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Field Guides Tour Report
Mouth of the Amazon and Lower Rio Xingu 2017
Aug 5, 2017 to Aug 20, 2017
Marcelo Padua & Dave Stejskal

We got many good views of the big Toco Toucan on Mexiana Island, but we never saw them again on this tour after we left the island. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

This was Field Guides' second year to offer this special tour to the mouth of the mighty Amazon River. What a treat it was to be guided here by Marcelo, who was born and raised in Belem, and who knew each of our venues from both his childhood years and from his experience as a professional bird tour leader with Field Guides. We couldn't have asked for a better host!

And what a tour it was! Weather was super throughout, the food and drink were excellent, the company was wonderful, and the birding was exceptional. I knew that this was going to be a great birding tour after our first day near Belem where we tallied some great birds, like Willis's Antbird, Band-tailed Manakin, White-browed Hawk, Para Foliage-gleaner, and Hooded Gnateater - what a start!

It was then off to Mexiana Island situated right in the mouth of the Amazon itself. The flight over the delta alone was worth the price of admission! Once we got to the island, had a bite of breakfast, and got into our comfortable rooms, we were off in a safari truck and then in a boat to enjoy the many birds of this rarely visited river island. Birds were plentiful and confiding and we enjoyed some local birds like Scaled Spinetail, Festive Parrot, Yellow-crowned Elaenia, and a fine variety of finches, in addition to the big and obvious birds like Jabirus, Black-collared and Savanna hawks, Scarlet Macaw, and Toco Toucan.

After a logistically complicated - but smoothly executed - travel day, we found ourselves at the ranch of another of Marcelo's relatives on the lower Rio Xingu. Three nights here as the guests of Marcelo's extended family proved ideal for exploring the roads that accessed the edges of some impressive primary forest. Our main target here, the beautiful endemic Golden Parakeet, gave us the looks that we all wanted on our first full day. Sitting in the open just above our position on the road, that flock of Goldens really gave us an eye-full! Everything after that encounter at 'the farm' was just icing on the cake, and highlights before we had to depart included scope views of the scarce and local Fiery-tailed Awlbill, both Black-banded and Crested owls perched right overhead, Ocellated Poorwill in the scope, White-throated Woodpecker, a fabulous male White-tailed Cotinga, the endemic Pearly Parakeet, and so many others. It was a little difficult to leave, knowing that there was so much else out there in the uncut forests to the east.

Our next destination, Carajas, proved to be our most productive venue of the tour. This magical birding site, home to the world's largest iron ore mine, didn't disappoint, and we were lucky to have the help of local guide Filho Manfredini. We had so many great birds here that I couldn't possibly list them all, but I will mention that male Black-bellied Gnateater that we all saw on our first morning there, the recently rediscovered/re-classified Kaempfer's Woodpecker, incredible White Bellbirds, superb Wing-banded Antbirds, that diminutive pair of scarce Guianan (Pará) Gnatcatchers, multiple White-crested Guans, a last-minute Red-billed Woodcreeper, fabulous Opal-crowned Manakins, the uniquely beautiful Black-chested Tyrant, stunning Purple-breasted Cotinga, a huge adult Brazilian Tapir in the road...I could go on and on!

Our last venue, the relaxing holiday beach town of Salinopolis, was a great way to end this one. Our birding was pretty low stress, but we still managed some quality stuff like Little Wood-Rail and Rufous Crab-Hawk, not to mention all of those vibrant Scarlet Ibis heading to their nighttime roost in the mangroves - while we watched form our two boats with caipirinhas in hand!

Marcelo and I thank all of you for joining us on this wonderful trip! You were great companions and we look forward to traveling with you again somewhere soon. All the best for the remainder of 2017 and may you all enjoy a bird-filled and peaceful 2018! Dave

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Mexiana Island was ideal for waterbirds, including these Wood Storks, which never seemed to be far from where we birded. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GRAY TINAMOU (Tinamus tao) [*]
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]
BRAZILIAN TINAMOU (Crypturellus strigulosus) [*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) [*]
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) – We were able to lure one of these out for a brief view for some in the dry scrub habitat at Carajas.
Anhimidae (Screamers)
HORNED SCREAMER (Anhima cornuta) – A stop along the highway on our way to the Rio Xingu brought us our only views of this strange bird, though we did have some fantastic audio later in the trip as well!
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – A pair next to the road at the 'Areial' near Senador Jose Porfirio were a challenge to spot, initially.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
BUFF-BROWED CHACHALACA (Ortalis superciliaris) – An outing in the gardens of our Belem hotel yielded fine views of this local Brazilian endemic. [E]
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris) – A pair out on the sidewalk in Carajas late one afternoon were the only ones seen.
WHITE-CRESTED GUAN (Penelope pileata) – Carajas is a super place to see this endemic guan. Our initial sighting even including a youngster! [EN]

It's clear from this photo why the Cocoi Heron used to be called the White-necked Heron. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

RED-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (GRAY-CRESTED) (Pipile cujubi cujubi) – We were tantalized by this one early on, but we never did catch up with it properly until our final visit to the Carajas Zoo on our final day there.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – This one was seen daily at Carajas.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
MARBLED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus gujanensis) – Some folks may have seen this shy species on the ground as Marcelo and Filho tried to herd the covey our way.
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus)
Ciconiidae (Storks)
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Mexiana Island was the place for this one, like so many of our other waterbirds. [N]
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Excellent views of a young bird on our final morning on Mexiana Island.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – One bird on Mexiana Island was the first there in Marcelo's experience.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – A couple of birds only on Mexiana Island.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – The only group sighting of this one was on our late afternoon boat trip out of Salinopolis.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – There were decent numbers of these in the trees near the boat dock on Mexiana Island, but they proved to be pretty skittish.

Numerous Lesser Yellow-headed Vultures plied the open country on Mexiana Island. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – That evening boat trip to the roost in Salinopolis was quite a spectacle! Even better with a caipirinha in your hand!
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – The 'yellow-headed' vulture of the open country doesn't have much yellow on that head!
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – Only over good lowland forest and not in the open country habitats.
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – All of ours were distant soaring birds.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – One on the Xingu and others at Salinopolis. These were all probably young bird from N. America over-summering here in Para. [b]
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – One of these was soaring just off of the road as we exited the bus in Carajas on our final day there.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – Always breathtakingly beautiful!
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – A distant soaring bird on our first morning of the tour.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – Excellent views of a gorgeous perched adult at Carajas. Seeing one of these scarce raptors perched is a real treat!
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – We could see clearly the white on the leading edge of the upperwing of a soaring bird at Carajas, clinching the i.d.
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – Like many of the wetland specialists seen on this tour, this one was seen only on Mexiana Island.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon) – A single bird sighted over Carajas was almost certainly a migrant from the south. We may have had a couple of others, too, that were left as unidentified raptors. [a]

Mexiana Island was a superb place to see the normally scarce Festive Parrot. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – Including one working on a nest at low elevation in Carajas. [N]
RUFOUS CRAB HAWK (Buteogallus aequinoctialis) – Dan got us all onto this local mangrove specialist at Salinopolis.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – These open-country raptors have moved into the areas where the lower Amazonian forest was cleared, like at Fazenda Rozinha on the lower Xingu.
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis) – We had some great looks of this beautiful raptor, including a perched bird at Fazenda Rozinha.
WHITE-BROWED HAWK (Leucopternis kuhli) – Certainly one of the better birds that we saw on our one morning at Gunma Reserve near Belem. Fantastic looks in the scopes!
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – Now split again from the Gray Hawk to the north.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – Our first bird was perched next to the river upstream from Belem - it's a rare sight to see this one perched at all.
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – A trio was spotted working through the mangroves next to the road at Salinopolis.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – Thanks to Marcelo and Filho, we all got a pretty good look of a pair of these in flight at Carajas.
LITTLE WOOD-RAIL (Aramides mangle) – This rarely-seen endemic was watched for quite some time working the mud below the mangrove canopy at Salinopolis. [E]
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) [*]
RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE (Anurolimnas viridis) – This one frustrated us in Carajas initially, but we eventually got a good look at a pair of these drawn across an opening in the grassy scrub of the reserve.

Our boat trip on the lower Rio Xingu as we made our way to Senador Jose Porfirio from Victoria do Xingu was a productive one with lots of birds on the newly exposed sand bars, including this lovely Pied Lapwing. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – One of these swimming in the open at our lunch spot on that first full day was a surprise.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – Only a few on Mexiana Island.
Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus) – Most of our shorebirds, like this distinctive species, were seen at Salinopolis.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER (Pluvialis squatarola) [b]
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – Timing is everything! This tour was just a week later than last year's tour, but just that one week or so was enough to expose some normally submerged sandbars in the Xingu.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris) – Most of the small plovers we saw at Salinopolis were this species. [N]
WILSON'S PLOVER (Charadrius wilsonia) – The birds at Salinopolis represent a recently described breeding subspecies.
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) [b]
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus) [b]
RUDDY TURNSTONE (Arenaria interpres) [b]
SANDERLING (Calidris alba) [b]
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla) [b]
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) [b]
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) [b]
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata) [b]
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes) [b]
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla)
LEAST TERN (Sternula antillarum)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris) – Lots of these on the lower Xingu.
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
GULL-BILLED TERN (Gelochelidon nilotica) – This species is slowly colonizing the sandbars on the lower Amazon and its larger tributaries.
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)

Gull-billed Tern has only recently started to colonize the lower Amazon and its major tributaries like the Rio Xingu. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – A couple of flybys only.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) [*]
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) [*]
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – Seen by a few in the front of the line at Carajas.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – Nice views at the edge of the road in Carajas.
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – A few on Mexiana Island and in Belem.
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – A couple of birds only on the lower Xingu en route to the farm.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Not seen again after we left Mexiana Island.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – One of only three parasitic cuckoo species in the New World - and the most common, by far.
LITTLE CUCKOO (Coccycua minuta) – Nice looks on Mexiana Island.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
DARK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus melacoryphus) – We ended up with good looks at one of these - surely an austral migrant here in August - at Fazenda Rozinha. [a]
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) – That bird flying in under the roof of the dining area was pretty exciting!
Strigidae (Owls)
TAWNY-BELLIED SCREECH-OWL (AUSTRAL) (Megascops watsonii usta) – One of these flew in nicely at last light for us all to see along the River Trail near the Carajas entrance. Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl is likely to be split up into a few to several species, so keep track of where you see these.
CRESTED OWL (Lophostrix cristata) – This responsive bird was best seen when it flew in overhead, and it proved to be quite difficult to lure in again for a second look.
AMAZONIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium hardyi) – We recorded these tiny diurnal owls on four different days on this tour.
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
BLACK-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba huhula) – This one flew in nicely and perched nearly overhead on our one night of owling on the lower Rio Xingu.

Humans aren't the only ones who find the fruit of the Açaí Palm tasty! These Scarlet Macaws were chowing down on our final morning at Mexiana Island. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SAND-COLORED NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles rupestris) – Newly exposed sandbars on the lower Rio Xingu provided a roosting site for these ghostly-pale nighthawks.
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Lurocalis semitorquatus) – These were a nice surprise at the 'Areial' as we waited to try for the rare White-winged Potoo.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Including a bird incubating a single egg on bare ground at Mexiana Island. [N]
SPOT-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis maculicaudus) – Distantly heard on Mexiana Island. [*]
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) – Great scope views of a bird perched off of the ground at the 'Areial'.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Fantastic views of a responsive bird perched very close to the River Trail at Carajas.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – Almost daily on this tour.
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – The race here in this region of Brazil has a more extensive rump patch than the birds one sees in Venezuela and the Guianas, making it more similar to Gray-rumped Swift (which I'm not convinced even occurs in Pará).
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – Very few indeed on this tour.
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – Feeding on the ornamental flowers at our lunch spot on the first afternoon of the trip.
LONG-TAILED HERMIT (Phaethornis superciliosus) – Mostly heard.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – A few close looks at this tiny hermit.
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus guainumbi) – On Mexiana Island for most folks.
FIERY-TAILED AWLBILL (Avocettula recurvirostris) – We recorded this scarce and local hummer on three different days, seeing it best at Fazenda Rozinha. You really have to look hard in the scope to see that upturned bill tip!
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris) – We had the same bird in the same spot on two different days at Carajas.
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis) – Nicely on our first morning.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
PLAIN-BELLIED EMERALD (Amazilia leucogaster) – Very brief views for some folks in the mangroves at Salinopolis.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor) – A couple of birds only at Carajas, including one at the Kaempfer's Woodpecker spot.
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – Nice scope looks at the Awlbill spot at Fazenda Rozinha.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – Perhaps seen best in the good forest at Fazenda Rozinha.

Here's the reason why we schedule three nights on the lower Rio Xingu - the stunningly beautiful and endemic Golden Parakeet! We were very fortunate to run across this species twice during our stay, with the second sighting far surpassing the first flyby looks that we had. Fantastic! Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – This bird was rather recently split from the White-tailed Trogon west of the Andes.
AMAZONIAN TROGON (Trogon ramonianus) – Formerly called Violaceous Trogon, this form was split from the birds north of the Amazon (Guianan Trogon) and from those mostly west of the Andes (Gartered Trogon).
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) – Blue-crowned Motmot underwent a serious taxonomic revision as well, with this one occurring throughout the humid lowlands of South America east of the Andes. [*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) [*]
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – Excellent views of a bird in the forest patch near our lunch spot on Mexiana Island.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus hyperrhynchus) – Nicely scoped at Fazenda Rozinha.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – All of ours were on the lower Rio Xingu.
COLLARED PUFFBIRD (Bucco capensis) – Seen around the world on Facebook Live!
EASTERN STRIOLATED-PUFFBIRD (Nystalus striolatus) – We almost lost track of this one during the excitement of trying to get a look at the Kaempfer's Woodpecker. This is a relatively recent split from Western Striolated-Puffbird (which differs vocally).
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – Surprisingly, we didn't run across this normally conspicuous species until we walked the river trail at Carajas near the end of the tour.
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
BROWN JACAMAR (Brachygalba lugubris melanosterna) [*]
BLUE-CHEEKED JACAMAR (Galbula cyanicollis) – Great looks at both Marabá and at the Carajas Zoo.
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
PARADISE JACAMAR (Galbula dea) – Excellent looks high in the canopy at Fazenda Rozinha.
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – This one spun us around and around, but we all eventually got great scope views at the 'Areial'.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
LETTERED ARACARI (Pteroglossus inscriptus) – One of the first birds that we saw on the first morning of the tour.
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – This dark-eyed aracari was seen alongside the very different-looking Red-necked Aracari at Fazenda Rozinha.

One of the big targets on this tour was this male Black-bellied Gnateater, which emerged from the understory on a hillside in Carajas long enough to give us all some great looks! Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

RED-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) – Unmistakable with that big red chest and extensive red nape. Only at Fazenda Rozinha on this tour.
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – We had many unforgettable looks at this big, unique toucan at Mexiana Island.
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus) – The 'yelper' on this tour. The various white-throated 'yelpers' in S. America have relatively recently been lumped into this one species.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus) – The 'croaker' in this part of S. America. We heard quite a few of both this and the above species, but saw very few.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BELLIED PICULET (MANGROVE) (Picumnus spilogaster pallidus) – It just wouldn't come any closer... [*]
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus)
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus)
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis) – We had a couple of nice studies. This one replaces the very similar Golden-collared Woodpecker in northeastern S. America south of the Amazon.
WHITE-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus leucolaemus) – Depending upon the resource that you look at, this may or may not be a bit of a range extension for this species.
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula) – On the first afternoon for some while we surveyed the Sitio Dourado near Belem.
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros) [*]
WAVED WOODPECKER (Celeus undatus) – A very close individual next to the road at Fazenda Rozinha.
KAEMPFER'S WOODPECKER (Celeus obrieni) – WOWWW!!! What a surprise it was to learn of a recent sighting of this recently re-discovered species at Carajas! And then to actually see it?! Certainly one of the major highlights of our birding together on this tour! I have to say, though, that this one looks and sounds quite a bit like the Rufous-headed Woodpecker of w. Amazonia. [E]
CHESTNUT WOODPECKER (Celeus elegans) – Whitney spotted this beautiful woodpecker sitting quietly next to the river trail at Carajas. Fantastic looks!
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis) – Seen nicely at Fazenda Rozinha.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
CRYPTIC FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mintoni) – This one took a couple of tries, but it was much less skittish in the morning when we tried for this pair again on the river trail. This species was only recently described to science and was overlooked for many years (hence the name 'Cryptic'), replacing the very similar Lined Forest-Falcon mostly east and south of that species.
RED-THROATED CARACARA (Ibycter americanus) – Intolerably noisy!
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
SAPPHIRE-RUMPED PARROTLET (Touit purpuratus) [*]

This was an excellent tour for woodpeckers, including this male Chestnut Woodpecker spotted for our group by Whitney. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

WHITE-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris versicolurus) – Very easily seen on the grounds of our Belem hotel. Before this one was split, it was called the Canary-winged Parakeet.
GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera) – Just a few flyby looks only at this one.
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus) – The same is true of this one.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva) – A remarkably easy parrot to see on Mexiana Island!
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala) [*]
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – This was the only 'common' Amazon that we saw on the tour.
WHITE-BELLIED PARROT (Pionites leucogaster) [*]
RED-FAN PARROT (Deroptyus accipitrinus fuscifrons) – Fantastic looks at a trio of these along the river trail at Carajas!
PEARLY PARAKEET (Pyrrhura lepida) – These were the parakeets that we saw well at the 'Areial' just after we arrived there in the afternoon. Pale eyerings, no red on the belly, and no well demarcated white ear-patch separate this endemic from the more widespread Santarem Parakeet. [E]
SANTAREM PARAKEET (Pyrrhura amazonum) – A relatively recent split from the Painted Parakeet.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – A distant pair at Carajas for some.
PEACH-FRONTED PARAKEET (Eupsittula aurea) – Quite widespread south of the Amazon.
JANDAYA PARAKEET (Aratinga jandaya) – Four close flybys at Carajas were all that we saw of this endemic parakeet. [E]
RED-BELLIED MACAW (Orthopsittaca manilatus) – Our best looks were in the mangroves at Salinopolis on the final afternoon.
SCARLET MACAW (Ara macao) – Widespread on this trip, but we had some really memorable looks on Mexiana Island.
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus) – Not as common as the above Scarlet Macaw.
GOLDEN PARAKEET (Guaruba guaruba) – YESSSS!!!!! Marcelo and I were really hoping that our initial looks at these wouldn't be our only looks of the tour! Luckily for us, we encountered another flock along another road that same morning, giving us once-in-a-lifetime looks! Those looks alone were worth our stay at the Fazenda! [E]
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – Mostly high-flying flocks in the morning.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
GLOSSY ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus luctuosus) – Outstanding views of a pair of these at the river in Carajas. This one is restricted to riparian habitats within its Lower Amazon Basin range.
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus torquatus) – We found a very confiding individual in the scrub habitat at Carajas. A close relative of the Rufous-capped Antshrike to the south.

One of the highlights of a late afternoon hike along a low elevation trail near the Carajas entrance was this confiding Collared Puffbird - which Marcelo broadcast to the world via Facebook Live! Video by guide Dave Stejskal.
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – A gorgeous, close bird at our Belem hotel was a real treat to see! Now split from the very similar Lined Antshrike of the n.w. Andean foothills.
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus)
MOUSE-COLORED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus murinus) [*]
BLACKISH-GRAY ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus nigrocinereus) – This one came right in to give us all a good look on our final morning on Mexiana Island. This was a bird that I hadn't seen in nearly 20 years, so it was great to get reacquainted!
NATTERER'S SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus stictocephalus) – Nest to the little marshy pond at Carajas. One of the many 'Slaty Antshrike' splits.
AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus) – Only on our first morning at Gunma.
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius) – This may have been the only region in Amazonia that I've ever visited where only one species of Thamnomanes antshrike is present!
PLAIN-THROATED ANTWREN (Isleria hauxwelli) [*]
SPOT-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Pygiptila stellaris) – A couple of brief sightings only at Fazenda Rozinha.
WHITE-EYED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma) – We saw all of our Epinecrophylla/Myrmotherula antwrens extremely well on this trip.
ORNATE ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla ornata) – The race here has a reduced amount of rufous on the mantle.
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura) – In the scope, no less!
AMAZONIAN STREAKED-ANTWREN (Myrmotherula multostriata) – This one responded nicely in the riverine scrub at Carajas.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
LONG-WINGED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longipennis) – Excellent views of a responsive male near the old Harpy nest at Carajas.
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) [*]
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea) – We finally got the looks we wanted on the first morning at Gunma near Belem.

The wet open country on Mexiana Island was ideal habitat for this Savanna Hawk. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

SPIX'S WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis striata) – Some patience with this one at the 'Areial' gave us some great looks - eventually!
WILLIS'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides laeta) – One of the first 'specialty' birds of the trip was this antbird seen on the side of the road on the first morning of the tour. The small range of this near-endemic is highly disjunct.
BLACKISH ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides nigrescens) – Nicely at the Kaempfer's Woodpecker spot in Carajas.
MANU ANTBIRD (Cercomacra manu) – This bamboo specialist was only described to science in 1990 and was thought to be restricted to w. Amazonia. The population here at Carajas is a relatively recent discovery.
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens) – We had the perfect set-up to see this secretive canopy dweller well at Fazenda Rozinha.
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota) – Constantly pumping that tail downward...
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) – We found a very cooperative male at the boat launch on the river in Carajas.
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus) – One particular male at the 'Areial' performed beautifully for us!
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon) – Always around water.
RUFOUS-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmelastes rufifacies) [*]
BLACK-THROATED ANTBIRD (Myrmophylax atrothorax) – Briefly for some folks in the bamboo area at Carajas where we saw the Kaempfer's Woodpecker.
WING-BANDED ANTBIRD (Myrmornis torquata) – A pair of these scarce antbirds responded vigorously at Carajas, but they then quieted down and settled into a more routine feeding behavior.
SPOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevius) – A rather disappointing response along the roadside at Carajas on our first morning there.
XINGU SCALE-BACKED ANTBIRD (Willisornis vidua) – Most folks got onto a female at Gunma on our first morning together. Scale-backed Antbird was recently split and the females are the best way to i.d. these birds, besides range of course. [E]
BLACK-SPOTTED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) [*]

The most prevalent mammal on Mexiana Island was the Capybara. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-BELLIED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanogaster) – YESSS!!!! Thank goodness Filho heard this one calling softly on the hillside - or else we'd still be looking for it! A short scramble up the hillside got us into position to really enjoy this scarce and local endemic. [E]
CHESTNUT-BELTED GNATEATER (SNETHLAGE'S) (Conopophaga aurita pallida) – This endemic race might be a good candidate for a split in the future. Nicely seen along the trail late in the afternoon at Carajas.
HOODED GNATEATER (Conopophaga roberti) – This was the first of our three(!) species of gnateaters on this tour, and this one's arguably the toughest of the three. FANTASTIC!!! [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
SNETHLAGE'S ANTPITTA (Hylopezus paraensis) – A recent split from Spotted Antpitta - and sounding quite a bit like that species - replacing that one south of the Amazon. Unfortunately, only a few in the group managed a look at this super-secretive species. [E]
AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA (Hylopezus berlepschi) – Close... [*]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – This skulker disappeared before everyone was able to get on it.
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis)
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
TAWNY-THROATED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus mexicanus) – This was the first bird that we all saw at our first stop at Carajas that first morning. Not an easy bird to see anywhere, but it behaved well enough for us.
SPOT-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Certhiasomus stictolaemus) [*]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus amazonus) – Keep track of where you see this one - there's a multi-species split coming up down the road.
LONG-TAILED WOODCREEPER (Deconychura longicauda) – Nice looks at a close pair at Carajas.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa)
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus)

A few roosting Sand-colored Nighthawks gave us some excellent views from our boat as we made our way along the lower Rio Xingu. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

AMAZONIAN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes certhia) – These red-billed birds are often mistaken for the much scarcer Red-billed Woodcreeper.
RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER (BRIGIDA'S) (Hylexetastes perrotii brigidai) – An excellent 'save' on our final visit to the zoo at Carajas on the final morning!
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (CARAJAS) (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus carajaensis) [*]
SPIX'S WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus spixii) – This one is replaced by the very similar Elegant Woodcreeper to the west of here.
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (DUSKY-BILLED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni) – Our most widespread woodcreeper on the tour and certainly the one that we heard the most.
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – Outstanding studies at our Belem hotel.
LAYARD'S WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes layardi) – Lineated Woodcreeper was just recently split up into five species, with this one, a Brazilian endemic, in the lower Amazon basin south of the Amazon itself (replaced by Guianan Woodcreeper north of the Amazon in n.e. South America). [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
RUFOUS-RUMPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor erythrocercum) – Wow - we actually got a scope on these at the 'Areial'!
PERUVIAN RECURVEBILL (Syndactyla ucayalae) [*]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus rufipileatus) – This was one of the easier individuals of this species that I've tried to see. They're normally much more difficult!
PARA FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus paraensis) – A rather recent split from the very similar Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner to the west and north. Nice looks at Gunma on our first morning together. [E]
SCALED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca muelleri) – Right where they were supposed to be! We ended up with fine views of this local Brazilian endemic on Mexiana Island on our full day there. [E]
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis) – At the mine overlook.
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens)
RUDDY SPINETAIL (Synallaxis rutilans) – This widespread Amazonian species isn't easy anywhere - except for maybe on this tour!
CHESTNUT-THROATED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cherriei) – Scarce and local, this one seems to be tied to bamboo. A good one to get!
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis) – Nicely behind our hotel in Belem.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme) – Sometimes a difficult bird to see well if you don't have access to a canopy tower.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – We had a brief encounter at Carajas while we were trying to track down the Blackish Pewee along the road there.
YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA (Myiopagis flavivertex) – This flooded forest specialist was easily seen while we tried to see our first Scaled Spinetails on Mexiana Island. This one doesn't really behave like the other Myiopagis, making me wonder if it's in the correct genus.

We had a great first full morning on this tour when we visited the nearby Gunma Forest Reserve outside Belem. Besides seeing our first gnateater species of the tour here, we were able to enjoy this shy White-browed Hawk after it flew in to check out our group. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata) – This one came in for a good look in the scrub at Carajas.
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis) – One of three species of Elaenia in the sparse scrub at Carajas.
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – The population in Carajas is isolated from the main population well to the south of here.
GUIANAN TYRANNULET (Zimmerius acer) – A recent split from Slender-footed Tyrannulet, the ranges of which have yet to be fully worked out. They sound very similar to birds I know from the Venezuelan Tepuis, but not exactly the same.
AMAZONIAN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER (Sublegatus obscurior) – That bird on the nest at Carajas was the only encounter with this one. [N]
SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis ecaudatus) – A few of these tiny passerines were seen quite low along the roadside at Carajas.
SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minor) – After a little confusion, it was decided that these little forest flycatchers were just about everywhere we went on this tour.
WHITE-EYED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus zosterops) – Briefly for some on our first morning at Gunma.
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer) – Only in the scrubby habitat at Carajas - and about as furtive as they come!
BLACK-AND-WHITE TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus capitalis) – Nicely lured into the open at Carajas.
SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus sylvia) – The range of this one spans from s. Mexico to the mouth of the Amazon.
BLACK-CHESTED TYRANT (Taeniotriccus andrei) – YESSS!!!! A highly prized target on this tour, this bamboo specialist gave us some trouble initially, but we prevailed in the end with some nice looks. A bird that's been on my radar for more than 30 years!
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum) – Most easily seen on the grounds of our Belem hotel.
YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) – Normally a canopy dweller, we scoped one at nearly eye-level on our final morning at the Carajas zoo.
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – Very few Tolmomyias flycatchers were evident on this tour.
WHITE-CRESTED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus platyrhynchos) [*]
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus) – Only one bird seen by the group at Fazenda Rozinha.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea) – A common roadside species at Carajas.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus) – Only a few of these were seen. Now split from Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher west of the Andes and in C. America.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – Good looks in the Carajas scrub.
BLACKISH PEWEE (Contopus nigrescens) – This one has a very interesting range - here in n.e. Brazil, in the mountains of Guyana, and in the e. foothills of the Andes in Ecuador & Peru. Whether these are all indeed 'Blackish' Pewee, or multiple species, awaits study.
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatior) – Nicely in the scope on Mexiana Island at the Scaled Spinetail spot.
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – Briefly seen by a couple of folks on our boat trip on Mexiana Island.
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – Our bird at Carajas was at the n.w. limit of this species' range in Brazil.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Dapper.
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus) – A couple of nice views on Mexiana Island and at Carajas.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) [*]
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex)
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)

This handsome male Waved Woodpecker obliged us along the roadside one morning at Fazenda Rozinha. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni) – A single bird in the scrubby habitat at Carajas appeared to be a resident bird and not a migrant from the south.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Always around water.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
DUSKY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes luteiventris) – We had a couple of brief sightings at Carajas.
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – At least one bird at Fazenda Rozinha was at the eastern limit of its Amazonian range.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – We ended up with a nice study of a singing bird at Carajas.
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius) – Often mistaken for the above species.
SULPHURY FLYCATCHER (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) – A Moriche Palm specialist.
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – There seemed to be plenty of these on Mexiana Island, including a couple of groups that looked like migrant flocks.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – Stunning!
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Carajas seems to be a very good place to see this strange species. The voices of the various disjunct populations from Central America south to s.e. Brazil all differ from one another, making me think that there might be multiple species involved here.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GUIANAN RED-COTINGA (Phoenicircus carnifex) – WOWWWW!!!! We finally got a nice adult male into view at Carajas. What a stunner!
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – Rather surprisingly, only seen on our first morning at Gunma.
PURPLE-BREASTED COTINGA (Cotinga cotinga) – Ben spotted a gorgeous adult male feeding in the fruiting tree next to the road in Carajas. Fabulous!
SPANGLED COTINGA (Cotinga cayana) – Especially good looks on that first morning of the tour.
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans) – We all got a chance to watch this one call in the scope. He really puts everything into it!

Carajas is a very good place to see this striking male White Bellbird, whose far-carrying calls can be heard throughout the upper reaches of the forest reserve. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

WHITE BELLBIRD (Procnias albus) – The population in Carajas is widely separated from the main range of this one in the Guianas. Fantastic looks! Looking at my photos of this one, it's clear that the long wattle at the base of the bill can be retracted to a relatively tiny projection.
WHITE-TAILED COTINGA (Xipholena lamellipennis) – We saw this local bird well at both Fazenda Rozinha and at Carajas. [E]
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus) – Only around Fazenda Rozinha on this tour.
Pipridae (Manakins)
DWARF TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) – Heard more often than seen.
BLUE-BACKED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia pareola) [*]
OPAL-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix iris) – We finally tracked this one down for some great looks at Carajas. That very white bill (on some, not on all - adult males only?) was a surprise! [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) [*]
CRIMSON-HOODED MANAKIN (Pipra aureola) – Those close males on that first afternoon at Sitio Dourado were a feast for the eyes!
FIERY-CAPPED MANAKIN (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) – A brief female for some at Carajas.
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Dixiphia pipra) – We heard several males at the 'Areial', but we only got eyes on a single female.
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla) – Excellent views at the forest reserve in Marabá. We heard this manakin more than any other on this tour.
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) – Brief, good looks for some at Fazenda Rozinha.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis turdina) [*]
WHITE-BROWED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura isabellae) – We had several encounters with this tiny canopy species, and we had excellent scope looks. Recently transferred from the Cotinga family to the Tityra family.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)

This beautiful sunrise greeted us on our first morning at Fazenda Rozinha. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – Nicely, especially at Fazenda Rozinha.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) [*]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis) – Easily seen on the grounds of our Belem hotel.
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus) – Wonderful views of a pair of these in the riparian trees in Carajas.
SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius leucotis) – We pulled this one in for a great view at Fazenda Rozinha.
TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET (Tunchiornis ochraceiceps)
DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET (Pachysylvia hypoxantha) – Extraordinary eye-level views alongside the road at Fazenda Rozinha.
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-NAPED JAY (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) [E*]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – A few only at Carajas.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)

What better way to spend a late afternoon in Salinopolis then to watch Scarlet Ibis headed to roost while you sip on a caipirinha? Video by guide Dave Stejskal.
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) [*]
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) [*]
CORAYA WREN (Pheugopedius coraya) [*]
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) [*]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
GUIANAN GNATCATCHER (PARA) (Polioptila guianensis paraensis) – This was one of the better finds of the trip at Carajas, and we all stretched the limits of our neck flexibility to get a decent look of a pair of these rare birds high in the canopy. Not known from many sites at all, and this one is sometimes split off as Pará Gnatcatcher.
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – A vocal pair at the marshy pond at Carajas.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) [N]
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens) – We found a really good situation to actually see this one from the trucks.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola) [*]
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis) – Mexiana Island and the lower Rio Xingu only.
BLACK-FACED TANAGER (Schistochlamys melanopis) – A few great looks in the scrub at Carajas.
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – Two quick flyovers along the road at Carajas.
RED-BILLED PIED TANAGER (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) – This proved to be a really good tour for this species, with at least a couple of encounters in the open with the scopes. Beautiful!
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – Another one of our Mexiana Island write-ins.
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
FULVOUS-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus surinamus) – On that first morning at Gunma only on this tour.

The red 'stains' on the shoulder of this Red-stained Woodpecker at Carajas can clearly be seen in this photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
WHITE-WINGED SHRIKE-TANAGER (Lanio versicolor) – Pretty good looks at an adult male at Fazenda Rozinha. At the eastern limit of its range here and replacing the similar Fulvous Shrike-Tanager south of the Amazon.
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
MASKED TANAGER (Tangara nigrocincta) – A couple of responsive birds at Carajas were the only ones on the tour.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Tangara punctata) – A few of these one morning at Carajas. Disjunct ranges in the n. Andes and in the Guianan Shield area.
TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana) – Not exactly turquoise, is it?
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis) – Ridiculously gaudy.
OPAL-RUMPED TANAGER (Tangara velia) – This one has a huge Amazonian range.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola)
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – Several birds at the Carajas zoo on our final morning for some.
BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata)
YELLOW-BELLIED DACNIS (Dacnis flaviventer) – That pair at Carajas (a lifer for Filho!) was at the extreme eastern limit of its wide range in Amazonia.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Shockingly bright yellow legs!
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – A couple of birds only with the Guianan Gnatcatcher flock at Carajas.
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor) – Excellent views from the boat on Mexiana Island.
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – For some folks in the grassy scrub on Mexiana Island.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera) – Quite large for a seedeater. Only on Mexiana Island on this tour, and the race there, S.l. mexianae, was first described from there.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris)
RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila minuta) – Only on Mexiana Island on this tour. Near the s.e. limit of its range here.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – One adult male scoped at a distance on Mexiana Island.
LARGE-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila crassirostris) – We all had excellent views of a responsive male on our second full day of the tour and there's no doubt now that this bird was a Large-billed SF. Still, this one is soon to be listed as Endangered in Brazil due to its popularity as a cage bird - the same fate that has befallen the Great-billed SF.
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea) – An excellent scope study of a singing male on Mexiana Island.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)

The distinctive White-crested Guan is one of the many local specialties found with relative ease at Carajas. Photo by guide Dave Stejskal.

SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – I don't think I've ever been in any region of S. America where this species is more common (though most of mine were 'heard only').
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) – Nicely in the forest patch in the town of Carajas.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) [*]
ROSE-BREASTED CHAT (Granatellus pelzelni) – A single brilliant male at Carajas at the Kaempfer's Woodpecker spot.
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella militaris) – Dozens and dozens at Fazenda Rozinha.
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus) – A single bird from the boat on Mexiana Island.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – A distant singing bird in the scope at Carajas was our only sighting.
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – A few at the end of the trip only at Carajas and Salinopolis.
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius bifasciatus bifasciatus) – We all had a fabulous flyby look at this big oropendola behind our hotel in Belem. This form, which looks quite a lot like Montezuma Oropendola of C. America (and not like the 'Olive' birds throughout the rest of its range in S. America), was once split off as Pará Oropendola.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – Nice looks in the scrubby habitat at Carajas.
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea) – The most widespread euphonia on the tour.
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta) – A.k.a. White-lored Euphonia.
WHITE-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia minuta) – A couple of sightings in Carajas.
GOLDEN-SIDED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cayennensis) – One of the many Guianan Shield specialties seen on this tour.
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) – At our Belem hotel. Introduced here from Africa. [I]

BLACK-HANDED TAMARIN (Saguinus niger) – This tiny primate is now split from Golden-handed Tamarin from n. of the Amazon.
COMMON SQUIRREL MONKEY (Saimiri sciureus) – Lots of these on our final morning at Mexiana Island.

We watched in fascination as this tarantula hawk wasp drags its victim backwards to its nest hole. The wasp will lay a single egg on the body of the spider and, once hatched, the young will have a ready source of food for its development. Video by guide Dave Stejskal.
DUSKY TITI MONKEY (Callicebus moloch) [*]
RED-HANDED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta belzebul) – The only howler of the trip and often heard in the distance while we were out birding. We had some pretty good looks, too!
BROWN BEARDED SAKI MONKEY (Chiropotes satanas) – Several of these were seen at the forest edge across the pasture from our position on the road at Fazenda Rozinha. These were the first sakis of any type that Marcelo had seen at the farm!
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – Abundant on Mexiana Island.
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti) – A few sightings, especially at Carajas.
SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (Nasua nasua) – A few of us saw a small group of these rummaging through town at Carajas late one afternoon.
BRAZILIAN TAPIR (Tapirus terrestris) – We surprised one in the road at Carajas on our first morning there!


Totals for the tour: 443 bird taxa and 9 mammal taxa