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Field Guides Tour Report
Mouth of the Amazon and Lower Rio Xingu 2016
Jul 29, 2016 to Aug 13, 2016
Marcelo Padua & Bret Whitney

The Amazon River near its mouth, photographed from the air by participant Valerie Gebert.

This tour was put together to replace two tours that have been extinct for quite some time now. Our old Caxiuana tour and our Carajas tour were both very popular tours. But we had to to stop operating them for reasons that we could not control, as the first one visited an area that became closed off for tourism, and the second became too tiring to do as we were forced to move our lodging to a town too far from the best birding areas. As Bret and I were talking about these old tours in recent years, we realized that a relative of mine had a farm in an area close to Caxiuana, and that if we visited this area we could make a short visit to Carajas and focus on a few target birds, making it a much more pleasant experience. We added to that a brief visit to an Island at the mouth of the Amazon for two reasons: the birding is spectacular, and it offers the rare opportunity to fly over the delta of the largest river on earth in chartered planes -- allowing us all to realize just how immense this river really is! In the end we decided to add a couple of nights in the coastal town of Salinopolis just to unwind end enjoy some easy birding.

That's a long-winded intro to the tour concept, but the trip was so much more than that, especially to me as a parallel can easily be traced between my life and my interest in birds and this route.

We started the tour in Belem, the city where I was born and raised. Although I was not a birder when I was growing up, the vibrant wild setting that surrounds the city clearly stimulated my love of nature when I was young. Our visit here was focused on a nature reserve just outside of town, where a few years earlier, after a spectacular morning of birding, I had decided to drop out of law school and dedicate myself to birding full time. Our group's time here was every bit as spectacular as that visit some years ago as we found a fruiting tree and enjoyed views of Spangled and White-winged cotingas, Sapphire-rumped Parrotlets, Black-necked and Lettered aracaris, and a myriad of tanagers that came to feed.

We then transferred by chartered planes to Mexiana Island on a beautiful morning that allowed us to see just how vast the delta of the Amazon is. Upon our arrival we were treated to a regional breakfast and then set off to take advantage of our brief time on the island. Our first sighting was a Slender-billed Kite perched close to our hotel, but there was no shortage of Jabirus, Wood Storks, and Black-collared Hawks and Great Black Hawks, while the forest patches of the island produced great birds such as Scaled Spinetail, Yellow-crowned Elaenia, Crimson-hooded Manakin, Blackish-gray Antshrike and many others.

Moving from here to our next location was an adventure in itself on a day where we used a safari vehicle, chartered airplanes, a commercial flight, a van and a cab, speedboats, and 4x4 pickup trucks to relocate us from the island to the farm where we would spend the next few days. It was on this farm -- where I had spent many of my vacations as a kid -- that we found the range-restricted Golden Parakeets as well as several other goodies such as a stunning male Guianan Red-Cotinga, a hard-to-spot but confiding Banded Antbird, Crested Owl, and many others.

Our next stop was Carajas, the largest Iron mine in the World and a place where I did one of my first Field Guides tours as a guest leader (Virginia was there for that first trip and for this inaugural Mouth of the Amazon tour as well!). Our birding here was, as it should be, incredible, with days filled with bellbirds and cotinga sightings as well as some highly localized birds such as Black-and-white Tody-Tyrant, Black-chested Tyrant, Black-bellied Gnateater, and Snethlage’s Antpitta, not to mention a single flowering tree that produced Dot-eared Coquettes and Fiery-tailed Awlbill. What a rush!

We wrapped things up at the coast, in a small town where I had spent most of my summer vacations as a kid, the group enjoying caipirinhas, Scarlet Ibis coming to roost, Rufous Crab-Hawk, and Little Wood-Rails, as well as some great scenery and fabulous food.

This was a trip down memory lane for me, and Bret and I hope it has created some great memories for you, too.

All the best, and we hope to see you in the field again some day soon to create some more great memories together.

--Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) [*]

More than a year before this tour, Bret and Marcelo had found this individual during a scouting trip. They returned with our group to see if the bird was still around. It was, and it put on quite a show for our group! Video by guide Bret Whitney.
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris)
Anhimidae (Screamers)
HORNED SCREAMER (Anhima cornuta) – Great looks at these strange looking birds after Kent spotted a pair of them across the river in Carajas.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
BUFF-BROWED CHACHALACA (Ortalis superciliaris) – We had a pair of these right on the Hotel Grounds in Belem.
WHITE-CRESTED GUAN (Penelope pileata) – It is always great to this this handsome range-restricted Guan.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata)
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
MARBLED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus gujanensis) – Seen only by Mike as we flushed one from the trail.
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – A pair of birds displaying in a pond around Carajas.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari)
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis) – A few birds seen on a young island on the xingu river.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – Common around Salinopolis but has a small range in Brazil.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)

A fantastic flight shot of the Harpy Eagle by participant Larry Peavler -- see the video clip below, too!

STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – Visiting a rookery was a perfect way to end the tour. And the Caipirinhas were a nice bonus too.
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – A great spot by Martha.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Several individuals seen along the Xingu River.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – A dark morph individual
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
HARPY EAGLE (Harpia harpyja) – Seeing a Harpy Eagle sitting in the middle of the road and then watching it for several minutes was one of the highlights of the tour.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus)
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis)
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
SLENDER-BILLED KITE (Helicolestes hamatus) – Seen at Mexiana Island on our arrival right by the hotel.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)

Bret and Marcelo scanning at dawn for Golden Parakeets. Photo by participant Valerie Gebert.

PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
RUFOUS CRAB HAWK (Buteogallus aequinoctialis) – A fairly scarce bird in Brazil which we saw well during a boat trip around Salinas.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Common on Mexiana Island.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis)
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – The Gray Hawk which occurred all the way from Southern United States to Northern Argentina was recently split into two species. The Gray-lined Hawk is the one found in the southern part of the range.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius)
LITTLE WOOD-RAIL (Aramides mangle) – Great looks at this poorly known species on the last full day of the tour around Salinas.
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Formerly known as Gray-necked Wood-Rail. This species was recently split into two taxa based on significant vocal differences and minor plumage differences.
RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE (Anurolimnas viridis)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris)
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus)
Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER (Pluvialis squatarola)
AMERICAN GOLDEN-PLOVER (Pluvialis dominica)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris)
WILSON'S PLOVER (Charadrius wilsonia)

And the Golden Parakeets in question...success!! Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus)
RUDDY TURNSTONE (Arenaria interpres)
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla)
SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER (Limnodromus griseus)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
GULL-BILLED TERN (Gelochelidon nilotica)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)

The wonderfully bizarre White Bellbird in a video clip by guide Bret Whitney.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
BLUE GROUND-DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – Dona Virginia spotted this one for us.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) [*]
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
LITTLE CUCKOO (Coccycua minuta) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) [*]
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) [*]
TAWNY-BELLIED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops watsonii) [*]
CRESTED OWL (Lophostrix cristata) – A great look at this handsome owl at the farm where we spent a few nights.
AMAZONIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium hardyi)
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
BLACK-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba huhula) – Another great owl seen at the farm where we stayed for a few nights on the right bank on the Xingu River.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Lurocalis semitorquatus)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
LITTLE NIGHTJAR (Setopagis parvula) – One night in Carajas while we were doing our checklist at the hotel a Little Nightjar perched right outside the window of the restaurant. Just goes to prove that the birding never stops on these trips!
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
WHITE-WINGED POTOO (Nyctibius leucopterus) [*]

A majestic Bare-faced Curassow, photographed by participant Larry Peavler.

Apodidae (Swifts)
SWIFT SP. (Cypseloides sp.)
AMAZONIAN SWIFT (Chaetura viridipennis)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis) – Austral migrants
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – One individual nesting in the garage of one property we visited outside Belem was a treat to see.
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
STRAIGHT-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis bourcieri)
LONG-TAILED HERMIT (Phaethornis superciliosus) – Feeding on a passion vine.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber)
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
FIERY-TAILED AWLBILL (Avocettula recurvirostris) – After spending quite a bit of time looking for it, we had great looks at male and female feeding in a flowering tree in Carajas.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
DOT-EARED COQUETTE (Lophornis gouldii) – The same tree that produced great looks at the Fiery-tailed Awlbill yielded some great views of this rarely seen hummer.
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris)
BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus)
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis)
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina)

A video clip of our fantastic Harpy Eagle experience by guide Bret Whitney.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – Formerly known as White-tailed Trogon.
AMAZONIAN TROGON (Trogon ramonianus) – Formerly known as Violaceous Trogon, which was split into three different species, the Guianan, Amazonian, and Gartered, based on genetic and vocal differences.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) [*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus hyperrhynchus)
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus)
COLLARED PUFFBIRD (Bucco capensis)
EASTERN STRIOLATED-PUFFBIRD (Nystalus striolatus) – Recently split by our own guide Bret Whitney. What a treat to have him with us to show us this bird.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons)
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – Always an incredible bird to see but especially interesting to hear its cat-like calls.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
LETTERED ARACARI (Pteroglossus inscriptus)
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – Seen in great numbers feeding in a fruiting tree outside of Belem.
RED-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus bitorquatus)
GOULD'S TOUCANET (Selenidera gouldii) – Always great to see this multicolored southern Amazonia endemic.
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco)

Marcelo checks in with a local cowboy to get the 411 on Golden Parakeet whereabouts. Photo by participant Valerie Gebert.

WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BAR-BREASTED PICULET (Picumnus aurifrons)
WHITE-BELLIED PICULET (MANGROVE) (Picumnus spilogaster pallidus) – There is quite a bit of confusion regarding this taxon. We choose to follow Alexander Lees's publication regarding this bird. For more details you may see his paper online where he discusses the taxonomic conundrum presented by this species at this link.
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus)
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis)
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – Seen right on the grounds of our hotel in Belem.
RINGED WOODPECKER (Celeus torquatus)
WAVED WOODPECKER (Celeus undatus)
CHESTNUT WOODPECKER (Celeus elegans) – A great spot by Val.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis) – Great looks at this spectacular woodpecker right outside Belem.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis)
SLATY-BACKED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mirandollei)
RED-THROATED CARACARA (Ibycter americanus)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)

A Spangled Cotinga lights up the treetops. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
SAPPHIRE-RUMPED PARROTLET (Touit purpuratus) – This shy forest species is usually quite hard to see, but while we were watching a fruiting tree outside of Belem Bret heard them and we managed to bring them into view for great looks.
TUI PARAKEET (Brotogeris sanctithomae)
WHITE-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris versicolurus) – The most common parakeet around Belem where they can be seen in flocks that number in the hundreds.
GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera)
VULTURINE PARROT (Pyrilia vulturina) [*]
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus) – Great views outside of Belem.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva) – Seen on Mexiana Island at the mouth of the Amazon.
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
PEARLY PARAKEET (Pyrrhura lepida)
SANTAREM PARAKEET (Pyrrhura amazonum)
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – This magnificent species has its stronghold in the Pantanal and used to have a big range, but habitat loss has them mostly restricted to three different areas where a lot of habitat still exist. Carajas is one of these areas, and we were fortunate to see four of them by the side of the road.
JANDAYA PARAKEET (Aratinga jandaya)
RED-BELLIED MACAW (Orthopsittaca manilatus)
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus)
GOLDEN PARAKEET (Guaruba guaruba) – No doubt about it, one of the stars of the tour and the main reason we visited the Xingu area. This Brazilian endemic has a small world range, and we put a lot of effort into finding them, but after quite a bit of time looking we were able to watch a flock them flying in from a great distance, and then they circled around us for some time before disappearing. What a treat!
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)

A Scarlet Ibis roost we enjoyed viewing late one afternoon. Photo by participant Larry Peavler.

GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – This is one of these antbirds with a huge distribution and many subspecies, ten in this case, and the bird we saw belongs to the semifasciatus subspecies.
GLOSSY ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus luctuosus)
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus torquatus)
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus)
BLACKISH-GRAY ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus nigrocinereus)
NATTERER'S SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus stictocephalus)
AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus)
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius)
PLAIN-THROATED ANTWREN (Isleria hauxwelli)
SPOT-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Pygiptila stellaris)
WHITE-EYED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma)
ORNATE ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla ornata)
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura)
AMAZONIAN STREAKED-ANTWREN (Myrmotherula multostriata)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
LONG-WINGED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longipennis) – Subspecies paraensis
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii) – Subspecies omissa. This subspecies was described in 1927 based on a specimen collected very close to the area where we saw it.
BANDED ANTBIRD (Dichrozona cincta) – Seen well at the farm on the right bank of the Xingu.
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus)
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea)
SPIX'S WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis striata)
WILLIS'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides laeta)

Our tour had many hightlights, but the quality of our sightings of antpittas and gnateaters was definitely one of the lasting memories of this tour. Guide Bret Whitney put together this short video to remind us of a few of those moments!
BLACKISH ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides nigrescens)
MANU ANTBIRD (Cercomacra manu)
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens)
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota)
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus)
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon)
BLACK-SPOTTED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) [*]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-BELLIED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanogaster)
CHESTNUT-BELTED GNATEATER (SNETHLAGE'S) (Conopophaga aurita pallida)
HOODED GNATEATER (Conopophaga roberti)
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
SPOTTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus macularius)
SNETHLAGE'S ANTPITTA (Hylopezus paraensis) – Our local guide in Carajas had a territory staked out, and we managed to bring it in for incredible views.
AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA (Hylopezus berlepschi) – Not as cooperative as the previous one, but after quite a bit of effort we all got good looks at it.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus) – With many subspecies involved and several plumage and vocalization differences, it is important to keep track of which birds you see. The birds we saw belong to the axillaris subspecies and we got to watch them feeding young.
LONG-TAILED WOODCREEPER (Deconychura longicauda) [*]
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus)
CINNAMON-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Dendrexetastes rufigula) [*]
LONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Nasica longirostris)
AMAZONIAN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (XINGU) (Dendrocolaptes certhia retentus)

A Plain-winged Antshrike photographed by guide Marcelo Padua. Insects and small amphibians, beware that bill!

RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER (BRIGIDA'S) (Hylexetastes perrotii brigidai) – A visit to a zoo in Carajas produced great looks at this spectacular woodcreeper.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (CARAJAS) (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus carajaensis)
STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) – Seen on a short stop at a river island on the Xingu.
SPIX'S WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus spixii)
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (DUSKY-BILLED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni)
LAYARD'S WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes layardi) – Formerly known as Lineated Woodcreeper, this species was recently split into five species, four of which were known taxa and one that was described as a new taxon.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
RUFOUS-RUMPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor erythrocercum) – Prolonged views of one of these birds with a mixed species flock at the farm along the Xingu.
PARA FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus paraensis) [*]
SCALED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca muelleri) – Our brief visit to Mexiana islands produced many island specialists and this was one of them.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens)
RUDDY SPINETAIL (Synallaxis rutilans) – This forest spinetail is always tricky to find but we managed to pull one up at Carajas.
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (Phaeomyias murina) – Seen right around Belem.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA (Myiopagis flavivertex)

The immense Jabiru was an eye-grabber in open areas. Photo by participant Larry Peavler.

GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata)
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis)
MCCONNELL'S FLYCATCHER (Mionectes macconnelli) – We watched one of these guys bathing in a puddle in the middle of the road, which was great as this is often a hard to see species.
SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis ecaudatus)
SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minor) – We found one nesting around Carajas. The first time I've ever seen the nest of this species.
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
ZIMMER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minimus)
BLACK-AND-WHITE TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus capitalis) – This striking species was shyer than usual, but with some effort we managed to pull one into view.
SMOKY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus fumifrons)
SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus sylvia) – Great looks at this cute flycatcher.
BLACK-CHESTED TYRANT (Taeniotriccus andrei)
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) [*]
YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) – This species is a canopy dweller and can be quite hard to see if you are not on a canopy tower, but we managed to pull one in for great looks from the ground.
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) [*]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (PARA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens mixtus) – This species has an impressive 16 subspecies, and its voice varies quite a bit throughout its range, so it is always a good idea to keep track of where you see it.
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus)
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) [*]

Here are a few of the fun moments we shared on our tour. Video by guide Bret Whitney.
WHITE-CRESTED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus platyrhynchos) [*]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus)
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
BLACKISH PEWEE (Contopus nigrescens) – We saw this species, which has a highly disjunct range around Carajas.
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatior)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus) – Seen well at Mexiana Island.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus)
ASH-THROATED CASIORNIS (Casiornis fuscus) – The birds present around Carajas are migrants coming from Northeast Brazil.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
DUSKY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes luteiventris)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
CROWNED SLATY FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus)
SULPHURY FLYCATCHER (Tyrannopsis sulphurea)

A Scarlet Ibis caught nicely in flight by participant Valerie Gebert.

WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – Present in large numbers on Mexiana Island.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus tocantinsi) – This subspecies has a very distinctive voice if compared to the nominate birds in Southeast Brazil.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GUIANAN RED-COTINGA (Phoenicircus carnifex)
PURPLE-BREASTED COTINGA (Cotinga cotinga) – A gorgeous adult male seen well through the scope around Carajas.
SPANGLED COTINGA (Cotinga cayana)
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
WHITE BELLBIRD (Procnias albus) – Seen and heard many times around Carajas, but our local guide knew just where to take us to get incredible scope views of this spectacular bird.
BEARDED BELLBIRD (Procnias averano) – This came as a bit of a surprise for Bret and myself as we had not recorded this species in the area before and they were present in good numbers this year. These birds are migrating to Carajas from Northeast Brazil and probably have started coming this far north due to the clearing of habitat farther south.
WHITE-TAILED COTINGA (Xipholena lamellipennis)
Pipridae (Manakins)
DWARF TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes stolzmanni)
BLUE-BACKED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia pareola) [*]
OPAL-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix iris) – Seen right around the spot where we saw the White Bellbird.
CRIMSON-HOODED MANAKIN (Pipra aureola) – A morning walk through riparian forest near our hotel on Mexiana Island produced great looks at this handsome species.
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda)
FIERY-CAPPED MANAKIN (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus)
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla)
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) [*]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)

Was our group suddenly transplanted into Gulliver's Travels? No, but at one site we birded near a mine, there were some simply immense trucks, so we had to take a group photo. Thanks to participant Valerie Gebert who set up the pic. (And see more of the big trucks and our visit to the mine in the "fun moments" video clip above.)

BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
WHITE-BROWED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura isabellae) – Seen several times throughout the tour.
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CINEREOUS BECARD (Pachyramphus rufus)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – It was fun to watch one of these guys feeding young.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus)
SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius leucotis)
DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET (Pachysylvia hypoxantha)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-NAPED JAY (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) – Seen well around the Cangas in Carajas.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis)
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus)

A clip of various fun images from the tour assembled by guide Bret Whitney.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) [*]
CORAYA WREN (Pheugopedius coraya)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
GUIANAN GNATCATCHER (PARA) (Polioptila guianensis paraensis) [*]
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
RED-BILLED PIED TANAGER (Lamprospiza melanoleuca)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – Seen on the grounds of our hotel in Belem.
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
MASKED TANAGER (Tangara nigrocincta)
SPOTTED TANAGER (Tangara punctata)

That's not just any old hummer in the treetop...check out the bill. Fiery-tailed Awlbill! Photo by participant Valerie Gebert.

TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana)
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis)
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola)
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Scope views of this striking bird.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera mexianae)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis)
GREAT-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila maximiliani) – Seeing this species was one of the highlights of the tour for me as this bird has practically disappeared from the wild in Brazil due to illegal trapping as this is a popular cage bird. Both Bret and I had only seen this bird once in the wild before in Brazil, which goes to show just how rare the species is. The great news is that the birds we saw were clearly breeding as some photos showed one of them carrying nesting material.
WING-BARRED SEEDEATER (Sporophila americana)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)

Great Jacamar is always a treat, and it gives a great haunting whistle, too. Photo by participant Larry Peavler.

Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) [*]
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
ROSE-BREASTED CHAT (Granatellus pelzelni)
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella militaris)
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus)
YELLOW-HOODED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus icterocephalus)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius bifasciatus bifasciatus)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta)
GOLDEN-SIDED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cayennensis)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)

LITTLE BROWN MYOTIS (Myotis lucifugus)

The lovely Collared Puffbird, often hard to spot, brings a lovely glow to the dark forest interior. Photo by participant Valerie Gebert.

DUSKY TITI MONKEY (Callicebus moloch)
RED-HANDED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta belzebul)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti)
OCELOT (Felis pardalis)
BRAZILIAN TAPIR (Tapirus terrestris)


Totals for the tour: 438 bird taxa and 12 mammal taxa