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Field Guides Tour Report
Rio Negro Paradise: Manaus II 2019
Sep 15, 2019 to Sep 29, 2019
Marcelo Barreiros & Dave Stejskal

This was a great tour in so many ways, not the least of which was in terms of diversity of species that we saw. This gorgeous male Wire-tailed Manakin was one of many of this species that we saw, but we saw a total of 11 manakin species! Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

This was our second Rio Negro Paradise tour this year, with Marcelo co-leading the first one immediately before we started our tour in the Amazonian city of Manaus. We got the ball rolling in the afternoon of Day 1, after a number of us had arrived in town from Miami in the wee hours of the morning, at the extensive and well-wooded grounds of the old Hotel Tropical. Birding was good and provided a good intro to some of the common birds of the Manaus area as well as some decidedly uncommon birds like Variable Chachalaca and a couple of migrant White-throated Kingbirds, as well as the endemic Brazilian Bare-faced Tamarin. Not a bad start!

The next morning, our explorations started of the left bank of the Rio Negro and the special birds of the Guianan Shield found here and northward. A morning visit to the big Ducke Forest Reserve northeast of the city produced some great sightings for the group, most notably being a responsive Red-billed Woodcreeper soon after we unloaded from the bus! That same afternoon, we visited the other end of the reserve and the MUSA tower right at the northeastern edge of the city. Once up in the tower, it was easy to forget that you were right next to a city of 2.5 million people, the skyline of which you could see on the horizon past the tall forest canopy encircling the tower's upper platform. It was a wonderful escape!

The next morning, we started off our day early as we piled into the 4X4 pick-up trucks that would take us to our first birding destination of the day – the famous INPA tower north of the city. To be sure, we saw a bunch of great birds from that upper platform, but the undisputed star of the show was the female Crimson Fruitcrow that flew in out of nowhere and just hung around, giving all of us unbelievable views of this rare and poorly-known bird!

After a great morning in the INPA tower, it was on to Presidente Figueiredo and Mari Mari Lodge. All was going smoothly with a nice lunch in town and then the check-in process at the lodge afterward when Saint suddenly took a very bad fall in front of her cabin, fracturing her ankle. All of us were heartbroken by the accident and also heartbroken that Saint would have to leave Brazil and head home in a cast. Bad things happen on tours occasionally – but why this tour and why Saint? Some things just don't make any sense, I'm afraid.

Birding around Mari Mari and Presidente Figueiredo was very good during our three and a half days in the area. Cotingas played a central role, with intimate experience with a group of Guianan Cocks-of the-Rock on their lek near the lodge, males of both Spangled and Purple-breasted cotingas feeding in the Açaí Palm fruit at the lodge, multiple Capuchinbirds at nearby Cachoeira da Onça, and cooperative Guianan Red-Cotinga on the terra firme trail nearby. Some of the other stars here included close feeding Sapphire-rumped Parrotlets, multiple Guianan Toucanets, close, active Guianan Gnatcatcher, the poorly-known Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant, a couple of spectacular male Crimson Topazes, yet another Red-billed Woodcreeper, a remarkable Musician Wren, both Spotted and Collared puffbirds, and a male White-naped Seedeater at a new site that truly was new to us (the old spot had recently changed ownership).

After our stint on the mainland, it was time to head to the Rio Negro and the lovely Tumbira, which was to be our home for the next eight nights. Our first major venue while on board was the Anavilhanas Archipelago, with its many and varied seasonally flooded islands and channels. We found most of the specialty birds that these watery habitats offer, with Blackish-gray Antshrike, Ash-breasted Antbird, Leaden and Klages's antwrens, Zimmer's Woodcreeper, Ringed Woodpecker...and then there were those Wire-tailed Manakins! Our afternoon experience with the habituated Amazon (Pink) River Dolphins was pretty memorable, too!

The next four days of our adventure were spent in the remote Jaú National Park, where we explored a wide variety of habitats from the unusual short 'chavascal' forest (the floor of which spends much of the year under water), small winding tributaries of of the main Rio Jaú, second growth at small private inholdings, and lovely, rich terra firme forest. Fabulous birds were found everywhere we went, with highlights being our male Tawny-tufted Toucanet in the scope, lovely Pavonine Quetzal, multiple Sungrebes, incredible Chestnut-crowned Antbird and Reddish-winged Bare-eye, both White-winged and Rufous potoos, handsome Black-faced Hawk, impressive Long-billed Woodcreeper, and so many others.

We finished up our trip in the Manaus area, visiting a variety of islands in the Rio Solimões (what we call the Amazon – Brazilians call that big river the Amazon below the Rio Negro Rio Solimões confluence), yielding such special birds as Scaled Spinetail, Castelnau's Antshrike, Pearly-breasted Conebill, Black-and-white Antbird. A final morning back in the MUSA tower in the Ducke Forest Reserve finally brought us our only sighting of Red-fan Parrot and our best Glossy-backed Becard! Our last afternoon was spent leisurely touring the old center of Manaus, including the famous – and lovely – Manaus Opera House.

Marcelo and I want to thank Junior and the crew of the Tumbira for taking such good care of us while on the boat for much of this tour. Food was fantastic and plentiful every day, the crew helpful and kind, and Junior efficient, effusive, and very knowledgable. We also want to thank all of you for joining us on this marvelous adventure to the central Amazon Basin – we really had a blast birding and traveling with all of you and hope that we can do it again soon! And we certainly all hope that Saint recovers quickly and gets back in the saddle for another one of these! Dave & Marcelo

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

We also saw a good number of cotingas, including the wonderful and wierd Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock that we saw and heard so well at Mari Mari Lodge. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) [*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) – A few folks got a quick look at one of these shy tinamous along the terra firme trail near Mari Mari Lodge. [N]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – Almost daily while we were on the boat.
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – We flushed a bird off of a nest when we got out to check a young river island on the Amazon near Manaus. [N]
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
VARIABLE CHACHALACA (Ortalis motmot) – We had some good looks at this one on our first afternoon of birding on the grounds of the old Hotel Tropical in Manaus.
MARAIL GUAN (Penelope marail) – One of the first birds that we saw when we started birding the Tucumanduba road near Presidente Figueiredo.
CRESTLESS CURASSOW (Mitu tomentosum) [*]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – We didn't see this beautiful pigeon until we got up to Jaú NP.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – We got to see a displaying bird from the INPA tower north of Manaus in response to Dave's whistled imitation.
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)

Our home for much of the tour was the lovely and comfortable Tumbira; what a fantastic way to see the beautiful lower Rio Negro! Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) [*]
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – With that glossy blue plumage, white eye, and unique bill, this one is unlikely to be confused with the other two species of anis.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
BLACK-BELLIED CUCKOO (Piaya melanogaster) [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Lurocalis semitorquatus) – This one made a couple of close passes at the base of the INPA tower before sunrise.
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – We definitely got some great vocal comparisons between these two near look-alike forms along the Rio Negro. With some confusion regarding the true scientific names for these two 'races', it'll take some sleuthing to work out which name applies to which form. Regardless, they'll be split as separate species sometime in the future.
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne [leucopyga] sp.)
BLACKISH NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus nigrescens) – Flushed up into view along the Tucumanduba road.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
LADDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis climacocerca) [*]
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
WHITE-WINGED POTOO (Nyctibius leucopterus) – This one flew up onto the perch that Marcelo had pointed out to us ahead of time, so it took little time to focus in on this local rarity. Essentially unknown in life before about 20 years ago.

Guide Marcelo Barreiros got a great video of a group of Sapphire-rumped Parrotlets feeding on the fruits of a Moriche Palm. These tiny parrots are usually only seen in quick fly-by views, so it was fun to be able to see them up close and watch their feeding behavior.
RUFOUS POTOO (Nyctibius bracteatus) – It took a couple of attempts to find this one, despite having it vocalizing not too far off of the trail in Jaú NP.
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – A few surprising flybys from the MUSA tower in Manaus on our final morning. Where the heck were they going?
CHAPMAN'S SWIFT (Chaetura chapmani) – Good looks at this relatively scarce swift from the MUSA tower in Manaus during both of our visits there.
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – Maybe the most widespread of the swifts on this tour this year.
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
CRIMSON TOPAZ (Topaza pella) – Marcelo knew right where to look for this big, spectacular hummer near Presidente Figueiredo.
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
STRAIGHT-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis bourcieri) – Mostly flyby birds that obliged us by calling.
STREAK-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis rupurumii) – We made a quick stop late one afternoon at PN Anavilhanas for another try at this one, and the recording of the song brought this one in for some super views!
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – A few folks got a look at a singing male along the Campina Trail at Mari Mari late one afternoon, but he flew off before we could get everyone on it.
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus) – One bird along the trail at PN Jaú paused long enough for some great views for all.
GREEN-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus theresiae) – A couple of birds along the water's edge at PN Jaú.
GREEN-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax viridigula) – We got lucky with this one on our last afternoon along the Amazon s. of Manaus.

We saw all five of the kingfisher species possible for this tour, including this lovely male Amazon Kingfisher. Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus) – For a few folks on Marchantaria Island.
BLUE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Chlorestes notata)
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis)
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – Found a couple of times in stunted forest.
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus) – Some of us got great looks at a male from the INPA tower as it fed on those white flowers in the canopy.
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – Plentiful in the flooded habitats of PN Anavilhanas, but not easy to see well.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) [*]
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis) [*]
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – Multiple good looks at PN Jaú on some of the smaller tributaries.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – We didn't find this one until that final full day on the Amazon south of Manaus.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – This and the next species were also found on that last full day on the Amazon.
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)

One of the adventures we had while hiking was crossing the Cachoeira da Onça footbridge. We found some great birds at this site, too! Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) [b]
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) [b]
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris) – Outnumbered by the next species, but we still had loads of them, especially on the Amazon s. of Manaus.
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Surprisingly scarce on this tour.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – Just a couple of birds, which is a little surprising.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – Nice looks late one afternoon in PN Jaú.

A highlight of the tour was this female Crimson Fruitcrow that visited the INPA tower while we were there. This cotinga is rare and poorly known, so we were very excited to see it so well! Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – A couple of these fancy vultures, including a close adult perched with other vultures above the dead, floating Puma at Jaú!
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – As expected, we only had this one on the Amazonian river islands.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – This migrant from N. America was recorded on all but five days of this tour. [b]
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – A small flock (migrating?) near Presidente Figueiredo gave us some decent looks, as did one on the final morning at the MUSA tower in Manaus.
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) [*]
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – Lovely!
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – This and the next species were only along the Amazon at the end of the trip.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – A single bird in PN Anavilhanas from the top deck of the Tumbira.

Marcelo found us this gorgeous Crimson Topaz near Presidente Figueiredo; this was just one of 15 hummingbirds we spotted on the tour, but it was perhaps the most spectacular! Participant Jason Leifester caught it in flight for a nice shot.

GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis)
BLACK-FACED HAWK (Leucopternis melanops) – Marcelo found the one tiny hole through the vegetation where we could set up the scope and get a look at this beautiful forest raptor.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – The only one that we ever saw was perched in the same tree both times that we visited the MUSA tower in Manaus.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) [*]
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) – Marcelo had a great spot for these impressive owls at PN Anavilhanas.
AMAZONIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium hardyi) – We were able to track down this calling bird at the Ducke forest reserve on our first full day.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
PAVONINE QUETZAL (Pharomachrus pavoninus) – We didn't see much on that afternoon excursion at Jaú, but we did get a good scope look at this one before the rain started. If you only see one bird on your walk through the forest, this isn't a bad one to get!
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – Now split from the White-tailed Trogon west of the Andes.
GUIANAN TROGON (Trogon violaceus) – This and the next used to be considered the same species, Violaceous Trogon, but their voices are very different.
AMAZONIAN TROGON (Trogon ramonianus) – This species replaces the Guianan Trogon west of the Napo and s. of the Amazon.
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – We found this one on the last boat ride of the morning before we started motoring south towards Manaus.

The MUSA tower near Manaus allowed us to get to the top of the forest canopy for great views of the forest, and some great birds! Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) [*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – After several days in what seemed to be ideal habitat, we finally tracked down a couple of these tiny kingfishers for some great, close looks.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) – Of the five possible kingfishers on this tour, this one is the toughest to get. We ended up doing very well with it one afternoon at PN Jaú.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
GUIANAN PUFFBIRD (Notharchus macrorhynchos) – A fairly recent split from the similar White-necked Puffbird west of the Rio Negro. We had a couple of excellent encounters with it.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus)
SPOTTED PUFFBIRD (Bucco tamatia) – We found one bird late one afternoon along the Campina Trail at Mari Mari. It didn't really afford us the looks that we wanted.
COLLARED PUFFBIRD (Bucco capensis) – After hearing this one on our first visit to the Cachoeira da Onça, we finally tracked one down for some super looks a couple of days later there.
BLACK NUNBIRD (Monasa atra) – This is the nunbird east of the Negro and north of the Amazon.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – This is the one that should have been call the "Black Nunbird", but the above species was named first.
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus) – Nicely in PN Jaú.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
YELLOW-BILLED JACAMAR (Galbula albirostris) – This beautiful little forest understory jacamar was seen a couple of times, with the best looks at the INPA tower en route to Presidente Figueiredo.

The Musician Wren has one of the most amazing songs of any bird, but they are usually very difficult to see. This one, however, was not shy, and we had a wonderful look at it. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

GREEN-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula galbula) – Great looks in the scopes in the seasonally flooded forest at PN Anavilhanas.
BRONZY JACAMAR (Galbula leucogastra) – This was actually the most frequently seen jacamar on this tour, which was a bit of a surprise to me.
PARADISE JACAMAR (Galbula dea) – A canopy species with an extremely long tail.
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – Easy to hear, but not so easy to see! We did end up with super views in the scopes near Presidente Figueiredo.
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
BLACK-SPOTTED BARBET (Capito niger) – A few good views of this rather quiet barbet species, which replaces the next species in the Guianan Shield region.
GILDED BARBET (Capito auratus) [*]
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
GREEN ARACARI (Pteroglossus viridis) – Our best looks at this Guianan Shield specialty came up in the INPA tower.
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – Finally tracked this one down on that final morning visit to the MUSA tower in Manaus.
GUIANAN TOUCANET (Selenidera piperivora) – We had a couple of really memorable looks at this local specialty.
TAWNY-TUFTED TOUCANET (Selenidera nattereri) – YESSS!!! As soon as Marcelo and I heard this one call, we knew we would soon have it in the scopes for folks. Sure enough, we all had great looks at a male perched quietly in a Cecropia tree in no time at all!
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus) – The birds that we had east of the Rio Negro were once split out as the Red-billed Toucan.
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (CUVIER'S) (Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri) – The old "Cuvier's" Toucan was seen west of the Rio Negro.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (YELLOW-RIDGED) (Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus) – This form west of the Rio Negro was once split out from the Channel-billed as the Yellow-ridged Toucan.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
LAFRESNAYE'S PICULET (Picumnus lafresnayi) – Rather distant, but decent, views of this tiny woodpecker in the 'chavascal' forest at PN Jaú. This is pretty much the eastern limit of this species' range in S. America.
GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET (Picumnus exilis) – Our only sighting of this one was near Presidente Figueiredo.
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus) – Surprisingly scarce on this tour.
GOLDEN-COLLARED WOODPECKER (Dryobates cassini) – This one replaces the Red-stained Woodpecker in the Guianas and n. Brazil east of the Negro.
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus)

Guide Marcelo Barreiros got a nice video of a Collared Puffbird on one of our visits to the Cachoeira da Onça. It's interesting how the bird seems to look at him before beginning to search for prey.
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis) – Big and distinctive!
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) [*]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RINGED WOODPECKER (Celeus torquatus) – Good looks in the flooded forest at PN Anavilhanas.
SCALE-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Celeus grammicus) – One of these beautifully-patterned Celeus woodpeckers came in for good looks along the Itaubal Trail at PN Jaú.
WAVED WOODPECKER (Celeus undatus) – This species replaces the above species east of the Rio Negro. Fantastic looks at a bird next to the INPA tower!
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus) – Part of our "Celeus sweep" on this tour.
CHESTNUT WOODPECKER (Celeus elegans jumanus) – Great views in the stunted chavascal woodland at PN Jaú.
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula) – Including a nesting bird at the Ducke forest reserve near Manaus. [N]
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros) – Nicely along the Nazare Trail at PN Jaú.
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – Closely related to our flickers here in N. America.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) [*]
LINED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur gilvicollis) [*]
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) [*]
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater) – Another surprisingly scarce species along our route.
RED-THROATED CARACARA (Ibycter americanus) – Please don't play the recording...
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – A couple of Caracaras that flew over the MUSA tower – this might be the most likely species here (if they are indeed good species!).
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
SCARLET-SHOULDERED PARROTLET (Touit huetii) – We spotted a high-flying flock from the Tumbira as we motored on the Rio Negro.

The Dotted Tanager is not common, so we were happy to get a good look at this one from the INPA tower near Manaus. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

SAPPHIRE-RUMPED PARROTLET (Touit purpuratus) – Fantastic looks of at least four birds feeding in the Moriche Palms at Mari Mari one afternoon!
TUI PARAKEET (Brotogeris sanctithomae) – Only in the Manaus area.
WHITE-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris versicolurus) – Likewise for this one...
GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera) – This was the 'default' Brotogeris parakeet on most of this tour, with most of the ones that we detected being heard only.
ORANGE-CHEEKED PARROT (Pyrilia barrabandi) – A couple of these came in briefly one rainy afternoon at PN Jaú.
CAICA PARROT (Pyrilia caica) – We heard several flybys, but our looks were brief and unsatisfying.
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus) – After detecting this one almost daily (mostly poor looks of high-flying birds), we got one in the scope for some good looks at the MUSA tower on the final morning of the tour.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
SHORT-TAILED PARROT (Graydidascalus brachyurus) – Only along the Amazon on our penultimate day of the tour.
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva) – Very common in the flooded forest and river islands at PN Anavilhanas at PN Jaú.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
BLACK-HEADED PARROT (Pionites melanocephalus) [*]
RED-FAN PARROT (Deroptyus accipitrinus) – We had to wait until the final morning at the MUSA tower in Manaus before we even got a whiff of this one this trip – but, man, what a look!
MAROON-TAILED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura melanura) – In the scope at PN Jaú.

Short-billed Honeycreeper is another uncommon species that we saw at the INPA tower. Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

BROWN-THROATED PARAKEET (Eupsittula pertinax) – Several of the birds that we saw had quite a bit of yellow in the face, which I typically don't see in birds farther north in Venezuela and the Guianas.
RED-BELLIED MACAW (Orthopsittaca manilatus) – We found these in areas that had lots of Moriche Palms.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – Our most frequently encountered macaw species on this tour.
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus) – Seemingly very scarce along our route.
CHESTNUT-FRONTED MACAW (Ara severus) – Only along the Amazon on the next-to-last day of the tour.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
ASH-WINGED ANTWREN (Euchrepomis spodioptila) – Uncharacteristically great looks at this canopy species from the INPA tower north of Manaus.
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)
BLACK-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus canadensis)
MOUSE-COLORED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus murinus)
CASTELNAU'S ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus cryptoleucus) – We found a very cooperative male on Marchantaria I. south of Manaus.
BLACKISH-GRAY ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus nigrocinereus) – In the seasonally flooded forest of PN Anavilhanas.
NORTHERN SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus punctatus) – The pair that we found along the Campina Trail at Mari Mari kept their distance from the group, but we still got some good looks.
WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus aethiops) – A couple of us got this one along the trail as we made our way back to the Tumbira from the antswarm at PN Jaú.

On our 4 days in PN Jaú, we were able to get into some great birding habitats by using these motorized canoes. What a fun way to travel through such an amazing landscape! Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus cinereiceps) – Good views of a couple of birds in the stunted chavascal forest at PN Jaú.
DUSKY-THROATED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes ardesiacus) – Not as common as the next species.
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius)
RUFOUS-BELLIED ANTWREN (Isleria guttata) – Mostly heard east of the Rio Negro, but a few folks got on this tiny forest understory species at Cachoeira da Onça.
SPOT-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Pygiptila stellaris) – A single female was moving through the area where the big antswarm was working at PN Jaú, constituting the only sighting of the trip.
BROWN-BELLIED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla gutturalis) – All of these antwrens in the genus Epinecrophylla have had their English common names changed to 'Stipplethroat', so this one is now the Brown-bellied Stipplethroat.
FULVOUS-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota) – This one is now part of the Rufous-backed Stipplethroat complex. [*]
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura)
CHERRIE'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula cherriei) – We had to be patient with this one, but we all eventually got him in the chavascal woodland.
KLAGES'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula klagesi) – We got this local species from the upper deck on the Tumbira while anchored at PN Anavilhanas.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
LONG-WINGED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longipennis) – This was with a mixed flock as we exited the trail to the INPA tower north of Manaus.
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii) – This one was with most of the mixed flocks that we found in the terra firme.
LEADEN ANTWREN (Myrmotherula assimilis) – A very cooperative pair in the seasonally flooded forest at PN Anavilhanas.
SPOT-BACKED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus) – We called a male in for some super views from the INPA tower north of Manaus.

This beautiful Long-billed Woodcreeper was seen in Jaú, where participant Jason Leifester got a really nice image of this distinctive bird.

WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea) – A couple of very furtive birds were seen fairly well in the scrub at the White-naped Seedeater spot.
GUIANAN WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis cantator) – A couple of birds on our first full day at the Ducke reserve near Manaus. The old Warbling Antbird was fairly recently split up into seven species, with this one occupying the region of n. South America east of the Rio Negro and north of the Amazon.
YELLOW-BROWED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis hypoxantha) – This bird was extremely responsive in PN Jaú, but it hardly paused for a look through the understory vegetation.
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens) [*]
ASH-BREASTED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus lugubris) – A flooded forest specialty that we saw well at PN Anavilhanas.
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus ardesiacus) – This species pretty much replaces the above species in the terra firme forest.
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon) – Another flooded forest specialist.
BLACK-AND-WHITE ANTBIRD (Myrmochanes hemileucus) – We were expecting this one to play 'hard to get' on the young island on the Amazon, but the pair there surprised us all and came out in the open for all to see.
BLACK-HEADED ANTBIRD (HELLMAYR'S) (Percnostola rufifrons subcristata) – Nice looks at a male at Cachoeira da Onça near Presidente Figueiredo.
FERRUGINOUS-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus ferrugineus) – Marcelo knew exactly where the 'friendly pair' of these gorgeous antbirds resided at Cachoeira da Onça.
WHITE-PLUMED ANTBIRD (Pithys albifrons) – One of the most striking and beautiful of all of the antbirds. Good numbers of these were attending the two army ant swarms that we encountered at PN Jaú.
WHITE-CHEEKED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys leucaspis) – Now re-split from the similar Bicolored Antbird to the west of the Andes. Another army ant swarm follower.
RUFOUS-THROATED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys rufigula) [*]
CHESTNUT-CRESTED ANTBIRD (Rhegmatorhina cristata) – We pretty much whiffed on this local target in PN Jaú at our first army ant swarm, but we found another swarm the next morning in the park and ended up getting super looks at this one for all.
SPOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevius) – We ran across this beautiful antbird just once on the tour, in PN Jaú.

Here is an aerial view of Jaú National Park, showing the intertwined river and islands. Photo by guide Marcelo Barreiros.

COMMON SCALE-BACKED ANTBIRD (Willisornis poecilinotus) – Seen with the two army ant swarms at PN Jaú. This one is now split from the birds mostly to the east of the Rio Madeira and south of Amazon.
REDDISH-WINGED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis erythroptera) – Both of our antswarms attracted a few of these fancy army ant obligates.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
THRUSH-LIKE ANTPITTA (Myrmothera campanisona) [*]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – Nice views of a couple of birds walking on the forest floor at Cachoeira da Onça on our last afternoon visit there.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus) – This one is sure to be split up sometime in the future, so keep track of where you see them.
WHITE-CHINNED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla merula) – Several of these were in attendance at the army ant swarms at PN Jaú. Very similar to the next species.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa)
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus)
CINNAMON-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Dendrexetastes rufigula) – Only on that first full day at the Ducke forest reserve near Manaus.
LONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Nasica longirostris) – Wonderful looks at this distinctive woodcreeper in the chavascal woodland at PN Jaú.
AMAZONIAN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes certhia) – Good looks at Cachoeira da Onça on our first morning there. These Guianan Shield birds have dull red bills and are often mistaken for the scarce Red-billed Woodcreeper.
BLACK-BANDED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes picumnus) – I think that the best group look that we had was on at the MUSA tower on the final morning.
RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Hylexetastes perrotii) – Nice looks at this big, scarce woodcreeper at both the Ducke forest reserve on the first full morning and at Cachoeira da Onça on our first visit there. Typically a very difficult bird on any tour.
STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) – Restricted to the seasonally flooded varzea forest.

We didn't find Red-fan Parrots until our last day, but when we visited the MUSA tower again we had amazing views of these colorful and impressive parrots. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

CHESTNUT-RUMPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus pardalotus) – This mid-sized woodcreeper was with nearly every mixed species flock that we found in terra firme east of the Rio Negro.
OCELLATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus ocellatus) – There are surely multiple species involved in what is currently called Ocellated Woodcreeper, so it's best to keep track of where you see this one. Ours was in PN Jaú west of the Rio Negro.
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) – We didn't find this one until we got west of the Rio Negro.
ZIMMER'S WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex kienerii) – Probably closest in appearance to the local Straight-billed Woodcreeper, but with blue-gray feet. A poorly-known species that we saw exceptionally well at PN Anavilhanas.
GUIANAN WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes albolineatus) – One of the many Lineated Woodcreeper splits, this is the one that occurs east of the Rio Negro and north of the Amazon.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
POINT-TAILED PALMCREEPER (Berlepschia rikeri) – Fantastic views of a couple of birds in the Moriche Palms outside the entrance to the Ducke forest reserve near Manaus.
RUFOUS-TAILED XENOPS (Microxenops milleri) – Some folks got onto one vocal bird in the canopy at PN Jaú late one afternoon, but he gave us the slip.
LESSER HORNERO (Furnarius minor) – Excellent views on our last afternoon of birding on the Amazon.
OLIVE-BACKED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus infuscatus) [*]
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina) – A few of these were working the older growth on Marchantaria Island in the Amazon s. of Manaus.
PARKER'S SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpecula) – Just downstream from Marchantaria, these closely related birds were working in the very young growth on a much younger island.
SPECKLED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca gutturata) [*]

These Brazilian Bare-faced Tamarins are endemic, and not widespread, so we were pleased to see them at our first stop, the Hotel Tropical in Manaus. Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

SCALED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca muelleri) – This scarce and very local species was seen exceptionally well on Marchantaria Island s. of Manaus. It had gone missing from this site for a decade or more, but I'm sure glad it's back!
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – Try as we might, we couldn't turn any of these into the similar Red-and-white Spinetail on that last afternoon of birding.
WHITE-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Mazaria propinqua) – Very difficult to see in the thick island vegetation.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (Phaeomyias murina) – A few around the grounds of Mari Mari Lodge and in the nearby scrubby habitat.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) [*]
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – Tough to see this canopy species if it doesn't venture close to a canopy tower.
YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA (Myiopagis flavivertex) – Nicely on Marchantaria Island near Manaus.
RUFOUS-CROWNED ELAENIA (Elaenia ruficeps) – At our White-naped Seedeater spot.
RIVER TYRANNULET (Serpophaga hypoleuca) – A single bird on the young island with the Pearly-breasted Conebills near Manaus.
MCCONNELL'S FLYCATCHER (Mionectes macconnelli) – This small fruit-eating flycatcher was seen quite well on a couple of occasions, especially on the final morning at the MUSA tower.
OLIVE-GREEN TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes virescens) – Luckily for us, this uncommon canopy species made a close pass by the INPA tower n. of Manaus, giving all of us excellent views of this poorly-known species.
GUIANAN TYRANNULET (Zimmerius acer) – When I started birding, there were only five species of Zimmerius tyrannulets in the world – now there are 13 of them! The two that we saw on this tour were split from each other not too long ago, with the Guianan occurring east of the Rio Negro.

We saw quite a few of the Amazon River Dolphins as we traveled, but the experience of seeing them up-close at Novo Airão was unique, and I'm sure we'll all remember this for a long time! Video by guide Dave Stejskal.
SLENDER-FOOTED TYRANNULET (Zimmerius gracilipes) [*]
RINGED ANTPIPIT (Corythopis torquatus) – I really didn't expect this one to be quite that furtive!
SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis ecaudatus) – The world's smallest passerine!
DOUBLE-BANDED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus vitiosus) – We finally found this one calling in the right situation, allowing us to rather easily see him moving around at the road edge on the Tucumanduba road.
SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT (IGAPO) (Hemitriccus minor pallens) – The best look at this one was in the stunted chavascal woodland at PN Jaú.
TODY-TYRANT SP. (Hemitriccus sp. nov.?) – One of those birds that you need to put in the bank for later – we found this one calling across the channel in the PN Jaú. It's closely related to Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant, but clearly different in voice and habitat preference.
WHITE-EYED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus zosterops zosterops) – This was the form that we saw so well in PN Jaú on the morning that we had the Tawny-tufted Toucanet.
WHITE-EYED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus zosterops rothschildi) – Nicely seen at the Ducke forest reserve on that first full morning of birding near Manaus.
PELZELN'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus inornatus) – We had to work hard to get a good look, but I think that we all eventually scored with this one at Mari Mari. Like the Zimmerius tyrannulets, the numbers of recognized Hemitriccus tody-tyrants has certainly grown over the years.
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris) – Coaxed into view on Marchantaria Island.
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum)
PAINTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum pictum) – Excellent scope looks along the Tucumanduba road.
BROWNISH TWISTWING (Cnipodectes subbrunneus) [*]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (RIVERINE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens insignis) – On our first afternoon at the Hotel Tropical in Manaus. Another species to keep track of in preparation for multiple splits...
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias assimilis) [N]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus)
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus) – Now split from Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher west of the Andes.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatior)
RIVERSIDE TYRANT (Knipolegus orenocensis) – That adult male on the young island s. of Manaus came right out for us!
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – A brief female on the final full day of birding for some.
RUFOUS-TAILED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon ruficauda) – This one got a little too excited and almost got lost in the canopy.
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus) – Some folks got great comparisons between this one and the next species on Marchantaria Island s. of Manaus.
DULL-CAPPED ATTILA (Attila bolivianus)
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus)
TODD'S SIRYSTES (Sirystes subcanescens) – Sirystes was fairly recently split up into four species, and this is the one found north of the Amazon and east of the Rio Negro.
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex)
PALE-BELLIED MOURNER (Rhytipterna immunda) – All too briefly seen at PN Jaú.
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (PHAEONOTUS) (Myiarchus swainsoni phaeonotus) – This race is mostly confined to the Guianan Shield region of n.e. South America and appears to be non-migratory.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Surprisingly few on this tour – which spends quite a bit of time in what looks like ideal habitat for this one!
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)

Spotted Tanagers are fairly common, but we still enjoyed the great looks we had at the INPA tower. What a pretty bird! Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) [*]
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – The default Myiozetetes for much of this trip.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – A few on the islands in the Amazon s. of Manaus were the only ones of the trip.
YELLOW-THROATED FLYCATCHER (Conopias parvus) – Especially good looks along the Tucumanduba road one morning. This one tends to be a 'flock leader' for the terra firme canopy flocks here.
ISLAND STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes [maculatus] sp. nov.) – On the Amazon river islands, of course!
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius) – Often mistaken for the above Piratic – and vice versa.
SULPHURY FLYCATCHER (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) – A regular in the palms on the Mari Mari Lodge grounds.
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – A couple of migrants from the south on the grounds of the Hotel Tropical on our first afternoon. [b]
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Good numbers of this and the next were seen flying north over the forest and past the MUSA tower in Manaus on the final day.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GUIANAN RED-COTINGA (Phoenicircus carnifex) – An immature male responded well for our group along the terra firme trail at Mari Mari Lodge, giving all some great looks.
GUIANAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Rupicola rupicola) – It's impossible to come up with new superlatives for this strange and beautiful bird, so I won't even try! Incredible looks and audio at Mari Mari Lodge.
CRIMSON FRUITCROW (Haematoderus militaris) – WOWWWW!!!! One of the most exciting events on this tour was the moment when this one, a female bird, flew in to the trees next to the INPA tower! And it stuck around for prolonged, close looks, allowing us to enjoy every detail of this scarce and poorly known cotinga. A lifer for most on the tour, and one of just a handful of sightings for your guides!
CAPUCHINBIRD (Perissocephalus tricolor) – Another very strange cotinga, we ended up with super views of this odd bird at the lek and in the nearby forest at Cachoeira da Onça.

Here is a nice image of part of our group when we passed the amazing Meeting of the Waters on the Tumbira. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

PURPLE-BREASTED COTINGA (Cotinga cotinga) – You couldn't beat the looks of that adult male at Mari Mari Lodge feeding in the Açaí Palms!
SPANGLED COTINGA (Cotinga cayana) – We enjoyed a very close perched male in the scope at Mari Mari Lodge one afternoon. I have a tough time picking a favorite between this and the Purple-breasted Cotinga above (it's clear which one Marcelo prefers!).
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans) – This was at least heard on most days of this tour.
POMPADOUR COTINGA (Xipholena punicea) – We had a couple of great views of perched females, but adult males were tough to come by on this trip.
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus) – A group of these unusual birds were spotted feeding in a fruiting tree above the trail at PN Jaú early one morning, providing our only sighting of the tour.
Pipridae (Manakins)
DWARF TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) [*]
TINY TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes virescens) – I'm afraid this one really drew the short straw when fancy plumage was being handed out to the manakins...
SAFFRON-CRESTED TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysocephalum) – Daphne may have been the only one to get a decent look at this shy manakin on the Campina Trail at Mari Mari Lodge.
BLACK MANAKIN (Xenopipo atronitens) [*]
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix coronata) – A couple of males on territory next to the trail at PN Jaú.
WHITE-FRONTED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix serena) – An adult male came in for a brief, but good, look along the terra firme trail at Mari Mari Lodge.
YELLOW-CROWNED MANAKIN (Heterocercus flavivertex) – A couple of males were seen in the stunted chavascal habitat at PN Jaú. All three of the Heterocercus manakins are tied to stunted forest on poor soils in areas that are often seasonally or permanently flooded.
WIRE-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra filicauda) – We hit the jackpot with this species at PN Anavilhanas! We found a couple of different leks on our walk through the seasonally flooded forest here.
GOLDEN-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra erythrocephala)

The Ferruginous-backed Antbird might be one of the prettiest of this group. Guide Dave Stejskal got this portrait of one of the pair that Marcelo knew of at Cachoeira da Onça.

WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
VARZEA SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis major) [*]
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis turdina) [*]
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus)
GLOSSY-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus surinamus) – We had a tough go with this scarce and local specialty early on in the tour, but we absolutely nailed it on our final morning of birding at the MUSA tower in Manaus.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) [*]
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus) [*]
BROWN-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus brunneiceps) – This local greenlet finally stopped long enough for all of us to get a good look up on the upper deck of the Tumbira.
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus) [*]
SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius leucotis) – We recorded this one only east of the Rio Negro.
TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET (Tunchiornis ochraceiceps) [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET (Pachysylvia hypoxantha) [*]
BUFF-CHEEKED GREENLET (Pachysylvia muscicapina) – This one replaces the above Dusky-capped Greenlet east of the Rio Negro.

We found a number of colorful cotingas around the Mari Mari Lodge and Presidente Figueiredo, including this male Spangled Cotinga. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – Several of the silent birds that we saw from the MUSA tower in Manaus appeared to be this migratory species, now split from the Chivi Vireo. [b]
CHIVI VIREO (RESIDENT) (Vireo chivi solimoensis)
BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO (Vireo altiloquus) – A single bird in the canopy along the Tucumanduba road near Presidente Figueiredo was a surprise. [b]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
PURPLE MARTIN (Progne subis) [b]
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
SOUTHERN MARTIN (Progne elegans) [a]
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) [b]
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
WING-BANDED WREN (Microcerculus bambla) – Nice looks at this skulker at both Mari Mari Lodge and at PN Jaú.
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
CORAYA WREN (Pheugopedius coraya) – It's always difficult to get a look at this shy wren, but we did pretty well with it on the Tucumanduba road.
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) [*]
MUSICIAN WREN (Cyphorhinus arada) – That was, by far, the most confiding Musician Wren that I've ever encountered anywhere!

We looked for a few special birds in the strange stunted and open chavascal habitat on the Rio Jaú in Jaú National Park. Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
COLLARED GNATWREN (Microbates collaris) – Jason and Vivian were the only lucky ones to get a look at this extreme skulker at Cachoeira da Onça near Presidente Figueiredo.
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
GUIANAN GNATCATCHER (Polioptila guianensis) – We enjoyed excellent, close looks of at least two birds in a canopy flock along the terra firme trail at Mari Mari Lodge.
GUIANAN GNATCATCHER (RIO NEGRO) (Polioptila guianensis facilis) – This bird, replacing the similar Guianan Gnatcatcher to the west of the Rio Negro, was very recently elevated to full species rank, the Rio Negro Gnatcatcher (Polioptila facilis). Some of us got a fleeting view of one with a mixed canopy flock at PN Jaú.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
COCOA THRUSH (Turdus fumigatus) – Some got a look at this shy thrush late one afternoon at Cachoeira da Onça.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis) [*]
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (AMAZONIAN) (Turdus ignobilis debilis) – On the Hotel Tropical grounds on that first afternoon of the tour.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta) – I much prefer the old name of White-lored Euphonia.
GOLDEN-SIDED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cayennensis) – Great looks at an adult male from the INPA tower north of Manaus.
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) [*]
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Leistes militaris) – Only on the Amazon at the end of the tour.
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis) – Rather surprisingly, all three of our Oropendola species were quite scarce on this trip, being recorded on only 5 of our 14 days together.

Spix's Night Monkeys had a home in a large tree near Novo Airão, and one came out to greet us. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (AMAZONIAN) (Psarocolius bifasciatus yuracares)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous) – Not nearly as common as the above Yellow-rumped Cacique.
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus) – We all heard this one singing on Marchantaria Island, but Lynda may have been the only one to lay eyes on it.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – Given the paucity of Oropendola sightings, I guess it's not surprising that we saw this species, an Oropendola brood parasite, only once on the tour.
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus) – Nice looks on the very young island in the Amazon.
Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
RED-BILLED PIED TANAGER (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) – I've never had better looks at this one than we had on this tour!
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – A group of these came in rather tentatively at the MUSA tower in Manaus on the final morning.
AMAZONIAN GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia rothschildii) – This one is now split from the Blue-black Grosbeak west of the Andes.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis) – Very few in what looked like good habitat for this one.
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – A pair on the Amazon river islands at the end of the trip.
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
FULVOUS-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus surinamus) – Seemingly more common than the above species.

Finding an Army Ant swarm is always exciting, because many wonderful birds are only found near these swarms. Guide Marcelo Barreiros got an ant's-eye view of a swarm that we saw at PN Jaú.
RED-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus phoenicius) – The habitat where we saw this one near Presidente Figueiredo is very typical of where this one is found elsewhere in S. America.
FULVOUS SHRIKE-TANAGER (Lanio fulvus) – We had super views of this widespread, but uncommon, species along the terra Firme trail at Mari Mari Lodge.
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – If you've never really looked at these Amazonian birds, you were probably a little shocked to see that bold wing pattern compared to the races outside of Amazonia.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
DOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis varia) – YESSS!!! We were able to lure one of these scarce and local tanagers to the treetop next to the INPA tower north of Manaus for some outstanding views. A really poorly-known species throughout its range.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis punctata) – Great looks from the INPA tower.
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis) – A few of these stunners sat out in the open for us at the MUSA tower in Manaus on our first visit in the afternoon there.
OPAL-RUMPED TANAGER (Tangara velia) – A couple of birds flew over the boat in response to Marcelo's recording – not the greatest of looks.
BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata) – Unmistakable with the black mask setting off that pale eye; the turquoise plumage is pretty sharp, too!
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
SHORT-BILLED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes nitidus) – We had fantastic, close looks at at least one adult male from the INPA tower on our one visit there. An infrequently-seen species.
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Love those bright yellow legs!
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – It's great fun to be able to see this gorgeous bird at close range and from above!
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Nothing else like it.

This Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher posed nicely for us at PN Jaú. This species is probably the most difficult of the New World Kingfishers to see, so we were very pleased with this great look. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) [*]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis) – Our best looks were of a solo female up next to the INPA tower.
PEARLY-BREASTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum margaritae) – A nest-building pair on the young river island s. of Manaus was a nice find; I doubt that there are many birders who've ever seen this bird building a nest. [N]
ORANGE-FRONTED YELLOW-FINCH (Sicalis columbiana) – Just a few of these here and there.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) [*]
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – A singing imm. male on one of the young islands in the Amazon on the final full day of birding.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris)
WHITE-NAPED SEEDEATER (Sporophila fringilloides) – We rolled the dice on this one since the usual property had changed hands before the tour. Our new spot turned out to be great! There aren't many spots in S. America where you can expect to see this one.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) [*]
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) – On our final afternoon in Manaus – ugh. [I]

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis) – Junior spotted our two opossum species at PN Anavilhanas on the same night.
GRAY FOUR-EYED OPOSSUM (Metachirops opossum)

Although birds are our main focus, it's always interesting to see other forest-creatures, so we were pleased to see this colorful American Pipe Snake near the MUSA tower. Photo by participant Jason Leifester.

LONG-NOSED BAT (Rhynchonycteris naso) – These are the bats that like to roost on the underside of a tree trunk that hangs out over the water.
GREATER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio leporinus) – These are generally known as Fishing Bats as well.
GOLDEN-HANDED TAMARIN (Saguinus midas) – This is essentially a Guianan Shield endemic, like many of our birds east of the Rio Negro.
BRAZILIAN BARE-FACE TAMARIN (Saguinus bicolor) – Extremely local in the central Amazon Basin north of the Amazon. [E]
SPIX'S NIGHT MONKEY (Aotus vociferans) – A family group of these were roosting in a hollowed out tree trunk near Novo Airão.
RED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta seniculus) – I would have expected more of these on this tour, but we hardly ever heard them.
BLACK UAKARI MONKEY (Cacajao malanocephalus) [*]
BLACK SPIDER MONKEY (Ateles paniscus) – A couple of really fine looks at this one.
PALE-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus tridactylus) – This one was spotted just as we were heading down the MUSA tower in Manaus, so a few folks that left early never got the word, unfortunately.
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti) – Only on the grounds of the Hotel Tropical in Manaus on our first afternoon
PACA (Cuniculus paca) – Scarce everywhere now because the locals like the taste of this one...
AMAZON BAMBOO RAT (Dactylomys dactylinus) [*]
AMAZON RIVER DOLPHIN (Inia geoffrensis) – I think that we recorded this one seven days in a row while on the Tumbira, but nothing compared to that experience we had with them at Novo Airão!

And finally, here is a view of the beautiful sunrise we experienced on the INPA tower. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

TUCUXI (Sotalia fluviatilis) – The smaller of the two river dolphins and the one that has a more 'typical' dorsal fin.
NEOTROPICAL OTTER (Lontra longicaudis) – Part of our two-otter afternoon at PN Jaú.
GIANT OTTER (Pteronura brasiliensis) – It's a shame that these big mustelids didn't stick around longer than they did.
COUGAR (MOUNTAIN LION) (Puma concolor) – After we all saw the dead one floating in the creek (a remarkable sighting on its own!), the folks who went out after dark got to see the eyeshine of a live one!
GREEN IGUANA (Iguana iguana)
GIANT AMEIVA (Ameiva ameiva) – These were the big green and brown 'race runners' that we saw around Mari Mari Lodge.
FER-DE-LANCE (Bothrops asper) – Marcelo spotted a little one on the trail at PN Jaú late one afternoon.
AMERICAN PIPE SNAKE (Anilius scytale) – After coming across so many giant earthworms on the trail to the MUSA tower on that last morning, some of us came across this beauty that was roughly the same size as those giant earthworms! It happens to be pretty widespread in the lowland forests of northern S. America and is non-venomous.
SPECTACLED CAIMAN (Caiman crocodilus) – This was the smaller of the two species that we saw at PN Jaú.
BLACK CAIMAN (Melanosuchus niger)
SMOKY JUNGLE FROG (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) – I don't think that I've ever heard a more vociferous frog anywhere!


Totals for the tour: 415 bird taxa and 21 mammal taxa