black-faced Hawk perched quietly in the forest subcanopy and watched us as we enjoyed it through the scope. The species is rare south of the Amazon. Photo by leader Micah Riegner.

LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis) – A few of these austral migrants showed nicely in the Borba campina on our first evening in the field there.
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – One popped up along the edge of the main Amazon at the spot where we were entertained by several sloths.
BROWNISH ELAENIA (Elaenia pelzelni) – A river island species - we found this one in the company of Parker's Spinetail on a river island on our final day together.
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata)
RIVER TYRANNULET (Serpophaga hypoleuca)
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
RINGED ANTPIPIT (Corythopis torquatus)
LESSER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (Stigmatura napensis)
SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis ecaudatus) – The one we found by using the thermal scope at night was a real surprise!
SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minor)
ZIMMER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minimus)
BUFF-CHEEKED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus senex) – This formerly enigmatic species showed very nicely for us along the water's edge at Igarapé Jacundá. The bird was first collected by Johann Natterer near Borba in 1830 (a single specimen was collected!) and then went missing until its rediscovery in 1993 by our very own Bret Whitney and Mario Cohn-Haft (also near Borba).
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris)
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum)
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (RIVERINE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens insignis)
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (ZIMMER'S) (Tolmomyias assimilis assimilis)
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (SUCUNDURI) (Tolmomyias assimilis sucunduri) – Yowza! This is a bird described by Bret in 2013; currently it's treated as a subspecies by the South American Classification Committee, but it's certainly possible that it will be elevated to species status in the future. We enjoyed a good look - and more importantly, a listen, on multiple occasions. This taxon is restricted to the area between the Sucunduri and Tapajos rivers.
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus)
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatior) – We found a pair of this riverine taxon on a river island in the mouth of the Rio Madeira.
RIVERSIDE TYRANT (Knipolegus orenocensis)
DRAB WATER TYRANT (Ochthornis littoralis)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
RUFOUS-TAILED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon ruficauda)
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus)
DULL-CAPPED ATTILA (Attila bolivianus) – A riverine species that we found on our final day of birding near Marchantaria.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus)
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex) – We were pleased to see a bird enter and leave a nest cavity near Borba.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)

Among the many highlights of our tour was getting wonderful views of Crimson-bellied Parakeets, and the very rarely seen Golden Parakeet! Video by leader Bret Whitney.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
YELLOW-THROATED FLYCATCHER (Conopias parvus) – These flock leaders helped us lock onto wildly diverse canopy flocks on a few occasions, including at the forest clearing near Borba where we saw Slender-billed Xenops and so much more.
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus)
ISLAND STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes [maculatus] sp. nov.)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
CROWNED SLATY FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus) – We found a few of these austral migrants near Borba.
SULPHURY FLYCATCHER (Tyrannopsis sulphurea)
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – These were scarcer than in 2017, but we still saw plenty of these migrants from the cerrado.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GUIANAN RED-COTINGA (Phoenicircus carnifex)
SPANGLED COTINGA (Cotinga cayana)
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
WHITE-TAILED COTINGA (Xipholena lamellipennis) – Spectacular! The male that we scoped near Borba was really impressive.
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus)
Pipridae (Manakins)
DWARF TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes stolzmanni)
SNOW-CAPPED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix nattereri)
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis turdina)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus)
GLOSSY-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus surinamus) – The one in a canopy flock near Borba was a nice bird to pick up.
PINK-THROATED BECARD (Pachyramphus minor)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus)

We all posed for a photo upon return to the dock in Manaus on the tour's final evening.

SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius leucotis) – We encountered both the widespread Amazonian form of the species as well as a yet-to-be-described form with the upside-down song that Bret discovered in 2010. Stay tuned for more on this in the future!
BUFF-CHEEKED GREENLET (Pachysylvia muscicapina)
CHIVI VIREO (RESIDENT) (Vireo chivi solimoensis)
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – Just a couple of encounters with these stunning swallows over smaller rivers.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
SOUTHERN MARTIN (Progne elegans)
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera) – Most of the ones we saw appeared to be the drab Amazonian breeders.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – These remarkable songbirds showed off and sang from rank vegetation along river edges as our boats passed by.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
HAUXWELL'S THRUSH (Turdus hauxwelli)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
LAWRENCE'S THRUSH (Turdus lawrencii)
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (Turdus ignobilis)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta)
RUFOUS-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia rufiventris)
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis) – A fabulous colony provided lots of audio and visual stimulation near Borba. Check out Bret's drone video showing the colony tree.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius bifasciatus) – Near Borba, we found several of these strange oropendolas with the bubblegum patch at the base of the bill. They were nesting alongside the Green Oropendolas at one site we visited.

Birders in action! We were all focused intently on something up there in the canopy - perhaps one of Bret's Sucunduri Yellow-margined Flycatchers? Photo by leader Bret Whitney.

RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus)
YELLOW-HOODED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus icterocephalus)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
RED-BILLED PIED TANAGER (Lamprospiza melanoleuca)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – A pair seemed to be visiting a nest structure at the base of the fronds of a spiny palm near Borba.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis)
BLACK-FACED TANAGER (Schistochlamys melanopis)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
ORANGE-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis sordida) – We saw these striking tanagers on a few occasions on river islands.
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
FULVOUS-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus surinamus)
RED-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus phoenicius)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
MASKED CRIMSON TANAGER (Ramphocelus nigrogularis)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
DOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis varia) – One sang and proved difficult to see in the canopy near the Borba oropendola colony.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis punctata)
TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana)

Here is a little video of some of the fascinating mammals we found on this year’s tour. Video by leader Bret Whitney.
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis)
OPAL-RUMPED TANAGER (Tangara velia) – These gorgeous tanagers were in several canopy flocks in the Borba area.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola)
GREEN-AND-GOLD TANAGER (Tangara schrankii) – Wow - another really beautiful Tangara that we found near Borba.
BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata)
YELLOW-BELLIED DACNIS (Dacnis flaviventer)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus)
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor minus)
PEARLY-BREASTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum margaritae) – These conebills were on a cecropia-rich river island near Marchantaria.
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – At least 10 of these striking seedeaters were in the cane grass on one of the young river islands near Marchantaria on our final day of birding.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris)
WING-BARRED SEEDEATER (Sporophila americana)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) – One flock popped up from the roadside near Borba. [I]

LONG-NOSED BAT (Rhynchonycteris naso)
GREATER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio leporinus)
GOLDEN-WHITE TASSEL-EAR MARMOSET (Mico chrysoleucos ) – This was the handsome, pale marmoset that we found in terra firme forest near Borba.
MAUES MARMOSET (Callithrix (Mico) mauesi) – We heard these range-restricted marmosets along the Rio Parauari south of Maués. [*]
BRAZILIAN BARE-FACE TAMARIN (Saguinus bicolor) – These odd primates were in the forest edge adjacent to the Tropical Hotel in Manaus.
HOFFMANN'S TITI MONKEY (Callicebus hoffmannsi) – We heard these near the "Harlequin Trail" on the Rio Parauari.
RED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta seniculus) – These were the howlers we found along the north bank of the Amazon late in the trip.
BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya)
SAKI MONKEY (Pithecia sp.) – We had some brief views of sakis along the "Harlequin Trail" on the Rio Parauari.
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
HUMAN BEING (Homo sapiens) – Part of the great charm of these remote trips in Amazonia is that this particular mammal is quite scarce! We spent a lot of our time in isolated forests with relatively low human impacts.
SOUTHERN TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus didactylus) – Also called Linnaeus's Two-toed Sloth. We saw this one at the Tropical Hotel in Manaus.

For your enjoyment, here are a few “outtake" moments we shared on the tour. Video by leader Bret Whitney.
PALE-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus tridactylus) – These were the three-toed sloths we found on the north bank of the Amazon and at the Tropical Hotel in Manaus.
SOUTHERN AMAZON RED SQUIRREL (Sciurus spadiceus) – It was fascinating to see this big squirrel getting nesting material from the forest canopy and returning to its nest.
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti)
GIANT ARMORED TREE-RAT (Makalata grandis) – Also called "Giant Tree Rat" - we found several of these terrier-sized rats with the thermal scope during evening canoe trips near the end of the trip.
AMAZON RIVER DOLPHIN (Inia geoffrensis) – Also called "boto" - these were the pink river dolphins that we saw many times along the rivers.
TUCUXI (Sotalia fluviatilis) – These were the gray dolphins that we found frequently along the rivers. They are more closely related to oceanic dolphins than to the boto.


Totals for the tour: 435 bird taxa and 20 mammal taxa