Field Guides
Home Tours Guides News About Us FAQ Contact Us
Field Guides Tour Report
Mountains of Manu, Peru I 2013
Jul 13, 2013 to Jul 28, 2013
Rose Ann Rowlett & Pepe Rojas

Fabulous scope studies of the little-known Andean Potoo, here foraging by night atop a stump along the road, was one of the great highlights of our tour. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

It seems our timing was not the best this year, as our birding efforts encountered a number of uncommon challenges--from a long dry spell in the highlands (where continuing efforts to pave the Kosnipata "Highway" resulted in dust, noise, detours, delays, and numerous landslides that have impacted roadside habitat) to a cold friaje in the lowlands/foothills (which brought rain, cold, and cloudy conditions for a couple of precious days). Birds were quieter than usual, with fewer species responding to playback than is normal on this route.

That said, we still saw a long list of fabulous birds and enjoyed some marvelous aesthetic and behavioral highlights during a short transect of one of the world's biologically richest regions. We sampled arid intermontane valleys near Cusco, the high puna zone to the easternmost pass at Acjanaco (3500m/11,500'), and then descended from treeline down the forested east slope to rainforest at the eastern base of the Andes at Amazonia Lodge (500m/1600').

Among our most memorable sightings were the following, in roughly taxonomic order:

--two different pairs of Black-faced Ibis in the high puna zone, the second with a fledgling that was constantly and insistently begging from one of its parents;

--a very responsive Blackish Rail that, after issuing its unbelievable duetting with its mate, emerged from the cattails and stood in view for a long time--an absolute show-off!

--a field full of 22 Tawny-throated Dotterels, elegant austral migrant shorebirds that were wintering in the plowed puna fields between Cusco and Acjanaco;

--limbs above the cocha literally weighted down with prehistoric-looking Hoatzins, lined up shoulder to shoulder, their shaggy crests splayed in various directions;

--a Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo (for one group) that materialized near a small group of army ants in the hill forest above Amazonia Lodge, standing still, its breast band showing, until it seemed to have vaporized--before we heard its rapid, excited bill-snapping across the trail!

--that big Band-bellied Owl that called, flew in, and sat for fabulous views near Cock-of-the-rock Lodge (CORL);

--great studies of three species of potoos: a day roosting Great on the Atalaya Ridge; a Common that flew in and uttered its evocative call by night; and comparisons of the rare Andean Potoo by night and by day at close range!

--37 species of tropical hummingbirds, many of them dazzling, from a rare Buff-tailed Sicklebill (for one group) and the scarce Gould's Jewelfront to the common but brilliant Golden-tailed Sapphires at the Amazonia vervain; from tiny Booted Rackettails, Rufous-crested Coquettes, Blue-tailed Emeralds, and Amethyst Woodstars to that 6" Giant Hummingbird, heaviest of all hummers, feeding at green-flowered Puyas;

--males of both Golden-headed and Crested quetzals at the same place, at the same time, one of them doing display flights!

--superb views of both Black-streaked Puffbird and Lanceolated Monklet for all and Striolated Puffbird for one group, all dramatic species that are easily overlooked;

--multiple views of striking Versicolored Barbets with mixed flocks at mid-montane levels;

--a marvelous pair of Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucans (handsomest of the mountain-toucans) that were calling and bill-clapping in the upper montane forest, rivaled only by a pair of big White-throated Toucans, one of which sat for leisurely scope views in the foothill forest of Atalaya Ridge;

--small flocks of Military and Scarlet macaws flying past against the forested foothills, in glorious morning sunlight;

--a male Slaty Gnateater that showed well for all in the dense understory, singing and calling spontaneously;

--that fabulous Amazonian Antpitta that sat in full view as we watched through our binocs and the scope!

--those cooperative Creamy-crested Spinetails, including the one at the pass at Acjanaco, at 3500m (11,500');

--among the flycatchers, the Ringed Antpipit, walking pipit-like on the forest floor, and the very confiding Cinnamon Flycatcher, which we saw repeatedly in open, road-edge situations at very close range;

--four male Andean Cocks-of-the-rock displaying right below us at their lek in the dawning light, complete with their moaning, fluttering, and bill-snapping sound effects;

--three colorful manakin males: Yungas for everyone, Band-tailed for one group, and Round-tailed for the other group;

--the multiple big mixed flocks, especially those with everything from antshrikes and antwrens, woodcreepers and foliage-gleaners, to dashing hordes of breathtakingly beautiful so-called "tanagers," from Paradise, Golden, and Orange-eared, to Yellow-throated, Golden-collared, Scarlet-bellied Mountain-, and White-winged Shrike-Tanagers. A behavioral highlight was watching a pair of what were probably Buckley's Forest-Falcons disperse a distant but very large tanager flock they targeted. And it's hard not to mention those amazingly flashy Masked Crimson Tanagers that are now regulars at the Hacienda Amazonia feeders.

Be sure to check out the annotations of raptors and hummingbirds carefully; there are a couple of nice surprises embedded there.

Beyond the birds, we had good studies of five species of primates (including Three-striped Night Monkeys and big troops of Common Woolly Monkeys) and an impressive herd of tooth-snapping White-lipped Peccaries.

The purpose of the annotations below is to help you fix many of our sightings in your memory; we know how hard it is to retain each of the many species that seem to come all at once, each with a four-word name. This was especially true for those in our group who were on their first birding trip to Peru. Browsing through the following will no doubt raise memories of many additional favorites, from a trip into an extensive and very rich wilderness. It was great fun sharing them all with you.

We thank our skillful and reliable drivers, Rene and Alejandro, and the staffs of our lodges, especially at Cock-of-the-rock Lodge and Amazonia Lodge, for taking such good care of us. Special thanks to Dominic Sherony and George Sims for the many photos that richly illustrate our triplist online ( And thanks to you all for coming!

--Rose Ann (& Pepe)

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)

Much of our time was spent birding the forest-cloaked mountains and valleys on the humid east slope of the Andes. It's a land of running water, all of it rushing eastward toward the Amazon. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

HOODED TINAMOU (Nothocercus nigrocapillus) – Eight species of tinamous were heard, from this species near Rocotal to the rare Black Tinamou, heard well in the 1000m zone; but they were all formless voices from the forest on this trip. [*]
BLACK TINAMOU (Tinamus osgoodi) [*]
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) [*]
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) [*]
BLACK-CAPPED TINAMOU (Crypturellus atrocapillus) [*]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)

On our way to the humid east slope, we crossed arid highlands and stopped to explore the funery monuments of the little-known Lupaca people at Ninamarka, a pre-Inca site at 11,500 feet. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

PUNA TEAL (Anas puna) – A handsome teal of the highlands, seen well at Huacarpay.
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (OXYPTERA) (Anas flavirostris oxyptera) – As split from Andean Teal, formerly lumped as Speckled Teal.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
SPECKLED CHACHALACA (Ortalis guttata) – A noisy regular in the clearing at Amazonia Lodge.
ANDEAN GUAN (Penelope montagnii) – The common guan of the highlands.
SPIX'S GUAN (Penelope jacquacu) – Conspicuous only at dawn at Hacienda Amazonia, where they were calling and displaying in the semi-light.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – Seen by some at the Amazonia clearing--and heard giving its loud, rattle-display pre-dawn.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
RUFOUS-BREASTED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus speciosus) – Two birds that scuttled across the road and disappeared downslope were glimpsed by some...before they responded to playback by giving their loud duet from down the steep slope.
STRIPE-FACED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus balliviani) – On our Rocotal evening. [*]
STARRED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus stellatus) – Duetting at dusk from the forest at Amazonia Lodge. [*]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)

Adult Fasciated Tiger-Heron on the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, where it regularly hunts in the rushing shoals. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

WHITE-TUFTED GREBE (Rollandia rolland) – Huacarpay.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – Regular in small numbers in the lowlands.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – An adult was seen nicely by Nico and then one group at the cocha.
FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – We all had great scope views of this rapids loving species along the Alto Madre de Dios.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – Several adults were on a sandbar with a group of Snowy Egrets below Atalaya.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
PUNA IBIS (Plegadis ridgwayi) – Of particular interest was the individual on the sandbar at Atalaya, where it's a rarity. The rest of the birds we saw were in the highlands.
BLACK-FACED IBIS (BRANICKII) (Theristicus melanopis branickii) – A nice highlight was watching a pair with a begging young in the puna on our long detour on our return to Cusco. We had seen another nice pair on our first transit of the high Andes near Huancarani. [N]
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)

Black-faced Ibis in the arid puna northeast of Cusco and Huacarpay. (Photo by participant George Sims)

BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Including one at the pass at 11,000'.
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – We had several nice looks in good light.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – Atalaya Ridge.
BLACK-AND-CHESTNUT EAGLE (Spizaetus isidori) – We had 3 different encounters with this montane raptor, both above and below CORL.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – Some good flight views, and then it was fun to see this species accompanying the mixed monkey groups at Amazonia Lodge, where it forages on prey disturbed as the monkeys bound through the forest.
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – About the commonest raptor in the lower foothills.
CINEREOUS HARRIER (Circus cinereus) – Handsome males at Huacarpay and in the puna on our transit of the high Andes.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
VARIABLE HAWK (Geranoaetus polyosoma) – Of the "Puna" sort, with heavy wing loading, in the high Andes, from Huacarpay to the crest at Acjanaco.
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – In the arid Andes along the Kosnipata "Highway."
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis) – A beautiful bird circled past the Amazonia canopy tower for one group.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – One bird down the road from CORL (ca. 500m or 1600') was soaring high overhead.
WHITE-THROATED HAWK (Buteo albigula) – Surprise! I've added this species to the list based on 5 photos taken by Dominic, of the bird we all saw very high above the Wayqecha trail. At the time, we debated whether it could have been a bird of this species or a Variable (Puna) Hawk. But we didn't see it well or for very long. Taken together, the photos show a smallish Buteo (based on shape) with a dark hood, dark trailing edge of the underwing contrasting with pale underwing coverts, prominent rufous patches on the sides of the upper breast under a white throat, and no prominent dark terminal tail band. It's not long-winged enough for a Swainson's (which is known as a passage migrant through ne Amazonian Peru but shouldn't be anywhere near Peru in late July anyway, having just begun to reach Colombia in August); it has too much rufous on the sides of the upper breast (and perhaps a bit too long a tail) for Short-tailed (which is known in Peru only to an altitude of 1100m though it has been recorded as high as 2500m in Colombia; we were above Wayqecha, which is 3000m, hence quite unlikely). The lack of a dark tail band, in combination with shape and the extent of rufous on the upper breast, eliminate any plumage of Puna Hawk we're aware of, and that would be the only other likely candidate for a Buteo above 3000m. Shape, plumage, and elevation are all consistent with those of White-throated, which occurs in low density on the E slope in Peru from 1500 to 3700m. Sometimes, a series of photos, even if poor by the photographer's standards, can be invaluable for identifying a bird poorly and/or briefly seen! Thanks, Dominic!
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)

Gray-necked Wood-Rail at Amazonia Lodge, where at least three birds were emerging from the forest for rice! (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) [*]
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – What a treat to see a family of 3 coming regularly to the rice feeder at Amazonia Lodge!
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – Heard once at close range, but resistant to playback alas. [*]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – This was the opposite of the last, being a virtual show-off in response to playback along the Atalaya Ridge! Zoe, who was sitting low, got us all onto this one.
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – Nicely at Huacarpay, where they came running toward us through the reeds.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – This colorful beauty was seen nicely by one group at the cocha.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Common at Huacarpay.
SLATE-COLORED COOT (Fulica ardesiaca) – Huacarpay.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
ANDEAN LAPWING (Vanellus resplendens) – Common throughout the open highlands, especially in cultivated fields.
TAWNY-THROATED DOTTEREL (Oreopholus ruficollis ruficollis) – We counted 22 of these handsome shorebirds in a cultivated field ca. 11,300' in the arid Andes en route to Manu National Park. It was a big flock of austral winterers (of the migratory nominate race) that are rarely seen along our route. One of Nico's favorites. [a]
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)

Three of a flock of more than 20 Tawny-throated Dotterels in arid fields at 11,300 feet. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca) – One migrant along the Alto Madre de Dios at Atalaya. [b]
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
ANDEAN GULL (Chroicocephalus serranus) – A beautiful gull!
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex) – Great views from the boat along the Madre de Dios.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Scoped near Patria and Chontachaca, where they were calling.
SPOT-WINGED PIGEON (Patagioenas maculosa) – Jan spotted our first of a handful in the eucalyptus zone as we climbed into the arid Andes from Cusco.

Shaggy and social, the strange Hoatzins were among our favorite species; they are resident inhabitants of the Amazonia cocha. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

BAND-TAILED PIGEON (Patagioenas fasciata)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) – Fairly common and calling now.
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – "Kick-the-goal-post."
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – A fly-by that crossed the road ahead of our bus on our return to Cusco.
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – Lovely views of a bird walking on the ground near the feeders at Amazonia Lodge.
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – One of the highlight species of this trip! Not only does it look prehistoric ("Opisthocomus" is from the Greek, meaning "wearing long hair behind"), but it eats (and digests, in a large foregut through a process akin to that of a ruminant!) leaves, nests above water at the edge of the cochas, where its young hatch with 2 functional claws on each wing--an adaptation that allows them to jump into the water to escape predators, swim to safety, and climb back out. The claws are usually shed at 70-100 days of age. For several years the young function as helpers at the nest to their parents, young males staying for some years after the young females disperse. A monotypic species of uncertain affinities, the Hoatzin has been the subject of more controversy as to its systematic position than any other species. What a weirdly wonderful bird! Little wonder that it was probably our foremost favorite on the trip.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
RUFOUS-VENTED GROUND-CUCKOO (Neomorphus geoffroyi) – Another highlight for the lucky group that got to see this rarity TWICE! The first sighting was along a trail near the Amazonia canopy tower while we were trying to see some army ant followers. A slight motion some 30' away proved to be the head and breast of a Neomorphus, standing quietly nearby, its crest and breast band showing. After all had seen it, we tried a bit of song playback and heard excited bill-clapping after it moved across the trail invisibly. Another series of bill claps (listen to the recording by guide Rose Ann Rowlett) and a further glimpse of movement through the dense understory. Very exciting! The following day, the afternoon after the friaje rains, we heard that same bill snapping along the Jeep Track, near where we had found a small string of army ants. A bit of playback, and two ground-cuckoos raced across the track, fast as a Greater Roadrunner chasing a lizard! It was amazing luck with a rarely seen species of low-density occurrence throughout its range...and Harriet's number one highlight (after years of birding in S. and Central America). Yip! Yip!

This big Band-bellied Owl is checking us out near CORL. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – A few, seen mostly in second-growth.
Strigidae (Owls)
RUFESCENT SCREECH-OWL (Megascops ingens) – We worked on three different individuals, each calling at dusk for a short while, but the best we had was a glimpse of the first flying overhead and disappearing; essentially heard only. [*]
TAWNY-BELLIED SCREECH-OWL (AUSTRAL) (Megascops watsonii usta) – We did have a look at this one, at Amazonia Lodge, if but from behind, when it flew in and landed facing away. Its mellow toots were heard throughout the full-moon period of our visit, often starting well before dark (and even a bit during the friaje).
BAND-BELLIED OWL (Pulsatrix melanota) – The owl highlight of our trip--and perhaps Pepe's favorite--was watching this species at close range at CORL after having heard it the two prior nights and then having giving up after a serious effort on our third night at dusk. But Pepe heard it again on his way to the dinner. We regrouped, tried again in the same spot, and this time it flew over and then came into the tree we had predicted, giving us great views of a big, beautiful owl with a fast series of muffled hoots--which we would hear again at dawn.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) [*]
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – Another nice find was a pair of this species, at what seems to have been their home in a hollow log on a sand-and-rock island in the Rio Madre de Dios. They've colonized these river islands in recent years. The race juninensis, which occurs from central Peru to Bolivia and nw Argentina, is the geographically closest, but it's normally found in the Andes; it would be interesting to learn what race is actually represented here.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
RUFOUS-BELLIED NIGHTHAWK (Lurocalis rufiventris) – CORL. [*]
SAND-COLORED NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles rupestris) – We saw a small flock of these crisp-plumaged, crepuscular nighthawks flying in the dawn light and landing on the sandbar at Atalaya, where we scoped one from the landing. Nice!
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Its loud, clear song from the clearing outside our windows at Amazonia Lodge persisted all night long until the cold, wet friaje silenced it. We spotlighted distant birds at the edge of the clearing.

Our surprise Ladder-tailed Nightjar at the edge of the river.(Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

LADDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis climacocerca) – What luck! A passerine landing in a clump of driftwood wedged in the sand of a river island off Hacienda Amazonia flushed a roosting Ladder-tailed Nightjar, which landed on an open branch, inviting scope views. It's a species we don't typically see on this tour.
LYRE-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Uropsalis lyra) – A long-tailed male on a known territory did indeed show up shortly after dusk, singing and landing on a branch that we could spotlight and scope from the road. It was a bit distant, but we all managed a look at it and enjoyed its exciting song--the best of any nightjar's!
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – We had marvelous views of a roosting Great Potoo on the Atalaya Ridge, where Jan later rediscovered it from a different angle. Incredibly cryptic plumage! Its explosive growl was a common nocturnal sound during our bright-moon nights at Amazonia Lodge.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – This handsome potoo flew in, landed, and uttered its haunting, descending calls as we watched through the scopes. Another real treat at Amazonia Lodge.
ANDEAN POTOO (Nyctibius maculosus) – We did well on potoos, and this montane species was the rarest among them. It took finding three different individuals by night before we found a close, cooperative one that filled our scope fields and showed its fabulous facial bristles as it sat on a hunting perch. Then, with luck, we found what was probably the same bird again by daylight, seeing it on its less exposed day roost, where its posture was quite different. These great observations of such a rarity were the foremost tour highlight for Pepe and RAR.
Apodidae (Swifts)

This dayroosting Great Potoo is a wonderful example of adaptive camouflage. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne rutila) – George pointed out these medium-sized swifts over the montane forest, where they were flying low enough to catch the color of their collars against the forested slopes, at least now and then.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Including some very impressive whirling, noisy flocks of hundreds of birds!
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – This beauty was a regular at the Hacienda Amazonia feeders.
BUFF-TAILED SICKLEBILL (Eutoxeres condamini) – This rare and bizarre hummer was seen by one group with Pepe out the Jeep Track at Amazonia Lodge. A real highlight for Dominic.
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – Seen (and photographed!) by some at the Amazonia Lodge feeders.
PALE-TAILED BARBTHROAT (Threnetes leucurus leucurus) – One bird appeared and foraged for a short while at the edge of the Bamboo Trail at Hacienda Amazonia.
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – Feeding fairly regularly at CORL feeders and seen dashing past elsewhere on the lower slopes.

Amethyst-throated Sunangel along the Wayqecha trail. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

KOEPCKE'S HERMIT (Phaethornis koepckeae) – Seen a few times at Hacienda Amazonia, where it appeared briefly at orange flowers of the yellow-leafed shrubs in the clearing. [E]
GREAT-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis malaris) – First encountered on the Atalaya Ridge, where mostly heard; then seen at the Hacienda Amazonia feeders by a few folks during a break and by a few folks with Pepe out the trails.
WHITE-BROWED HERMIT (Phaethornis stuarti) – This one was seen to varying degrees of satisfaction when it would appear quickly at close range, usually while we were inside the forest. George kept seeing them well and even photographed one; his report of one near CORL was at the upper end of their elevation range.
GREEN-FRONTED LANCEBILL (Doryfera ludovicae) – We all had fabulous scope views of a bird at home near the bridge at CORL.
BLUE-FRONTED LANCEBILL (Doryfera johannae) – This smaller, foothills species was feeding in the sapote flowers visible from the Amazonia canopy tower.
WEDGE-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD (Schistes geoffroyi) – Most of us saw this small hummer dashing through the bamboo while we were working on Slaty Gnateater. But George got a photo of it while he was photographing a flower amid the bamboo--and the photo confirmed its ID!

Male Rufous-crested Coquette at the Amazonia vervain. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

GREEN VIOLETEAR (Colibri thalassinus) [*]
SPARKLING VIOLETEAR (Colibri coruscans) – Seen best feeding at the green flowers of blooming Puya membranacea near the pass at Acjanaco (along with the Giant Hummer), but also at the sapote flowers by the canopy tower at Amazonia Lodge; and heard in between.
AMETHYST-THROATED SUNANGEL (Heliangelus amethysticollis) – Beautifully along the trail at Wayqecha.
RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – Another highlight hummer of this tour; males were foraging in the vervain at Amazonia Lodge, and a female was up in the sapote tree at the tower.
SPECKLED HUMMINGBIRD (Adelomyia melanogenys) – The one that's reminiscent of a hermit; it was common and well seen, especially at the vervain at CORL.
LONG-TAILED SYLPH (Aglaiocercus kingi) – Some lovely males at Rocotal.
GREEN-TAILED TRAINBEARER (Lesbia nuna) – A long-tailed male was seen in the arid intermontane valley out of Cusco.
RUFOUS-CAPPED THORNBILL (Chalcostigma ruficeps) – Another surprise! Dominic has a photo of a male teed up on July 25, the day we birded the tunnels on our way to Wayqecha. It was taken shortly before we saw the Golden-collared Tanagers at the tunnels and was backlit and dismissed as a Tyrian Metaltail at the time, the two species having similar shapes. But the photo clearly shows the rufous cap! Sorry!

Spiffy & scarce, this Gould's Jewelfront has become a regular at Amazonia Lodge. (Photo by participant George Sims)

TYRIAN METALTAIL (Metallura tyrianthina smaragdinicollis) – We saw more females than males, all up in the higher forested zones.
BUFF-THIGHED PUFFLEG (Haplophaedia assimilis) – As split fairly recently from Greenish Puffleg; seen at close range (naked eye for most!) up the road from CORL.
WHITE-TUFTED SUNBEAM (Aglaeactis castelnaudii) – Having studied more about the sunbeams, I think the intermediate-looking bird we saw in the high, dry woodland/farmland near Huancarani, a 3850 m (12,630') should be considered a White-tufted. Its dark pectoral band with the two tiny but very white feathers is theoretically conclusive, even though the Huancarani birds don't show nearly the amount of white that birds of Abra Malaga show. White-tufted is also known from higher elevations and drier habitats, which fit for the bird we saw as well. It begs the question about the sunbeams at Wayqecha, which is lower and more humid generally. There, they are always considered Shining Sunbeams. Since we didn't get a good look at a sunbeam there during our visit, we'll let that one go and call this one a White-tufted (if not a hybrid!). [E]
VIOLET-THROATED STARFRONTLET (Coeligena violifer) – We had one chance at this one--when Pepe pointed one out foraging in a high vine near the tunnels. The first folks out of the bus got a look at it before it flew off.
CHESTNUT-BREASTED CORONET (Boissonneaua matthewsii) – Seen nicely by all at Rocotal.

Giant Hummingbird atop Puya near treeline and the entrance to Manu National Park. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

BOOTED RACKET-TAIL (Ocreatus underwoodii annae) – A real cutie! Best looks were at males at CORL feeders.
GOULD'S JEWELFRONT (Heliodoxa aurescens) – Great views of a bird coming periodically to the Amazonia Lodge feeders.
VIOLET-FRONTED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa leadbeateri) – The commonest hummer at CORL feeders.
GIANT HUMMINGBIRD (Patagona gigas) – What a treat! We watched one feeding at the green flowers of blooming Puyas and then perching at very close range near the pass at the entrance to Manu National Park. The beautiful Puya seems to have been Puya membranacea.
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris) – A male was coming to the Amazonia Lodge feeders, affording us some grand views.
WHITE-BELLIED WOODSTAR (Chaetocercus mulsant) – Two tiny males, each perched atop a tall tree; but we had good scope views of each one.
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – A lovely male was seen very well at the vervain hedgerows at Hacienda Amazonia. Good spotting, Harriet!
BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus) – Tiny and glowing ALL OVER! There were several at the Amazonia vervain that continually delighted us.
VIOLET-HEADED HUMMINGBIRD (Klais guimeti) – A female or two at the same vervain; remember the huge white spot behind the eye?
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis) – Proprietary about (at least) one of the feeders at Amazonia Lodge.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata) – Another real beauty! Besides being a regular at Hacienda Amazonia, a male was seen by Dominic at least at the CORL feeders, which is near the upper elevational limit of its range.
MANY-SPOTTED HUMMINGBIRD (Taphrospilus hypostictus) – At the CORL feeders, we noted that its forehead was not nearly as extended as that of the more common Violet-fronted Brilliants, it lacked their pale malar streaks, and its spots were on a whiter background than those of the female brilliants. It also gave a distinctive vocalization.

A male Sapphire-spangled Emerald at Amazonia Lodge. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – This one has successfully increased in the Amazonia Lodge area over the last 10 years; it was one of the commonest hummers there this trip.
GOLDEN-TAILED SAPPHIRE (Chrysuronia oenone) – Another stunner, this may have been the most glowing of all at Hacienda Amazonia. It was one of our favorites.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GOLDEN-HEADED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus auriceps) – Another highlight for several folks was seeing the stunning male of this species so well--ultimately, at Rocotal, where it had slipped away on an earlier visit.
CRESTED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus antisianus) – We had great views of a male of this species at the same site as the Golden-headed. It was even doing its flight display. Plus, we had first seen a male in a fruiting tree right behind our cabanas at CORL.
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – The four other trogons were also seen well, this one at Amazonia Lodge.
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – This one wonderfully on Atalaya Ridge and again at Amazonia Lodge.
COLLARED TROGON (Trogon collaris) – This one by Pepe's group en route to/from the canopy tower.

Male Masked Trogon near CORL. (Photo by participant George Sims)

MASKED TROGON (Trogon personatus) – And this one by all up the road from CORL.
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) – A nice family group along the trail at Amazonia Lodge; as one of 6 species split from the Blue-crowned Motmot group, this one is the one inhabiting lowland/foothill rainforest from Venezuela and the Guianas S throughout the Amazon Basin. It's generally richer rufous below than the other splits.
ANDEAN MOTMOT (Momotus aequatorialis) – Another split of the greater Blue-crowned Motmot group, this one had been called Highland Motmot by many. We had repeated good looks at them, early and late along the Kosnipata "Highway," where they often sat right beside (or in!) the road.
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) [*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – Zoe found one perched along the Madre de Dios, visible from shore at Hacienda Amazonia. We had another along the river on our boat trip out.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – One fly-by right at Atalaya.

This tiny Lanceolated Monklet responded to playback along the Kosnipata "Highway." (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) – One group with RAR had a lovely view of this scarcer kingfisher after Nico had found one at the Amazonia cocha.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
STRIOLATED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus striolatus) – One of the highlights of our morning in the Amazonia canopy tower was getting good looks at this canopy species (after considerable effort to get a pair to come in from afar). Good spotting, Nico!
BLACK-STREAKED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila fulvogularis) – Another highlight species of this tour! We had great views of a bird that responded to playback near CORL and then saw another perched alongside the road above CORL. This is one of the best tours on which to see this low-density beauty that is easily overlooked. We watched it puffing.
LANCEOLATED MONKLET (Micromonacha lanceolata) – Likewise for this tiny puffbird. We had great scope views of one we called in down the road from CORL.
RUFOUS-CAPPED NUNLET (Nonnula ruficapilla) [*]
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – Seen well several times at Hacienda Amazonia, but not as conspicuous as usual.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – In the floodplain forest at Amazonia Lodge and from the Atalaya Mirador.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)

This male Versicolored Barbet was moving with a mixed-species flock near CORL. (Photovby participant Dominic Sherony)

BLUISH-FRONTED JACAMAR (Galbula cyanescens) – Another beauty, especially of the bamboo zone.
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
GILDED BARBET (Capito auratus) [*]
LEMON-THROATED BARBET (Eubucco richardsoni) – Jan got us on a lovely male in the viny tangles of the canopy above the Bamboo Trail at Amazonia Lodge.
VERSICOLORED BARBET (Eubucco versicolor) – We all had repeated good looks at males (and at least one female) of this striking barbet in the CORL area and up and down the road from there. Can you pick out in the book which subspecies we saw? Yes, it was the nominate race, but (like remembering the patterns of the many colorful Tangara tanagers) it's harder than one would think!
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
EMERALD TOUCANET (BLACK-THROATED) (Aulacorhynchus prasinus atrogularis) – This black-throated race of Emerald Toucanet, previously split by some, was seen well in the canopy above the Bamboo Trail when Harriet found one on our first morning of birding the Amazonia Lodge trails.
CHESTNUT-TIPPED TOUCANET (Aulacorhynchus derbianus) – It called back but wouldn't budge. [*]
BLUE-BANDED TOUCANET (Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis) – We had nice looks at these southerners, especially near Rocotal.

It's hard to beat the Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan for sheer tasteful beauty! (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

GRAY-BREASTED MOUNTAIN-TOUCAN (Andigena hypoglauca) – What a performance by the most colorful of the mountain-toucans! It was a responsive pair near the tunnels, and they eventually came quite close. Good spotting, Ann-Charlott!
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – The common aracari of the trip.
GOLDEN-COLLARED TOUCANET (Selenidera reinwardtii) – RAR's morning group to the Amazonia canopy tower had nice views of this species--especially as we were descending.
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri) – But perhaps our favorite toucan encounter was with this striking beauty--distinctively different from the "Fruit Loops" sort! After yelping for a while, it sat for scope views along the Atalaya Ridge road. This race was formerly considered a separate species and called Cuvier's Toucan.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)

White-throated Toucan on Atalaya Ridge. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

FINE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus subtilis) – With a busy flock along the Jeep Track, this one got away from most of us after it was singing and had responded to playback; Joan was the only one to see it well when the rest of us got diverted by other birds in the flock. Nico had a different bird later, but it could have been either species. [E]
GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER (Colaptes rubiginosus) – We saw a nice one down the road from CORL.
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – A nice treat near Patria, where it called and sat for scope views.
ANDEAN FLICKER (Colaptes rupicola) – Our final new bird of the trip, it sat atop an adobe wall when we stopped for a close Mountain Caracara on our return to Cusco.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – A pair in 2nd growth near Patria.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – Heard on 4 different days in the lowlands and seen well by Pepe's group along the Jeep Track.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BUCKLEY'S FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur buckleyi) – ??? Chances are the two forest-falcons chasing Paradise Tanagers near Chontachaca were of this species (and not the larger Collared Forest-Falcon, which is also dark above and white below), but they were too distant for good looks. It was still an impressive sight to see such a big flock of tanagers flee into the forest when these two gave chase.
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater) – A yellow-faced young one along the Madre de Dios, and later two adults perched near the Patria airstrip.
RED-THROATED CARACARA (Ibycter americanus) – Their screams were so loud we weren't sure we wanted to see them! [*]
MOUNTAIN CARACARA (Phalcoboenus megalopterus) – Our best view was of an adult on the ground beside the road, near Huancarani, on our return trip to Cusco.

Military Macaws overhead from the canopy tower. (Photo by participant George Sims)

LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – This big-headed raptor that specializes on eating snakes was seen well from our boat along the Madre de Dios.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – Of a S. American breeding race, cinnamonimus.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – Scoped from the bridge at Pilcopata.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – Fly-by's with long tails and a distinctive voice.
DUSKY-HEADED PARAKEET (Aratinga weddellii) – Fly-by's with shorter tails and a distinctive voice.
CHESTNUT-FRONTED MACAW (Ara severus) – We had repeated nice views of this species, both perched and in flight.
MILITARY MACAW (Ara militaris) – A real highlight for RAR's tower group at Amazonia Lodge was watching a flock of 6 of these big beauties fly by and then come again--the second time in fabulous light. (A group of 4 had flown by the day before.)
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus) [*]
SCARLET MACAW (Ara macao) – RAR's tower group got to enjoy great sunlight on a family of three of these beauties. (We all saw four go over the day before.)

A family of Scarlet Macaws flying past the Hacienda Amazonia canopy tower. (Photo by participant George Sims)

BLUE-HEADED MACAW (Primolius couloni) – Conspicuous by call this trip, these small macaws were seen in flight on various occasions and seen perched across the cocha once, unfortunately in poor light.
BARRED PARAKEET (Bolborhynchus lineola) – These were heard flying around near Rocotal, in an area where some clones of Chusquea bamboo had seeded and died off. [*]
COBALT-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris cyanoptera) – Small fly-over's with a distinctive voice. [*]
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – Nicely in the clearing at Hacienda Amazonia, where they nest.
SPECKLE-FACED PARROT (PLUM-CROWNED) (Pionus tumultuosus tumultuosus) – Among our best parrot encounters was our view of a pair of this plum-crowned species that was teed up at Rocotal when the fog lifted enough for good scope views. This plum-crowned race was formerly considered a distinct species.
SCALY-NAPED PARROT (Amazona mercenarius) – This big Amazon parrot with the shallow wingbeats, which we saw repeatedly near Rocotal, occurs to higher elevation than any other member of its genus.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
BAMBOO ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae) – This skulking specialty of limited distribution was seen well by all high in the bamboo along the Bamboo Trail at Amazonia Lodge.
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) [*]

Where lowland rainforest of the Amazon basin meets foothill forest along the eastern base of the Andes; from the Atalaya Mirador. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – Seen several times in bamboo, from CORL down, and at Chontachaca.
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus) – Along the Bamboo Trail.
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – One of the apparent leaders of the big mixed flock ca. 1000m along the Kosnipata road; it responded quite well to playback and brought a number of species with it.
BLUISH-SLATE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes schistogynus) – Fairly common with flocks at Amazonia Lodge.
PLAIN-THROATED ANTWREN (Isleria hauxwelli) [*]
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura) – Amazonia Lodge.
AMAZONIAN STREAKED-ANTWREN (Myrmotherula multostriata) [*]
STRIPE-CHESTED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longicauda) – This cutie was seen well near CORL and at our long stop near Patria (where we saw the Red-billed Scythebill).
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii menetriesii) – One with a canopy flock for the morning group climbing to the Amazonia canopy tower.

The sparkling Golden-tailed Sapphire, here at the Amazonia Lodge vervain, was among our favorite hummers on the trip. (Photo by participant George Sims)

YELLOW-BREASTED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus axillaris) – Seen nicely with the big mixed flock at 1000m.
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis albicauda) – Males and striking rufous-breasted females were seen in bamboo along the Bamboo Trail and on the Atalaya Ridge, each time with mixed flocks.
YELLOW-RUMPED ANTWREN (Terenura sharpei) – It sang and flew across the road ahead of us when we were up the road from CORL. But I list it as heard only, as I don't think anyone else got a decent view of it. And we couldn't entice it back. [*]
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens) – Above Amazonia Lodge en route to the tower. [*]
BLACKISH ANTBIRD (FUSCICAUDA) (Cercomacra nigrescens fuscicauda) – Surprisingly cooperative and seen nicely in the varzea at Amazonia Lodge. Its song is distinctive from that of the following congener.
BLACK ANTBIRD (Cercomacra serva) – Both sexes were seen well by RAR's group in the terra firme forest on the way to the canopy tower.
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota) – This widespread antbird was heard as it moved back and forth in the dense understory along the Kosnipata road. [*]
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) – A responsive female was seen well along the Jeep Track by the whole group.
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus) – A male was seen well by RAR's group near the Amazonia canopy tower, just before (and after) the ground-cuckoo.
YELLOW-BREASTED WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis subflava collinsi) – Seen beautifully in the upper bamboo patch below CORL, where birds were fussing at what must have been an unseen (by us) predator. The fuss was attracting other birds as well, but we never discovered the source of concern.
BAND-TAILED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) – Seen well by Pepe's morning group on 22 July at a pool en route to the cocha.
SILVERED ANTBIRD (Sclateria naevia) – We all saw a male of this water-hugging species along the little varzea stream at Amazonia Lodge.
WHITE-LINED ANTBIRD (Percnostola lophotes) – A nice pair of this distinctive, crested antbird was seen well in the cane and varzea at Amazonia Lodge; then heard in the bamboo at various sites.

Early morning sunlight on the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, the upper "mother of God" river, near Atalaya. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

CHESTNUT-TAILED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza hemimelaena) – With a song like a wind-up toy, this one was seen in the lowlands at Amazonia Lodge.
BLACK-THROATED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza atrothorax) – We worked on a pair in the Atalaya Ridge roadside understory for a long time, with everyone eventually seeing one of the pair well. The excited male had its white interscapular patch exposed.
GOELDI'S ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza goeldii) – A male sat up high in the bamboo, singing its very strong titmouse-like song as we watched.
SOOTY ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza fortis) – Nice pairs were seen several times in the terra firme understory by RAR's group to the Amazonia tower.
SPOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevius) – Seen well by Pepe's group, and heard by RAR's, on the same morning as the last species.
BLACK-SPOTTED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) – These handsome army ant followers were seen well by most in the cane near the stream crossing along the entrance trail at Amazonia Lodge. They were calling a lot during our visit and glimpsed a few other times, at least once in association with a few army ants.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
SLATY GNATEATER (Conopophaga ardesiaca) – One of the great successes on this tour was seeing a male of this retiring skulker so well; in the understory down from CORL, where it was singing spontaneously.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
SCALED ANTPITTA (Grallaria guatimalensis regulus) – CORL area and downslope. [*]
WHITE-THROATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria albigula) – Rocotal area. [*]
RED-AND-WHITE ANTPITTA (Grallaria erythroleuca) – Singing very little, even in response to playback, during our visit. [E*]

We stared through the dense understory to see this surprisingly cooperative Amazonian Antpitta at Amazonia Lodge. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

RUFOUS ANTPITTA (Grallaria rufula occabambae) – Wayqecha trail. [*]
AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA (Hylopezus berlepschi) – Our only antpitta success story this trip was getting scope views of this fantastic species for everyone!; in the dense understory at Amazonia Lodge. What a long-legged, short-tailed ball of fluff!
THRUSH-LIKE ANTPITTA (Myrmothera campanisona) – Amazonia Lodge. [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
RUSTY-BELTED TAPACULO (Liosceles thoracicus) – Amazonia Lodge, but only at a great distance. [*]
WHITE-CROWNED TAPACULO (Scytalopus atratus) – We had super views of a very responsive bird--yet without a white crown--near a stream crossing along the Kosnipata road above CORL. After singing (and being glimpsed) across the stream from where we stood, it appeared after a short while but a few meters away from us and popped out to sing again!
PUNA TAPACULO (Scytalopus simonsi) – It responded to playback near the pass, but way down below us. [*]
DIADEMED TAPACULO (Scytalopus schulenbergi) – This high-elevation tapaculo was seen and heard well in the uppermost east-slope forest patches along the road to the pass, where it responded well to playback.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) – Not singing much during our visit, but Pepe's group worked hard on one that never came. [*]
RUFOUS-BREASTED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius rufipectus) – CORL. [*]
BARRED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza mollissima) – In the great distance near Rocotal. [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
SLENDER-BILLED MINER (Geositta tenuirostris) – At least 3 birds were seen beautifully in the high-elevation, cultivated field where we saw the dotterels.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus) [*]
LONG-TAILED WOODCREEPER (Deconychura longicauda) – This terra firme specialist was seen (and heard, giving its descending whistles) along the trail up to the Amazonia canopy tower by RAR's morning group, pre-friaje.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – Seen by Pepe's morning group down in the flats on the same morning.
CINNAMON-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Dendrexetastes rufigula) – Heard regularly in the Amazonia Lodge clearing and eventually seen by most.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) – Seen by Pepe's afternoon tower group after the friaje along the trail down from the tower.

What tells us this male Booted Rackettail was photographed on the east slope of the Andes? (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

OCELLATED WOODCREEPER (TSCHUDI'S) (Xiphorhynchus ocellatus brevirostris) – Seen with the big mixed flock around 1000m along the road down from CORL.
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (LAFRESNAYE'S) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatoides) – This was the one that was nesting in the Amazonia clearing, in a hole in a hollow palm trunk. [N]
OLIVE-BACKED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) – Seen repeatedly with flocks along the Kosnipata road.
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – It took some effort, but I think everyone eventually got a good view of the responsive bird in the bamboo near Patria.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – Seen by RAR's tower group.
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – Down from CORL.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – A pair was actively nest-building in the clearing at Amazonia Lodge. [N]
WREN-LIKE RUSHBIRD (Phleocryptes melanops) – In the Huacarpay reeds.
DUSKY-CHEEKED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops dorsalis) – A.k.a. Crested Foliage-gleaner, this bamboo specialty was seen a couple of times in the bamboo, once on the Amazonia Lodge Bamboo Trail (where it flew back and forth a few times), and then better (for most) in the big bamboo patch along the Atalaya Ridge (near the White-throated Toucans).
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum bolivianum) – Heard several times and seen once (by some) one afternoon along the Bamboo Trail.
MONTANE FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia striaticollis) – Common with the mixed flocks at mid- to lower-montane elevations. This one had the buffy spectacle.
PERUVIAN RECURVEBILL (Simoxenops ucayalae) – Along the Amazonia Bamboo Trail, where it didn't respond to playback. [*]
BUFF-THROATED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus ochrolaemus) – Seen by some on the trail to the tower at Amazonia Lodge and by some (briefly) in bamboo along the Atalaya Ridge.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus rufipileatus) – Heard on numerous occasions in the varzea and bamboo, but difficult to see well as it zoomed back and forth; some folks managed quick looks.
BLACK-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Thripadectes melanorhynchus) – Jan got on this one, and we all heard it calling at dawn from dense foliage at roadside at the top of the walkway at CORL.
SPOTTED BARBTAIL (Premnoplex brunnescens) – Seen well a couple of times, up and down from CORL.
PEARLED TREERUNNER (Margarornis squamiger) – This little beauty was with a flock right at the tunnels.
PUNA THISTLETAIL (Asthenes helleri) – Almost endemic to se Peru, this one gets just into Bolivia as well. We all saw it well at the road edge above Wayqecha, where one bird responded quite well. [E]
RUSTY-FRONTED CANASTERO (Asthenes ottonis) – It was too far downslope at the ruins of Ninamarka, but we could hear it well in response to playback. [E*]

Our first Creamy-crested Spinetails played hide-and-seek with us, a behavior typical of their genus. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

PLAIN SOFTTAIL (Thripophaga fusciceps) – Duetting birds were seen quite well by all on our first morning of birding the clearing edge at Amazonia Lodge.
MARCAPATA SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca marcapatae) – We photographed their nests and heard the likely owners, but they didn't want to play; near the tunnels. [E*]
CREAMY-CRESTED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca albicapilla) – We SAW this endemic skulker, which can be quite difficult, extremely well on two occasions, including a bird that surprised us right at the Acjanaco pass (11,300'), the highest we've seen it along this road. [E]
ASH-BROWED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca curtata) – With flocks in CORL area.
SPECKLED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca gutturata) – With an overhead afternoon flock along the Jeep Track at Amazonia Lodge; some folks got on it.
AZARA'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis azarae) – Seen very nicely near the tunnels, where responsive to Pepe's playback.
CABANIS'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cabanisi) – Seen surprisingly well in the bamboo down the road from CORL, where two birds were quite responsive.
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis) – They've become absolute extroverts around the clearing at Amazonia Lodge, foraging right out on the lawn!
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme) – What a nice comparison between this species and the similarly small-billed Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, both of which were seen together in the clearing at Hacienda Amazonia. This was the one with the white eyebrow and stippled wingbars.
WHITE-BANDED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus stictopterus) – With the higher-elevation forest flocks.
WHITE-THROATED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus leucophrys) – Seen with upper elevation flocks.
TUFTED TIT-TYRANT (Anairetes parulus) – A real cutie on the arid slopes outside of Cusco.
YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET (Tyrannulus elatus) – Nicely in the Hacienda Amazonia clearing.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – In the canopy above the Bamboo Trail.

Twice during our tour we had a rare view of the highest peak within the Manu National Park, here from the mirador at 5500 feet. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

WHITE-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia albiceps) – The birds we saw in the highlands, with less conspicuous white crests, were in the albiceps group, of the race urubambae (of subtropical se Peru in the department of Cusco).
WHITE-CRESTED ELAENIA (PERUVIAN) (Elaenia albiceps modesta) – The ones we scoped with the prominent white crests between "horns" (like a smaller Mottle-backed Elaenia), eating fruits in the Schefflera tree on Atalaya Ridge, belong to this group, which is sometimes considered a full species. Interestingly, it breeds in the arid tropical zone of w Peru and nw Chile and has recently been found to "winter" (Jun to Dec) on the east slope below 1400m. So different is it from other "White-crested Elaenias," and with its unusual migratory pattern, it's one to "put in the bank," as it may be given full-species status more broadly at some point. [a]
SIERRAN ELAENIA (Elaenia pallatangae) – Wayqecha area (the one with the yellowish underparts).
TORRENT TYRANNULET (Serpophaga cinerea) – Along the river at Paucartambo.
STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes striaticollis) – Fairly common in montane forest, where it was several times seen eating fruits. (Remember its white triangle behind the eye?)
OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes olivaceus) – The lower-elevation counterpart of the last species.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – Near Patria (at the Scythebill spot).
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – Seen well on Atalaya Ridge.
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (ALBIDIVENTRIS) (Leptopogon superciliaris albidiventer) – Routine with the mixed flocks at middle elevations.
MARBLE-FACED BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes ophthalmicus) – We had especially nice views of this species, as a pair was singing at close range, just up the road from CORL.
CINNAMON-FACED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes parkeri) – Seen down the road from CORL, where we called it in close in order to see its cinnamon face and forehead. This was the one first discovered along the Kosnipata "Highway" and named for Ted Parker. It has since been found in adjacent Bolivia as well.
BOLIVIAN TYRANNULET (Zimmerius bolivianus) – Seen well several times at high elevations.
RED-BILLED TYRANNULET (Zimmerius cinereicapilla) – Heard a couple of times on Atalaya Ridge, and some may have seen it, but not well. [*]
ORNATE FLYCATCHER (Myiotriccus ornatus) – A pretty pair were enjoyed along the stream below the "Olive Finch bridge" ca. 1000m. Remember its white "headlights"?
MANY-COLORED RUSH TYRANT (Tachuris rubrigastra) – Delightful combo of "siete colores" (7 colors) in the reeds at Huacarpay Lake.

After our surprisingly strong friaje, we were surprised to encounter dust! At the higher elevations it hadn't even rained, but Pepe was prepared for it. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

RINGED ANTPIPIT (Corythopis torquatus) – Nico's Number One highlight, this fabulous little flycatcher that walks on the floor of the rainforest fills an unusual niche. We all saw it well along the trail at Amazonia Lodge, when we called one in that circled around us and sat to sing, its orange mouth lining showing when it sang.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – Quite vocal during our visit, it was seen first near CORL.
JOHANNES'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus iohannis) – Restricted to e Peru and Bolivia, this little vine inhabitant performed well for us along the far part of the Atalaya Ridge, where it flew back and forth across the road until we each managed to see it on a good perch.
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – Near Rocotal. [*]
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris) – Seen by some in the bamboo near Patria (where we saw the Red-billed Scythebill). Also heard way out the Jeep Track at Amazonia Lodge, where it didn't respond.
YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) – Hacienda Amazonia. [*]
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – Hacienda Amazonia. [*]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – At Amazonia & Atalaya Ridge.
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – The very yellow-breasted Tolmomyias on Atalaya Ridge.
CINNAMON FLYCATCHER (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus) – This confiding little flycatcher was among Joan's favorites. It was indeed seen often and well, at one point showing its normally disclosed yellow crown patch.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – Seen well a couple of times on the lower east slope.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri) – Seen nicely in the bamboo down from CORL, where it was uttering its dawn song and was scoped nicely.
SMOKE-COLORED PEWEE (Contopus fumigatus) – Seen at a nest up the road from CORL. [N]
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans) – The most common streamside inhabitant along the streams and rivers along our route. Of the race angustirostris (of e Panama to s Peru) in the "White-winged" group. With the white on the wings, this group is a candidate for a split.
VERMILION FLYCATCHER (Pyrocephalus rubinus) – An austral migrant, of the nominate race; we saw it near the Patria airstrip. [a]
ANDEAN NEGRITO (Lessonia oreas) – We scoped a nice pair that was foraging on the lakeside plain at Huacarpay.
LITTLE GROUND-TYRANT (Muscisaxicola fluviatilis) – The smallest (and perhaps dullest) ground-tyrant; but it's distinguished by being the only one that occurs at low elevations, along the Amazonian rivers. We had scope views of birds on the Madre de Dios.
SPOT-BILLED GROUND-TYRANT (Muscisaxicola maculirostris) – The smallest of the high-elevation ground-tyrants, this one was scoped in the cultivated field shared by the Tawny-throated Dotterels.
RUFOUS-NAPED GROUND-TYRANT (Muscisaxicola rufivertex) – Seen nicely at Huacarpay and in the dotterel fields, where several were running around on the ground, tipping forward (which showed off their rufous hindcrowns). The birds we scoped were of the race occipitalis (with the rich rufous crown patch).
STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT (Myiotheretes striaticollis) – Scoped nicely along the trail at Wayqecha.

This Andean Cock-of-the-rock was foraging on berries beside the road. Is that an eye or a button?! (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

RUFOUS-BELLIED BUSH-TYRANT (Myiotheretes fuscorufus) – A nice find was a pair of this scarce species, the rarest of the bush-tyrants, along the Kosnipata road at mid-upper elevation.
RUFOUS-WEBBED BUSH-TYRANT (Polioxolmis rufipennis) – Formerly known as Rufous-webbed Tyrant, this puna inhabitant was a bit of a surprise on our normal route and thus a write-in. We saw them well, perched and in flight, at the high-elevation dotterel field.
SLATY-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT (MAROON-BELTED) (Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris thoracica) – A cooperative bird responded to playback by circling us along its forested stream up the road from CORL.
RUFOUS-BREASTED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) – These were common right around Wayqecha, giving their dawn songs and even landing right outside our breakfast window!
BROWN-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca fumicolor) – We had but fleeting views of this widespread species, right at the park entrance at Acjanaco.
WHITE-BROWED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca leucophrys) – Seen at our early stop along the arid highway out of Cusco.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – These charming flycatchers were seen repeatedly in the foothills, including entering a nest hole in a dead tree. [N]
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) – Calling from the bamboo at Chontachaca. [*]
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex) – Along the tower trail above Amazonia Lodge. [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – We saw several individuals of the blackish-capped race atriceps in the foothills, and we may have seen a few birds of the nominate race at Amazonia Lodge.
SHORT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus ferox) – The Myiarchus with the "policeman's whistle" around the clearing at Hacienda Amazonia.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – Amazonia Lodge.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Hacienda Amazonia & Atalaya.
GRAY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes granadensis) – Quite common in the lowlands.
LEMON-BROWED FLYCATCHER (Conopias cinchoneti) – We called in a group of these social, and very vocal, foothills flycatchers with a big mixed flock down the road from CORL.

This male Andean Cock-of-the-rock was displaying at a lek right below us! His bill is entirely hidden by feathers. (Photo by participant George Sims)

GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) – Seen well at the road edge up from CORL, where we watched a little mixed flock for a long time.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Seen by RAR's group from the Amazonia canopy tower.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Common from CORL down through the lowlands.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
BARRED FRUITEATER (Pipreola arcuata) – A male was seen beautifully in the upper-elevation forest near the tunnels.
ANDEAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Rupicola peruvianus) – We saw a lot of scattered individuals, but the highlight was watching 4 males dance in display at close range at a lek above CORL. The popping we were hearing was actually bill snapping, which is used along with the jumping, bowing, head-bobbing, wing-flapping, and that strange nasal moaning in regular display, the goal of which is to win the more central position in the lek, the area most often visited by females ready to mate. Zoe was comparing their display to that of the Guianan Cock-of-the-rock, and in both species distribution is limited by the availability of nesting cliffs, where the female does all the work of rearing the young alone.
PLUM-THROATED COTINGA (Cotinga maynana) – A striking male was seen by Pepe's afternoon group to the Amazonia canopy tower.
Pipridae (Manakins)
YUNGAS MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia boliviana) – After various unsuccessful efforts to see these lekking manakins, we finally succeeded at a lek area up the road from CORL, where males came into view several times. Restricted to the foothills of se Peru and n Bolivia.
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – This handsome manakin was seen by Pepe's morning group along the Jeep Track, pre-friaje. They weren't doing any displaying after the cold front moved through.
ROUND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra chloromeros) – Up in the foothills near the Amazonia tower, this fancy species was also displaying excitedly pre-friaje, where RAR's tower group got to watch it. Manakins like sunshine, which shows off their brilliant colors. They were not seen post-friaje.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata) – We had a nice pair in a roadside Erythrina on our way down the mountain.

A very responsive Dusky-capped Greenlet on the Atalaya Ridge. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

BARRED BECARD (Pachyramphus versicolor) – A very vocal (and quite responsive!) male near the tunnels helped us hold a mixed flock around for a good while.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – From its omnipresence and its frequent vocalizations, this species was probably nesting in the Amazonia clearing; but we failed to locate the nest. We did have super looks at the male.
PINK-THROATED BECARD (Pachyramphus minor) – Both male and female were seen on a couple of occasions on the Amazonia Lodge trails.
Vireonidae (Vireos)
BROWN-CAPPED VIREO (Vireo leucophrys) – S. America's counterpart to our Warbling Vireo, from which it was split many years ago.
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – Seen daily in small numbers in the lowlands; of the austral migrant race chivi that breeds in southern S. America and winters in the Amazon and its foothills. [a]
DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET (Hylophilus hypoxanthus) – Seen extremely well when we pulled a responsive bird in from a mixed-species flock to right below our feet on the Atalaya Ridge.
TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) – Seen by RAR's tower group and heard by Pepe's.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-COLLARED JAY (Cyanolyca viridicyanus) – A small flock of these impressive but secretive jays was quietly foraging near the tunnels and gave us great views.

This Purplish Jay was hollering and flapping its wings on its approach to the rice feeder at Amazonia Lodge. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

GREEN JAY (Cyanocorax yncas) – We saw these beauties, of the yellow-crowned, nominate race that breeds in the humid montane forest of the east slope, along middle sections of the Kosnipata "Highway." Unlike the Green Jays in the northern part of their range, which are solitary breeders, these southern birds form territorial groups of 3-9 birds, which they maintain throughout the year. Some authors have split the S. American birds, calling them Inca Jays.
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) – This species has become habituated to the Amazonia feeders, where we watched birds several times perching above the feeders, calling, and flapping their spread wings repeatedly--a behavior I've not witnessed before.
VIOLACEOUS JAY (Cyanocorax violaceus) – Seen well on Atalaya Ridge and at Amazonia Lodge.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW (Orochelidon murina) – Flying over the river at Paucartambo.
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – Fairly common along the Alto Madre de Dios near Atalaya.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – In small numbers in the lowlands/foothills.
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera) – We scoped a bird of this species that was on the sand at Atalaya, mixed in with hordes of White-winged Swallows. Our bird was brown above, with no white on the upperparts, and with some brown on the breast, with the underparts otherwise white. It seemed smallish and was probably of the breeding nominate race.

Rose Ann was prepared for the cold at the higher elevations. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – We saw individuals flying over the river and a large flock on the sandy/rocky shore at Atalaya.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) – A.k.a. Southern Nightingale-Wren for its lovely song. [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Widespread in small numbers.
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) [*]
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – We finally watched a fairly cooperative pair in the bamboo at Chontachaca on our final day of birding.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – Heard often and seen on a couple of occasions.
CHESTNUT-BREASTED WREN (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) – Fairly close, but not close enough. Still, what a song! [*]
Cinclidae (Dippers)
WHITE-CAPPED DIPPER (Cinclus leucocephalus leucocephalus) – Seen beautifully, first right from our CORL bridge.
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – RAR's afternoon group at the cocha watched a pair of these charmers calling from across the water. Formerly considered a thrush (originally), a mimid (for its large size, morphology, and extroverted behavior) and then a wren (for its anatomy and well developed social structure, including its marvelous duetting), this species has now been found to be genetically an aberrant "sylvioid," a group that includes the babblers and certain Old World warblers of the Locustellidae (which inhabit similar habitat, build similar nests, and have similar though higher-pitched voices). With its closest relatives still in dispute, the Donacobius is currently considered to belong to its own monotypic family, Donacobiidae.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)

The view eastward from Wayqecha at sunset (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

ANDEAN SOLITAIRE (Myadestes ralloides) – The good singer of the two solitaires on this route, this one flew back and forth in response to playback of its lovely song, which was heard frequently in the middle elevations of the Kosnipata road.
WHITE-EARED SOLITAIRE (Entomodestes leucotis) – This one has the good looks but the raspy song, very unlike that of Myadestes solitaires. We had great views of it above CORL.
HAUXWELL'S THRUSH (Turdus hauxwelli) – This species was singing spontaneously during our visit, and a responsive bird was seen well by RAR's afternoon group in the floodplain forest at Amazonia Lodge. We had also all seen an earlier bird flying back and forth overhead and landing where some could see it, at least briefly.
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (Turdus ignobilis) – A regular at the Amazonia rice feeder.
GREAT THRUSH (Turdus fuscater) – Do you remember how to tell the male from the female?
CHIGUANCO THRUSH (Turdus chiguanco) – The common thrush of arid country, the Chiguanco has colonized the more humid E slope along the Kosnipata road.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) [*]
THREE-STRIPED WARBLER (Basileuterus tristriatus) – Seen up the road from CORL.
BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda) – Heard more than seen along a stream crossing the road on Atalaya Ridge.
TWO-BANDED WARBLER (Myiothlypis bivittata) – Seen nicely near CORL.
GOLDEN-BELLIED WARBLER (GOLDEN-BELLIED) (Myiothlypis chrysogaster chrysogaster) – Seen well down the road from CORL and on the Atalaya Ridge.

Masked Crimson Tanagers were our constant companions at the Amazonia clearing. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

RUSSET-CROWNED WARBLER (Myiothlypis coronata) – Seen well just up the road from CORL.
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus) – Common near CORL and slightly up and down the road.
SPECTACLED REDSTART (Myioborus melanocephalus) – Replacing the last species at higher elevations; both species overlap a way above the CORL area.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis) – A regular at the Amazonia rice table.
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – Spiffy black and white!
SLATY TANAGER (Creurgops dentatus) – It was terrific to get such a great view of a male of this aberrant tanager of limited distribution in se Peru and n Bolivia.
SUPERCILIARIED HEMISPINGUS (URUBAMBAE) (Hemispingus superciliaris urubambae) – Seen repeatedly near the tunnels.
BLACK-EARED HEMISPINGUS (BLACK-EARED) (Hemispingus melanotis berlepschi) – Fairly common in the mid-level bamboo zone.
RUST-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Thlypopsis ruficeps) – This small, colorful tanager was seen well several times.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – Seen by Jan in the bamboo down from CORL.
WHITE-WINGED SHRIKE-TANAGER (Lanio versicolor) – We had fabulous views of a pair of these flock leaders along the Atalaya Ridge.
MASKED CRIMSON TANAGER (Ramphocelus nigrogularis) – Wow!
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo) – Not bad either.

George managed to capture the piercing red eyes of this Hooded Mountain-Tanager that charged, noisily, through the montane forest along the Wayqecha trail. (Photo by participant George Sims)

BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – With the white shoulder patches and wingbars of the birds east of the Andes.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanocephala) – Seen by some.
HOODED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Buthraupis montana) – Seen well by some along the Wayqecha trail.
SCARLET-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus igniventris igniventris) – A dazzling sight in the treeline forest near the tunnels and near Wayqecha.
GRASS-GREEN TANAGER (Chlorornis riefferii) – Seen briefly with a flock right at the tunnels.
YELLOW-THROATED TANAGER (Iridosornis analis) – The middle-elevation Iridisornis with the splayed yellow throat feathers. We saw it well twice up the road from CORL.
GOLDEN-COLLARED TANAGER (Iridosornis jelskii) – This beauty replaces the last at treeline elevations. We saw a splendid pair well right at the tunnels. Breathtaking!
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota) – Seen twice: once up the road from CORL, and again on the Atalaya Ridge, where a striking full adult appeared close-by.
ORANGE-EARED TANAGER (Chlorochrysa calliparaea) – One of my personal favorites, this small, brilliant tanager was seen repeatedly with flocks in the middle-elevation and foothill zones.

A pair of striking Golden-collared Tanagers foraged near our feet in treeline shrubbery near the tunnels. (Photo by participant George Sims)

GOLDEN-NAPED TANAGER (Tangara ruficervix inca) – Lest I become too repetitive, I'll say we could just throw the Thesaurus at all the Tangaras, and we saw well all those we put on the list, including this one.
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanicollis) – Probably the most common Tangara we saw.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Tangara punctata) – With flocks from CORL downward.
BLUE-AND-BLACK TANAGER (Tangara vassorii atrocoerulea) – The highest-elevation Tangara.
BERYL-SPANGLED TANAGER (Tangara nigroviridis) – With higher-elevation flocks.
TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana) – Amazonia Lodge and Atalaya Ridge.
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis) – This one was a real favorite, dazzling as they were, even if designed by a committee!
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola)
GOLDEN-EARED TANAGER (Tangara chrysotis) – Especially nice views when they came to the bananas at CORL.
SAFFRON-CROWNED TANAGER (Tangara xanthocephala lamprotis)
GREEN-AND-GOLD TANAGER (Tangara schrankii) – In the Atalaya Schefflera.
GOLDEN TANAGER (Tangara arthus) – Wow!
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – Seen several times, including in the Atalaya Schefflera.

But the unbelievable Paradise Tanager, fairly common at lower to middle elevations, had to be our favorite of all the colorful tanagers. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata) – A male came to the fruiting Schefflera on Atalaya Ridge.
YELLOW-BELLIED DACNIS (Dacnis flaviventer) – We had great views of males and females of this species in the same fruiting tree as the last.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Feeding in the fruiting sapote at the canopy tower.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GOLDEN-COLLARED HONEYCREEPER (Iridophanes pulcherrimus) – Most folks saw a male and a female right on the grounds of CORL, and then others caught up with a lovely male in our big flock up the road from Cloud Forest Lodge on our drive to Wayqecha.
CINEREOUS CONEBILL (Conirostrum cinereum) – Seen at Huacarpay and in the arid ravines near Huancarani.
CAPPED CONEBILL (Conirostrum albifrons sordidum) – We watched a pair of these tail pumpers with a roadside flock up the road from CORL.
MOUSTACHED FLOWERPIERCER (ALBILINEA) (Diglossa mystacalis albilinea) – We had especially nice views along the Wayqecha trail.
BLACK-THROATED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa brunneiventris) – Especially well near Huancarani.
DEEP-BLUE FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa glauca) – A.k.a. Golden-eyed Flowerpiercer.

The endemic Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch was singing spontaneously during our visit. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

PERUVIAN SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus punensis) – Seen well in the puna zone on our drive to the Manu.
PLUMBEOUS SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus unicolor)
CHESTNUT-BREASTED MOUNTAIN-FINCH (Poospiza caesar) – Our first one was singing spontaneously and quite responsive at a stop in an arid cultivated area near Huancarani. We had others at additional stops in the same habitat. A lovely endemic! [E]
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – Near Patria.
BLACK-AND-WHITE SEEDEATER (Sporophila luctuosa) – Only a few adult males.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – In the grass near the Patria airstrip, where we saw a good adult male.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Oryzoborus angolensis) [*]
BAND-TAILED SEEDEATER (Catamenia analis)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GOLDEN-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator aurantiirostris) – On the arid, west side of the Acjanaco pass.
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – A regular at the Amazonia feeders.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – From the canopy platform. [*]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)

A Peruvian woman overlooks cultivated fields in the high Andes NE of Cusco. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

OLIVE FINCH (Arremon castaneiceps) – Singing strongly along the rushing stream, but we couldn't manage to see them. [*]
BLACK-FACED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes melanolaemus) – Fairly common in the understory of montane forest and seen well repeatedly. [E]
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons) – Remember this one?
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Common and widespread in the drier habitats.
COMMON BUSH-TANAGER (SOUTHERN PERU) (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus peruvianus) – With mid- and upper-elevation flocks.
YELLOW-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus flavigularis) – The common bush-tanager of the lower montane forest.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
HEPATIC TANAGER (Piranga flava) – The birds we saw were of the race lutea, and the whole lutea group has sometimes been considered a distinct species, Highland Hepatic Tanager, occurring from subtropical Costa Rica and Panama through montane S. America to nw Bolivia.
CARMIOL'S TANAGER (Chlorothraupis carmioli) – We had exceptionally good looks at this normally difficult-to-see (though noisy) flock leader on the Atalaya Ridge, where one bird was carrying nesting material. [N]
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) – Amazonia Lodge. [*]
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
YELLOW-WINGED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus thilius) – In the reeds at Huacarpay Lake.
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – Amazonia Lodge.

A zoomed-in view of Volcan Veronica from the high puna on our return to Cusco. (Photo by guide Rose Ann Rowlett)

YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – There was active nest-building among this species and the two lowland oropendolas. [N]
RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius angustifrons) [N]
DUSKY-GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius atrovirens) – Occurring to higher elevations than the other oropendolas; we saw old nests but no active ones.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – What a display! [N]
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius bifasciatus) – RAR's morning tower group had a lovely view of this beauty from the canopy tower. It was also seen briefly from the boat along the river.
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta) [*]
BRONZE-GREEN EUPHONIA (Euphonia mesochrysa) – CORL & Atalaya Ridge.
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – The commonest euphonia.
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – Seen mostly at middle elevations.
BLACK SISKIN (Spinus atratus) – Seen briefly by some at a stop in cultivated fields and adobe houses en route from Cusco to the Manu.

COMMON SQUIRREL MONKEY (Saimiri sciureus) – The handsomest of the primates we saw, it was in mixed troops with Brown Capuchins and, on one occasion, Dusky Titi Monkeys too.
THREE-STRIPED NIGHT MONKEY (Aotus trivirgatus) – We had great views of this, the only nocturnal monkey, when Pepe spotlighted some overhead along the trail at Hacienda Amazonia.

Some large groups of Common Squirrel Monkeys at Hacienda Amazonia attracted a Double-toothed Kite. (Photo by participant Dominic Sherony)

DUSKY TITI MONKEY (Callicebus moloch) – First we saw two on Atalaya Ridge, and then some of us saw more along the Bamboo Trail one late afternoon, where the big mixed troop of monkeys was accompanied by a Double-toothed Kite.
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella) – This one has become a bit of a nuisance at CORL, but we saw others making an honest living at Amazonia Lodge and along the road.
COMMON WOOLLY MONKEY (Lagothrix lagotricha) – The biggest, most impressive monkey we saw was this heavy-bodied woolly, best a group of a dozen or so up the road from the Mirador. Several females carried young.
BOLIVIAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus ignitus) – A regular at the CORL feeders.
MONTANE GUINEA PIG (Cavia tschudii) – The cavy seen at Huacarpay should have been this species.
BROWN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta variegata) – Seen in the yard at CORL and again at Amazonia Lodge.
WHITE-LIPPED PECCARY (Tayassu pecari) – A herd of ca. 20+ were seen, heard tooth-snapping, and smelled along the Jeep Track at Amazonia Lodge. Impressive beasts that are sometimes followed by ground-cuckoos.
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana) – George and RAR saw one of these at the edge of the Amazonia clearing on our final afternoon there.


Beyond the mammals listed above, there were a few we couldn't identify, including a medium-sized fruit-eating bat that was repeatedly foraging at cecropia fruits at the male Lyre-tailed Nightjar spot; and who knows how many species of small, insectivorous bats.

Outstanding among the herps was a big Spectacled Caiman that glided across the middle of the Amazonia Lodge cocha (and was seen by one group).

And, of course, there were numerous colorful butterflies and moths, most memorable among them being the fancy diurnal Urania moths, the brilliant Blue Morphos, and the big "Owl Eye" or Caligo butterflies.

We need another whole life to focus on all the "other critters" and plants of such a rich environment!

Totals for the tour: 433 bird taxa and 10 mammal taxa