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Field Guides Tour Report
Jul 29, 2018 to Aug 7, 2018
Dan Lane

Our visit to a lek of the weird and wonderful Andean Cock-of-the-Rock was one of the highlights of the tour. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

“Manu” is one of those places that sounds so exotic, adventurous, and mysterious! Perhaps that’s what draws us there: the opportunity to see the mystery for ourselves? The national park itself is largely impenetrable, with access blocked by steep Andean slopes, dense forests, and small groups of Indians leading isolationist and traditional lifestyles. The Andean foothills of Cusco department are largely, thankfully, inaccessible to us with one exception: the Kosñipata Road that leads from Paucartambo, on the dry side of the first tall ridge, all the way to village of Pillcopata (and a bit farther), at the head of the navigable part of the Rio Alto Madre de Dios. This road, approximately 50 km of it, cuts across the pass at Acjanaco, enters treeline, and descends through unbroken forest (quite a contrast to the dry, open puna that one sees back towards Cusco!) all the way to the Guadua bamboo and flatlands of the valley leading to Pillcopata. This includes a change in elevation of about 2700 m (close to 9,000 feet)! To be able to see so much relatively undisturbed habitat, and particularly to know that it is merely the face of a much greater expanse we can’t see from the road, is awe-inspiring! In addition, this region is hyper-diverse in so many groups of organisms: flowering plants, butterflies, and of course birds. It is estimated that over 1000 species of birds occur in the area. Although there have been few expeditions actually into the park, the Kosñipata road has provided a corridor to allow us to sample the avifauna immediately adjacent to the park. But the few expeditions to adjacent regions on either side of the park suggest that there are more species still that haven’t yet been encountered on the road!

What is the reason for all this diversity? Well, the short answer is the elevational gradient combined with high microhabitat diversity. Thanks to the Andes, the Amazonian slope and nearby lowlands have enjoyed a fairly stable climate for hundreds of thousands of years, if not millions. This allowed for plants to diversify to a very great extent, and also allowed for specialization and species packing of vertebrates. The microhabitats such as Chusquea and Guadua bamboo thickets, tall forest versus short ridgetop forest, landslide clearings and second growth, rock faces, and such have all allowed for a few species of bird (not to mention other organisms!) to specialize on each. The long period of relative stability, despite otherwise drastic global climate change thanks to glacial cycles, meant that these specialists were insulated from the greatest cause of extinction: change. As a result, the tropical Andes and adjacent lowlands from Colombia to Peru are the most diverse terrestrial biomes for birds and many other organisms! And we were here to see them!

We weren’t disappointed either! Our visit started as we departed the valley that is home to the city of Cusco. As we started up the walls of the canyon of the Rio Urubamba (which flows past Machu Picchu and eventually north to the Rio Ucayali), we stopped to see a few of the specialists of the dry scrub of the valley. Among these were a shy Bearded Mountaineer and Rusty-fronted Canastero, as well as a rare snake, Tachymenis peruvianus, that Larry spotted for us! Then, we had a long drive ahead of us, cutting across the relatively bland puna landscape dotted with small hamlets and carpeted with eucalyptus groves, but with few birds to grab our attention, until the larger town of Paucartambo. From this last intermontane valley, we then proceeded to ascend the final ridge up to the pass at Acjanaco, the corner of Manu National Park, and had lunch. The fog banks here announced the humid slope, and from here on down, we rarely saw the sun until the day we returned! We birded the tunnels below the pass, catching glimpses of our first mixed species flocks and even the tail end of some Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucans. Then it was down to our comfortable lodging at Paradise Lodge in an area generally referred to as San Pedro. We birded here the following day, despite a drizzling rain, and actually did quite well, seeing several active flocks. Our third day saw us returning to higher elevations around Pillahuata and Rocotal, searching for species we had driven past two days earlier. Then, it was time to head downslope yet further, birding the upper tropical zone from San Pedro down to Tanager Corner and the Quita Calzon bridge and beyond. We started to see towns again, including Chontachaca, Patria, and finally Pillcopata. A left turn from the square of the last took us to our second lodgings at Villa Carmen. That afternoon, we drove to the mirador on the Atalaya ridge to see what might be flying by, and we checked the bamboo on the way for interesting birds. Then, we had a day at Villa Carmen to explore their extensive trail system, and went out owling one evening. Finally, we drove back upslope, with birding stops in the open country around Patria along the way, ending the day at the biological station at Wayqecha, near 10,000 feet elevation. Our final day involved a morning birding above Wayquecha, a short jaunt down the Tres Cruces road into the park a few miles, and then back over the pass to a site for lunch and our final endemic: Creamy-crested Spinetail. Then, it was back to Cusco, and a morning to enjoy this historic city!

Among the highlights of the tour were such sights as the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock lek, the bright colors of a flock of White-collared Jays, the active mixed flocks around San Pedro and Pillahuata, an extroverted Yellow-billed Cacique, fine views of Blue-banded Toucanets, Mountain Caciques and mountain-tanagers, the quiet elegance of a male Masked Trogon, the extravagance of a Lyre-tailed Nightjar male as he swooped about above us, the large gawkiness of a male Amazonian Umbrellabird long the road, the crowd of oropendolas, jays, and chachalacas around the feeders at Villa Carmen, the responsive and friendly Black-banded Owl overhead, the badly-managed hairdos of the Hoatzins around the pond there, the bee-like Rufous-crested Coquettes buzzing around the verbena flowers, the bold Scaly-breasted Wren that perched for all to see for an impressively long time before heading back into the forest, the annoying skulkiness of that Rufous Antpitta, the activity at dawn around Wayqecha, with multiple hummingbirds coming in to check us out, including a lovely male Rufous-crowned Thornbill, and the boldness of the Sedge Wrens in their foggy grass tussocks. It was overall a lovely trip, and I’m so glad to have been able to share it with you all! I hope we’ll have another opportunity soon. Until then, keep them binoculars close at hand and good birding!

Dan Lane

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

We enjoyed some fine views of Blue-banded Toucanets. Note the band on this one's leg! Photo by guide Dan Lane.

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
HOODED TINAMOU (Nothocercus nigrocapillus) [*]
GRAY TINAMOU (Tinamus tao) [*]
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – Cyndie got us on this difficult bird as two ran across the road above San Pedro.
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) [*]
BLACK-CAPPED TINAMOU (Crypturellus atrocapillus) [*]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (OXYPTERA) (Anas flavirostris oxyptera) – Our only duck, and seen on our last birding day on the pond of the Tres Cruces road.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
SPECKLED CHACHALACA (Ortalis guttata) – Hordes at the Villa Carmen feeders.
ANDEAN GUAN (Penelope montagnii) – Seen several times along the roadside in the highlands of the Manu Road.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – Heard doing flight displays predawn at Villa Carmen, and seen by a few.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
RUFOUS-BREASTED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus speciosus) [*]
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – Seen along the Alto Madre de Dios river.

Crested Oropendolas, including this one, were feeding in an Erythrina tree along with some Dusky-green Oropendolas. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – One seen and photographed around the Villa Carmen ponds.
FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – Kathy got us on our first one, and we saw a few more after along the Alto Madre de Dios and later near San Pedro.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – Along the Alto Madre de Dios.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
BLACK-FACED IBIS (BRANICKII) (Theristicus melanopis branickii) – Thanks to Len for spotting the pair in the dry field along our drive from Cusco to Paucartambo.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – The common vulture in the lower elevations.
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – Fred got us on the first of a couple of this lowland forest vulture over Villa Carmen.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – Seen on several days in the lowlands.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Seen in the lowlands on most days.
VARIABLE HAWK (Geranoaetus polyosoma) – A white-morph bird circling over the treeline region of the upper Manu road.
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – Heard at dawn and dusk at Villa Carmen, and perhaps glimpsed by a few.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis) [*]
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – A pair showed regularly at the feeders at Villa Carmen.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica) – A familiar bird to those who have visited the Southeast US; several showed well around the Villa Carmen pond.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – Heard on several occasions at Villa Carmen, and spied by a few folks, such as Fred.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
ANDEAN GULL (Chroicocephalus serranus) – Our first bird when we stepped out the door of the Cusco airport.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) – Seen most days around population centers. [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – A flyby in the flats near Patria.
SPOT-WINGED PIGEON (Patagioenas maculosa) – A small flock was flying along the Rio Paucartambo as we departed that area for Manu NP.

"What the...? I'VE GOT WHITE EYEBROWS!!" screamed this Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant. At least I think so... my chat-tyrant translator app is not very good. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

BAND-TAILED PIGEON (Patagioenas fasciata) – Several flew by over the cloudforest our last full birding day.
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – One seen in the scope along the river bordering Villa Carmen.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – A few quick fly-bys in the cleared lowlands around Patria.
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – One came in to the tinamou feeder at Villa Carmen, and was spotted by a lucky few.
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – Also seen at the tinamou feeder.
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – Common in the valley below Cusco.
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – One of the world's weirdest birds, and one we enjoyed watching along the edge of the Villa Carmen clearing.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – A pair showed briefly on our owling outing at Villa Carmen.
BLACK-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba huhula) – A great view of this charismatic bird over the soccer pitch at Villa Carmen, and a favorite of several members of the tour.
STRIPED OWL (Asio clamator) [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LYRE-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Uropsalis lyra) – A fine evening outing resulted in seeing this impressive nightjar as it flew over us, dragging its long cumbersome tails.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne rutila) – Seen on several days.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – One of the easier swifts of the region to identify by virtue of its size.
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – Well named, this species seems to have had the distal part of its body removed.
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata) – While watching this slender, pointy swift flying over the Moriche palms, we actually saw one go after a Blue-headed Parrot, threatening to pull some feathers!
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – A visitor to the feeders at Paradise Lodge.
LESSER VIOLETEAR (Colibri cyanotus) – Singing in the canopy of the mid- and upper-level forest along the Manu Rd. Recently split from Green Violetear, the other population (that occurs from Mexico to Nicaragua) now called Mexican Violetear.
SPARKLING VIOLETEAR (Colibri coruscans) – Seen both near Cusco and also at the feeders at Paradise Lodge.
AMETHYST-THROATED SUNANGEL (Heliangelus amethysticollis) – The buff collar was a giveaway for this high-elevation species.
WIRE-CRESTED THORNTAIL (Discosura popelairii) – A female showed well at the flowers at Paradise Lodge.

The view from the Atalaya Mirador is fantastic! Photo by guide Dan Lane.

RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – Mostly the female was at the flowers at Villa Carmen. A much wanted species for many!
PERUVIAN PIEDTAIL (Phlogophilus harterti) – Nice repeated views in the garden of Paradise Lodge. This species can be extremely hard to see, so it was gratifying to have such luck! [E]
LONG-TAILED SYLPH (Aglaiocercus kingii) – Seen at higher elevations on two days.
RUFOUS-CAPPED THORNBILL (Chalcostigma ruficeps) – A species we saw well near Wayqecha our last full birding morning.
BEARDED MOUNTAINEER (Oreonympha nobilis) – Terry got us on a female in the tree tobacco just above the Urubamba river.
TYRIAN METALTAIL (SMARAGDINICOLLIS) (Metallura tyrianthina smaragdinicollis) – Seen our two days at treeline elevations.
BUFF-THIGHED PUFFLEG (Haplophaedia assimilis) – Recently split from Greenish Puffleg, this form occurs from San Martin to Bolivia. We saw one above Rocotal.
SHINING SUNBEAM (Aglaeactis cupripennis) – One of the common hummers at treeline near Wayqecha.
VIOLET-THROATED STARFRONTLET (Coeligena violifer) – A brief view of this large higher-elevation hummer our first day near the tunnels.
CHESTNUT-BREASTED CORONET (Boissonneaua matthewsii) – The hummer that "sticks its landings" and one we saw around Pillahuata.
BOOTED RACKET-TAIL (ANNA'S) (Ocreatus underwoodii annae) – Regular to feeders at Paradise Lodge.
VIOLET-FRONTED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa leadbeateri) – The large hummer that was regularly at the Paradise Lodge feeders.
GIANT HUMMINGBIRD (Patagona gigas) – The largest hummer in the world, as the name suggests; we enjoyed seeing several above the Urubamba our first day.
WHITE-BELLIED WOODSTAR (Chaetocercus mulsant) – One seen by some on the day we went upslope from San Pedro.

This Scaly-breasted Wren allowed us a great view below the Quita Calzon bridge. Normally, these wrens are very shy, but this one sat nicely for quite a while! Photo by guide Dan Lane.

BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus) – A pair at the Villa Carmen feeders.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata) – Mostly around Paradise Lodge.
MANY-SPOTTED HUMMINGBIRD (Taphrospilus hypostictus) – A bird at the Paradise Lodge feeders.
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – One of the more visible hummers at Villa Carmen.
GOLDEN-TAILED SAPPHIRE (Chrysuronia oenone) – Mostly seen on the road between San Pedro and Villa Carmen.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GOLDEN-HEADED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus auriceps) – A pair near a probable nest were seen on two days in the mid-elevations.
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – A pair along the trails at Villa Carmen.
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – A male was along the trails at Villa Carmen.
MASKED TROGON (Trogon personatus) – Fine views of a pair near Pillahuata.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
RUFOUS-CAPPED NUNLET (Nonnula ruficapilla) – Len got us on this diminutive puffbird on the Atalaya ridge.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – Seen around Villa Carmen and Atalaya.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – Several birds along the small river near Villa Carmen.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
BLUISH-FRONTED JACAMAR (Galbula cyanescens) – A sneaky pair allowed poor looks at Villa Carmen.
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
LEMON-THROATED BARBET (Eubucco richardsoni) – Views of a family group as they fed young in the "bird bamboo patch" we discovered on the Atalaya ridge.
VERSICOLORED BARBET (Eubucco versicolor) – Seen in several flocks around the San Pedro area. A fine-lookin' bird!
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
BLUE-BANDED TOUCANET (Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis) – The green toucanets we enjoyed around Pillahuata.
GRAY-BREASTED MOUNTAIN-TOUCAN (Andigena hypoglauca) – Sadly, this montane toucan did not behave very well for us, mostly showing us their yellow rumps as they fled our prying eyes.
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – A pair of these open-country toucans showed well along the road near Chontachaca.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
FINE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus subtilis) – A pair came in for good views at the dining hall of Villa Carmen.
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus) – Though not as small as our Downy Woodpecker, this is pretty small by South American standards (not counting piculets, that is). We saw them around Villa Carmen and Atalaya ridge.
CRIMSON-MANTLED WOODPECKER (Colaptes rivolii) – A fine-looking woodpecker that can nevertheless be lost against the crimson bromiliads of its preferred high cloudforest.
ANDEAN FLICKER (Colaptes rupicola) – Some glimpses of this woodpecker--that is often not associated with wood at all--as we crossed the puna from Cusco to Paucartambo.

This Dull-capped Attila thought we looked interesting! Photo by guide Dan Lane.

LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) [*]
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – A pair showed well for us at Villa Carmen.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater) – Several birds exhibited their flaming orange faces along the river by Pillcopata.
MOUNTAIN CARACARA (Phalcoboenus megalopterus) – Several seen our last birding morning as we drove from Wayqecha back to Cusco.
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – Terry got us on a fine bird clutching a fist of victory along the road by Patria.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – Glimpses as we drove through the drier highlands.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – A flyby as we ascended the road from Chontachaca towards San Pedro.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
ANDEAN PARAKEET (Bolborhynchus orbygnesius) – A rare parakeet we lucked into on several occasions at the higher elevations near Pillahuata and Wayqecha.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – A short-tailed parrot easily identified by its deep wingbeats and voice.
DUSKY-HEADED PARAKEET (Aratinga weddellii) – A pair was in the flowering Erythrina tree along the road with the oropendolas as we headed down to Villa Carmen.
BLUE-HEADED MACAW (Primolius couloni) – Mostly heard as they flew by out of sight, we finally saw one as it flew past over Patria.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – A group flew over Villa Carmen our fill day there.
SCARLET MACAW (Ara macao) – Despite there being a semi-captive bird at Villa Carmen (paired, apparently with a Blue-and-yellow), we also saw truly wild birds from the Atalaya ridge.
CHESTNUT-FRONTED MACAW (Ara severus) – Seen on several day at lower elevations.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – A flock on the grounds of Villa Carmen showed well.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
YELLOW-RUMPED ANTWREN (Euchrepomis sharpei) – A great bird to encounter; we had a pair in one of the bigger flocks along the road above San Pedro!
BAMBOO ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae) – Fine views of a pair in the birdy bamboo spot along the Atalaya ridge.
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – After a few aborted searches, we finally had a pair respond fairly well near San Pedro.
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus) [*]
BLUISH-SLATE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes schistogynus) – A pair leading an understory flock through the Villa Carmen forest played hard to get.
ORNATE ANTWREN (WESTERN) (Epinecrophylla ornata meridionalis) – We encountered a pair of these bamboo-associated antwrens at "tanager corner" the day we descended from Paradise Lodge.
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura) – A bird over our heads on our trail walking day at Villa Carmen showed poorly, but all heard its bouncing ball song.
STRIPE-CHESTED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longicauda) – The "black-and-white warbler" antwren in the bamboo around San Pedro.
SLATY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula schisticolor interior) – A pair showed well for us as part of a mixed understory flock above San Pedro.

We found the Hooded Mountain-Tanager near Pillahuata. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

YELLOW-BREASTED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus axillaris) – In the rain above San Pedro, we nevertheless saw a male with his shivering white-edged tail.
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis albicauda) [*]
STRIATED ANTBIRD (Drymophila devillei) [*]
STREAK-HEADED ANTBIRD (Drymophila striaticeps) – Called "Long-tailed Antbird" in the field guide, we had a bird sneak in, but only reluctantly, in the bamboo-fringed cloudforest at higher elevations.
YELLOW-BREASTED WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis subflava collinsi) – After working on a couple of pairs unsuccessfully, we finally brought in a male at Villa Carmen for good looks.
BLACK ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides serva) [*]
MANU ANTBIRD (Cercomacra manu) – A trio came in to view on our evening bamboo walk at Villa Carmen.
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota) – A male showed briefly at Paradise Lodge.
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) – Good looks at a male at Villa Carmen were appreciated.
WHITE-LINED ANTBIRD (Percnostola lophotes) – Also seen well at Villa Carmen.
CHESTNUT-TAILED ANTBIRD (Sciaphylax hemimelaena) [*]

This Rufous-capped Nunlet is practicing to be a bittern. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

GOELDI'S ANTBIRD (Akletos goeldii) – One of the last birds on our full day birding Villa Carmen.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
RED-AND-WHITE ANTPITTA (Grallaria erythroleuca) – Heard by all, and glimpsed by a lucky few. [E]
RUFOUS ANTPITTA (SOUTH PERUVIAN) (Grallaria rufula occabambae) – Singing from an uncharacteristically high perch in the crown of a short, and dense(!), tree along the road above Wayqecha. We only saw it as it jumped down and out of sight.
AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA (Hylopezus berlepschi) [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
WHITE-CROWNED TAPACULO (Scytalopus atratus) [*]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) – A bullet crossing the path at Villa Carmen.
RUFOUS-BREASTED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius rufipectus) [*]
BARRED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza mollissima) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) [*]
BLACK-BANDED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes picumnus) – Fine looks at this large woodcreeper in the clearing by the cabins at Villa Carmen.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) – A bird behaved fairly well on our last birding day in the cloudforest.
OLIVE-BACKED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) – A mixed flock by San Pedro was home to this montane woodcreeper.
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – Cyndie spotted this edge habitat woodcreeper at Villa Carmen.
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – Shockingly well-behaved, we had a pair of these lovely woodcreepers in the bamboo at Villa Carmen.
MONTANE WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger) – One of the more common woodcreepers in the higher elevation forests.
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – Seen in the mixed flocks around San Pedro.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – Fine views of this distinctive furnariid around Villa Carmen.
DUSKY-CHEEKED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops dorsalis) – We had a brief view of this bamboo specialist in a flock at Villa Carmen.
MONTANE FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia striaticollis) – Fairly numerous in the flocks around San Pedro.
BLACK-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Thripadectes melanorhynchus) – Many of us saw this skulker quite well along the edge of the clearing at Paradise Lodge.
SPOTTED BARBTAIL (Premnoplex brunnescens) – Mostly heard, but a pair briefly showed before the Lyre-tailed Nightjar show.

We had some good looks at Barred Fruiteaters as well. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

PEARLED TREERUNNER (Margarornis squamiger) – A fancy member of canopy flocks at higher elevations.
PUNA THISTLETAIL (Asthenes helleri) – Wow, this lovely shrub-loving canastero performed very well for us our morning at Wayqecha.
RUSTY-FRONTED CANASTERO (Asthenes ottonis) – Larry got us on one of these in the dry scrub above the Urubamba our first day. [E]
MARCAPATA SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca marcapatae) – Fair views of this endemic near the tunnels our first day driving from Cusco to San Pedro. [E]
CREAMY-CRESTED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca albicapilla) – A pair put on a good show just before our final field lunch above Paucartambo. [E]
ASH-BROWED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca curtata) – A regular flock member around San Pedro.
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis) – A pair building a nest by my cabin at Villa Carmen was a nice sighting.
CABANIS'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cabanisi) – A pair played hide-and-seek with us in the bamboo at Villa Carmen.
AZARA'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis azarae) – It took a bit of work, but we eventually all saw this widespread Andean spinetail.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-BANDED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus stictopterus) – A regular member of higher elevation mixed flocks along with the next species.
WHITE-THROATED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus leucophrys) – Look for that cotton-ball throat!
TUFTED TIT-TYRANT (Anairetes parulus) – A little cutie that we glimpsed our morning around Wayqecha.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – A responsive bird was in some junk bamboo beside Patria.
WHITE-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia albiceps) – Seen our first morning birding around San Pedro.
MOTTLE-BACKED ELAENIA (Elaenia gigas) – Also seen around San Pedro.
SIERRAN ELAENIA (Elaenia pallatangae) – Seen near Pillahuata.
STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes striaticollis) – Seen on two days in the mid-elevation forests.
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (ALBIDIVENTRIS) (Leptopogon superciliaris albidiventer) – Common in the mixed flocks around San Pedro.
INCA FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon taczanowskii) [E*]
MARBLE-FACED BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes ophthalmicus) – Much like Slaty-capped Flycatcher, but smaller.
CINNAMON-FACED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes parkeri) – A fine bird that showed for us at the Quita Calzon bridge. This is the flycatcher named for Ted Parker.
BOLIVIAN TYRANNULET (Zimmerius bolivianus) – Seen on a couple of days at several elevations. Were you not entertained by its brilliant olives?
ORNATE FLYCATCHER (Myiotriccus ornatus) – Actually quite an attractive tyrant (unlike the last) we enjoyed at the Quita Calzon bridge.
RINGED ANTPIPIT (Corythopis torquatus) [*]

This Laughing Falcon is probably remembering that time he sucker-punched a Peregrine in a barfight. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – Glimpsed by a few, but heard by all giving its angry traffic cop whistle call.
FLAMMULATED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus flammulatus) [*]
YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) – A pair of these tiny balls of anger were in the tree in the middle of the Villa Carmen yard.
FULVOUS-BREASTED FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus) – A brief view of this uncommon montane flycatcher above San Pedro.
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – Seen on the Atalaya ridge.
CINNAMON FLYCATCHER (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus) – Rather peweelike in behavior, but much more rufous.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – Spotted in the open country by Patria.
SMOKE-COLORED PEWEE (Contopus fumigatus) – I rather enjoyed pulling that one bird down the mountain and into the dead tree beside us!
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans) – On rocks in streams.
RUFOUS-TAILED TYRANT (Knipolegus poecilurus) – A bird that was in the scope, although it was perhaps a bit hard for some to see!
WHITE-WINGED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus aterrimus) – A singing male at Pillahuata was nice.
LITTLE GROUND-TYRANT (Muscisaxicola fluviatilis) – A bird catching insects along the road below San Pedro kept our attention for a while.
RUFOUS-BELLIED BUSH-TYRANT (Myiotheretes fuscorufus) – Another bird that successfully responded well to playback, this time in the fog above Wayqecha.
CROWNED CHAT-TYRANT (KALINOWSKI'S) (Ochthoeca frontalis spodionota) – We had fine views of this small understory tyrant in the cloudforest near treeline our last full morning.
SLATY-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT (MAROON-BELTED) (Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris thoracica) – Great views of these attractive tyrants below Pillahuata.
RUFOUS-BREASTED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) – Another Pillahuata bird also seen well above Wayqecha.
BROWN-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca fumicolor) – One of our last birds in the Manu area was a pair around the lake on the Tres Cruces road.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – A pair on the dead trees behind the cabins at Villa Carmen put on a good show.
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) [*]
DUSKY-TAILED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon fuscicauda) [*]
DULL-CAPPED ATTILA (Attila bolivianus) – Fine views of this attila by the Moriche palms as we headed back upslope.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – Seen in the upper cloudforest, where the subspecies atriceps occurs.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Common around Villa Carmen, as were the next few species.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)

White-collared Jays are electric blue, and their voice sounds strangely electronic, as well. Anyone checked for their battery compartment? Photo by guide Dan Lane.

SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
GRAY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes granadensis)
GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) – Great views around San Pedro.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Seen around San Pedro.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Seen near Patria.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Yup.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
BARRED FRUITEATER (Pipreola arcuata) – Fine views around the tunnels as we drove back upslope.
RED-CRESTED COTINGA (Ampelion rubrocristatus) – Nice views of a couple of birds near Wayqecha.
ANDEAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Rupicola peruvianus) – Rather a nice experience at the lek one evening, followed by some birds foraging or crossing the road as we descended to Villa Carmen.
AMAZONIAN UMBRELLABIRD (Cephalopterus ornatus) – Wow, what a monster of a bird! Great views!
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus) – A couple perched and flying their strange Pileated Woodpecker wingstroke over the river by Villa Carmen.

This Puna Thistletail was anger personified... um, birdonified? Photo by guide Dan Lane.

Pipridae (Manakins)
YUNGAS MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia boliviana) – A brief view of one above San Pedro, but heard well.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
BROWN-CAPPED VIREO (Vireo leucophrys) – A pair showed well in the mid-elevations.
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – This, the austral migrant form chivi, is now considered a separate species (with various other South American forms) from the boreal migrant bird we're more familiar with here in North America.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-COLLARED JAY (Cyanolyca viridicyanus) – Great views around Pillahuata!
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) – Local in Peru, we saw it well at Villa Carmen.
VIOLACEOUS JAY (Cyanocorax violaceus) – After hearing it at Villa Carmen, we saw this widespread western Amazonian jay as it flew by us at Patria.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – The common swallow of the tour.
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – This and White-winged were common along the low-lying rivers of the tour.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Fairly common at lower elevations.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) – Wow, what an amazing view of this often very skittish understory species on the roadbank below Quita Calzon bridge!
GRAY-MANTLED WREN (Odontorchilus branickii) – Great views of this canopy wren that acts like a Black-and-white Warbler.
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – One of the most versatile species in the Americas, present in most open habitats!
MOUNTAIN WREN (Troglodytes solstitialis) – Nice views in the mixed flocks of the cloudforest.
SEDGE WREN (Cistothorus platensis) – Great views of this grassland wren in the "paramo" grasses at Tres Cruces. No doubt, this species will be split up soon, so this form will not be conspecific with the rather different North American form.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – Briefly seen at San Pedro, but heard at several sites.
FULVOUS WREN (Cinnycerthia fulva) – A musical family troop tuned up for us, but remained hard to see (but would poke their heads out on occasion).
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – Mostly heard, but seen on our first morning around San Pedro.
CHESTNUT-BREASTED WREN (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) – Wow, what a show this often-skulky wren put on for us at Tanager Corner!

Another lovely little flycatcher that we saw well was the Ornate Flycatcher that we found at the Quita Calzon bridge. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
ANDEAN SOLITAIRE (Myadestes ralloides) – A fine song comes from a fairly plain little bird... but ain't that usually the way?
HAUXWELL'S THRUSH (Turdus hauxwelli) – A bird at Villa Carmen had us spinning like tops, but never gave us a good view.
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (Turdus ignobilis) – The easiest of the lowland thrushes to see.
SLATY THRUSH (Turdus nigriceps) [*]
GREAT THRUSH (Turdus fuscater) – Well-named (for its size, if not its inherent value), that we saw at higher elevations.
CHIGUANCO THRUSH (Turdus chiguanco) – Usually found in drier environments (such as in Cusco), but it seems to have penetrated the Manu area right along the clearings made by the road.
GLOSSY-BLACK THRUSH (Turdus serranus) – A pair near the tunnels our day of ascent was nice.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) [*]
THREE-STRIPED WARBLER (Basileuterus tristriatus) – A common member of mixed flocks around San Pedro. Due for a split shortly.
CITRINE WARBLER (PERUVIAN) (Myiothlypis luteoviridis striaticeps) – Seen in a flock by the tunnel our first day.
PALE-LEGGED WARBLER (Myiothlypis signata) – Several birds were upset with us in the bamboo by Pillahuata.
TWO-BANDED WARBLER (Myiothlypis bivittata) – This bamboo-tied species was common around San Pedro.
GOLDEN-BELLIED WARBLER (GOLDEN-BELLIED) (Myiothlypis chrysogaster chrysogaster) – Sounding very different from the last, this warbler is nearly indistinguishable by sight! We had it at Quita Calzon.
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus) – The lower elevation redstart common around San Pedro.
SPECTACLED REDSTART (Myioborus melanocephalus) – The higher elevation redstart, common around Wayqecha.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis) – A regular at the Villa Carmen feeders. Ironically, a tanager (while North American "tanagers" are actually cardinals!).
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – A well-named species that showed well for us at the Atalaya mirador.
SLATY TANAGER (Creurgops dentatus) – Larry got us on a bird in a mixed flock near the Manu Cloudforest Lodge.
BLACK-CAPPED HEMISPINGUS (WHITE-BROWED) (Kleinothraupis atropileus auricularis) – Seen well up near the tunnels.
BLACK-EARED HEMISPINGUS (BLACK-EARED) (Sphenopsis melanotis berlepschi) – A pair played hard to see in a flock above San Pedro.
RUST-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Thlypopsis ruficeps) – A warbler-like tanager with a yellow body and rufous crown. Seen at Pillahuata.
SUPERCILIARIED HEMISPINGUS (URUBAMBAE) (Thlypopsis superciliaris urubambae) – Also seen at Pillahuata. The form here is the yellow-bellied southern one.

The Black-backed Grosbeak looks a lot like the Rose-breasted Grosbeak that we are familiar with in North America. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo) – Well-named, and a regular visitor to the Villa Carmen feeders.
HOODED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Buthraupis montana) – A husky high-elevation tanager we enjoyed by Pillahuata.
GRASS-GREEN TANAGER (Chlorornis riefferii) – One of nature's weirder color combos, we saw these striking birds at the tunnels.
SCARLET-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (FIRE-BELLIED) (Anisognathus igniventris igniventris) – Another eye-grabber we enjoyed at higher elevations.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Dubusia castaneoventris) – Views of this tanager at Pillahuata were good.
YELLOW-THROATED TANAGER (Iridosornis analis) – A regular member of middle elevations mixed flocks.
GOLDEN-COLLARED TANAGER (Iridosornis jelskii) – Sometimes a hard species to see, we had it in spades on our last day at Wayqecha.
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota) – Perhaps one of the first birds we saw upon arriving at Pillahuata our day of birding above San Pedro.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Pipraeidea bonariensis) – Seen in the dry scrub above the Urubamba, and again at Pillahuata.
ORANGE-EARED TANAGER (Chlorochrysa calliparaea) – A striking bottle-green tanager we enjoyed around San Pedro.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – This and the next were common fixtures at lower elevations.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanocephala) – Present at higher elevations.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis punctata) – A common member of mixed flocks around San Pedro.
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanicollis) – The blackish tanager with a blue head, common around San Pedro.
BERYL-SPANGLED TANAGER (Tangara nigroviridis) – One of the higher-elevation "tangara" tanagers we saw several times.
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis) – The bird on the sign for the Paradise Lodge, and easy to see there and below.
SAFFRON-CROWNED TANAGER (Tangara xanthocephala lamprotis) – The turquoise tanager with a contrasting yellow crown.
GOLDEN TANAGER (Tangara arthus) – This molten yellow tanager definitely caught our eyes around San Pedro!
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – A small group along the river by Villa Carmen was nice.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Although usually common, we only had it by Patria.
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – A pair over the pond at Villa Carmen showed fairly well.
CAPPED CONEBILL (Conirostrum albifrons sordidum) – The blackish warbler-like birds at Pillahuata.
CINEREOUS CONEBILL (Conirostrum cinereum) – A pair was in the dry scrub above the Urubamba.

This Black-banded Owl was a favorite; it posed nicely for us at Villa Carmen one evening. Photo by guide Dan Lane.

MOUSTACHED FLOWERPIERCER (ALBILINEA) (Diglossa mystacalis albilinea) – Thankfully, that pea soup fog cleared at the Tres Cruces pond so we could see this treeline bird well!
BLACK-THROATED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa brunneiventris) – Seen our first and last days.
DEEP-BLUE FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa glauca) – That staring yellow eye weirds me out.
MASKED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa cyanea) – A common bird around Wayqecha.
PLUSHCAP (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) – Nice! A hard bird, but we managed pretty good views at Pillahuata.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – An open country finch-tanager we saw around Patria.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris) – Same as the last.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – Same habits as the last two, but not to be confused with the seedeater! This is the blackish one with a rufous belly.
BLACK-AND-WHITE SEEDEATER (Sporophila luctuosa) – Small groups moving ahead of us down the road below San Pedro entertained us.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – A fine male by Patria was nice.
BAND-TAILED SEEDEATER (Catamenia analis) – Present in the dry scrub above the Urubamba.
DULL-COLORED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris obscurus) – This well-named finch-tanager was along the road around San Pedro.
Passerellidae (New World Buntings and Sparrows)
YELLOW-THROATED CHLOROSPINGUS (Chlorospingus flavigularis) – Formerly thought to be tanagers, but now known to be related to our sparrows! This was the common species around San Pedro.
SHORT-BILLED CHLOROSPINGUS (Chlorospingus parvirostris) – This species, though looking like the last, is found at higher elevations.
COMMON CHLOROSPINGUS (SOUTHERN PERU) (Chlorospingus flavopectus peruvianus) – Found in between the previous two species in elevation.
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons) – A fine buzzy song in the open fields around Patria alerted us to this little sparrow.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Yup.
BLACK-FACED BRUSHFINCH (Atlapetes melanolaemus) – Found at most elevations in the cloudforest edge.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
BLACK-BACKED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus aureoventris) – A handsome, yellow-bellied version of our Rose-breasted Grosbeak that we saw at Pillahuata.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
YELLOW-BILLED CACIQUE (CHAPMAN'S) (Amblycercus holosericeus australis) – Wow! What amazingly good views of this usually super-skulky species in the high elevation bamboos around Pillahuata.
RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius angustifrons) – The common oropendola of the tour.
DUSKY-GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius atrovirens) – This was one of the two oropendolas we enjoyed in that flowering Erythrina tree along the road the day we drove to Villa Carmen.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – Also in the tree with the previous species.

Here's our intrepid group of birders! Photo by guide Dan Lane.

SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius) – It took a little work, but we had fine views of this lowland black cacique on the trails at Villa Carmen.
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – Usually a rather common lowland icterid that we strangely saw few of on this tour!
MOUNTAIN CACIQUE (BOLIVIAN) (Cacicus chrysonotus chrysonotus) – Fine views of this highland cacique below Pillahuata with the jays and toucanets.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – A pair showed above Rocotal.
BRONZE-GREEN EUPHONIA (Euphonia mesochrysa) – Seen in flocks near San Pedro.
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – The "standard-looking" euphonia of the tour.

BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella) – The monkeys that came in to investigate us over the road at San Pedro.
COMMON WOOLLY MONKEY (Lagothrix lagotricha) – I got this fine-looking monkey in the scope as it foraged in fruiting trees across the river below San Pedro. I think Kathy wasn't overly impressed (just kidding, Kathy! wink wink).
BOLIVIAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus ignitus) – Strangely, we saw this squirrel crossing the road several times!
TAYRA (Eira barbara) – A couple of quick glimpses as they darted across the road around San Pedro.
GOLDEN TEGU (Tupinambis teguixin) – The big lizard under the feeders at Villa Carmen.


Tachymenis sp. : the snake that Larry spotted above the Urubamba in the dry scrub. Turns out, it is venomous (but rear-fanged)!

Totals for the tour: 300 bird taxa and 4 mammal taxa