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Field Guides Tour Report
Parrots & Cotingas: The Mouth of the Mighty Amazon 2019
Aug 2, 2019 to Aug 15, 2019
Marcelo Padua

This tour lived up to the name; we saw 23 species of parrots, and eight cotingas! White-winged Parakeets were common around Belem, but in general, these little parrots have a range restricted to the flooded forests along the Amazon. Participants David and Judy Smith got a nice image of a few of these cuties arguing with each other.

This is a special tour for me, as unlike many tour leaders, I discovered the joys of birding later in life and when I did so I had moved far away from the place where I grew up. There has always been a sense of missed opportunities for me, as Belem, the city where I grew up, is surrounded by incredible nature and hosts a variety of amazing birds that I never paid attention to as I was growing up. So leading a tour here is a chance for me to reconnect with my roots, revisit great places from my childhood and make up for lost time when I could have birded here.

Our tour starts in Belem, a city with more than 400 hundred years of history and home to more than one and a half million people; and yet this Amazonian metropolis retains large tracts of forest and an incredible biodiversity. We were able to witness this diversity first hand, with great sightings of amazing birds such as Hooded Gnateater, Russet-crowned Crake, White-tailed Cotingas feeding side by side with Spangled Cotingas, and a myriad of parrots ranging from the omnipresent White-winged Parakeets to the ultra rare Vulturine Parrot.

A short visit to Mexiana island gave us a sense of scale of the delta of the mighty Amazon river as we flew in chartered planes for over one hour and only made it three quarters of the way across the mouth of the river. Our stay was brief but incredibly productive, giving us the opportunity of studying all three South American storks as well as the five South American kingfishers, and some rare birds such as Scaled Spinetail and Large-billed Seed-finch. In addition, there were some colorful birds like the Festive Parrots that were seen right behind our hotel or the ornate Crimson-hooded Manakins that adorned the riverine forest. What an incredible 24 hours!

Our tour took a sharp turn south and we made our way to the Carajas National Forest, home to one of the world’s largest Iron ore mines, and also to the highest bird diversity in Brazil, a true delight for any birdwatcher and a place where we found many of our most wanted birds. The list is just too long to recount here, (see below!) but Black-bellied Gnateater, Jandaya Parakeet, Purple-breasted Cotinga, White Bellbird, Pavonine Cuckoo, Black-chested Tyrant are just some of the great birds we saw, along with the myriad of antbirds, foliage-gleaners and woodcreepers that is so characteristic of Amazonian forest.

We wrapped things us by treating ourselves to some relaxed birding in the coastal town of Salinopolis, where we relaxed from some hectic birding while sipping Caipirinhas and watching flocks of Scarlet Ibis, along with the first peeps to arrive from North America. Even the rare birds gave us no trouble at all and we savored excellent views of Little Wood-Rail, Mangrove Rail and a curious Rufous Crab Hawk that was almost too close for me to focus.

This was a great tour for many reasons and I am happy to have been able to share it with all of you. It was fun to introduce you all to my Home town and I hope you all enjoyed it as much as I did.

‘Til we meet again

-Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

We found the beautiful Crimson-hooded Manakin at Mexiana Island and on Combu Island. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GRAY TINAMOU (Tinamus tao) [*]
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) [*]
BRAZILIAN TINAMOU (Crypturellus strigulosus) – We had great views of one individual crossing the road at Aguas Claras during our visit to Carajas.
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
HORNED SCREAMER (Anhima cornuta) – Great looks at a pair of birds perched on a tree by the road.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – We found these handsome teals on the very last day of the tour as we headed to the airport.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
VARIABLE CHACHALACA (Ortalis motmot) – A nice surprise around the town of Parauapebas.
BUFF-BROWED CHACHALACA (Ortalis superciliaris) [E*]
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris)
WHITE-CRESTED GUAN (Penelope pileata) – A great find by David. [E]
RED-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (GRAY-CRESTED) (Pipile cujubi cujubi) [*]
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – The birds around Carajas belong to the Belem group, subspecies pinima.

Little Wood-Rails were common in the mangroves around Salinopolis. These are specialties of coastal Brazil, and we were happy to get such good looks at them. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
MARBLED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus gujanensis) [*]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – Seen well in a little pond in the forest.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
PAVONINE CUCKOO (Dromococcyx pavoninus) – Our local guide at Carajas brought one in for excellent views. What a treat!
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
BLACKISH NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus nigrescens)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SILKY-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Antrostomus sericocaudatus) – Filho had a nesting bird staked out for us at Carajas.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
Apodidae (Swifts)
CHAPMAN'S SWIFT (Chaetura chapmani)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis)
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
LONG-TAILED HERMIT (Phaethornis superciliosus)
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber)
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
DOT-EARED COQUETTE (Lophornis gouldii) – The young biologists who accompanied us around Belem found this little gem perched up on some dead twigs, allowing us to watch an adult male through the scope for a long time.
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris)
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis) – We found a nesting bird.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)

This Spectacled Thrush was an unexpected but very welcome lifer for your guide! Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
MANGROVE RAIL (ATLANTIC) (Rallus longirostris longirostris) – A pair of birds seen from a boat in Salinopolis. This species has recently been split from Clapper Rail.
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis)
LITTLE WOOD-RAIL (Aramides mangle) – Common in the mangroves of Salinopolis. [E]
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Formerly known as Gray-necked Wood-Rail.
RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE (Anurolimnas viridis) – We were able to pull a pair of birds into view at the Gunma Reserve outside of Belem.
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) [*]
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus)
Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus) – Common around the beaches of Salinopolis.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris)
WILSON'S PLOVER (Charadrius wilsonia)
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus)

Participants David and Judy Smith got a wonderful portrait of this female Great Antshrike. While these are big for antshrikes, they can be difficult to see.

RUDDY TURNSTONE (Arenaria interpres)
RED KNOT (Calidris canutus)
SANDERLING (Calidris alba)
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla)
SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER (Limnodromus griseus)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LEAST TERN (Sternula antillarum)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris)
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – Seen right outside of our hotel in Salinopolis towards the end of our tour.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari)
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – We saw all three species of stork during our visit to Mexiana Island.
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)

This male Purple-throated Fruitcrow put on a good show for us! We saw the species a few times, but this particular individual was very cooperative. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – An immature individual flew over us in Salinopolis. This is an uncommon species in the area and it was interesting to see it there.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – Even though this is a widespread species, the Tricolored Heron has a very limited distribution within Brazil, so it was nice to find them roosting with Scarlet Ibis in Salinopolis.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – Hundreds of birds going to roost in Salinopolis. A perfect way to end the tour.
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Seen on a couple of occasions at Carajas.
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Seen on a couple of occasions at Carajas.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – This species prefers open areas.
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – Favoring forested areas.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
PEARL KITE (Gampsonyx swainsonii) – One of these minute raptors was sitting on an electrical wire at the Gunma reserve in Belem.
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – We saw two individuals at the Vila Rica Hotel in Belem spreading their wings to dry up after some heavy rain.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis)

We did well with toucans on this tour as well; the Channel-billed Toucan is one of the most colorful of this very flamboyant group. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
TINY HAWK (Accipiter superciliosus) – While birding the unique canga habitat at Carajas, we saw one of these hard to spot hawks being mobbed by other birds until it flew away.
RUFOUS CRAB HAWK (Buteogallus aequinoctialis) – Super close views of one individual at the mangroves of Salinopolis.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – Seen soaring low at Carajas.
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis) – Great scope views.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – We spotted an individual eating a toad at the Vila Rica hotel in Belem.
Strigidae (Owls)
AMAZONIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium hardyi) [*]
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
AMAZONIAN TROGON (Trogon ramonianus)
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) [*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)

Curved-billed Scythbill is another bird that can be difficult to see, but this one posed really well for us at Carajas. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – We saw all five species of kingfishers in South America on a single day while visiting the Mexiana Island.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus)
EASTERN STRIOLATED-PUFFBIRD (Nystalus striolatus) – Formerly known simply as Striolated Puffbird, but the species was recently split into two different species. We had excellent scope views of them at the Pojuca Trail at Carajas.
RUFOUS-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila rufa) – Great scope views of this understory species that is rarely seen.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons)
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus) – Unlike the Black-fronted Nunbird that favors riverine forest, the White-fronted Nunbird is only found in Terra Firme forest.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – Common along rivers and forest edge.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
LETTERED ARACARI (Pteroglossus inscriptus)
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari)
RED-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) – We saw the nominate form of this handsome southern Amazon endemic.

This Pavonine Cuckoo was another generally reclusive bird that we saw well. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco)
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BELLIED PICULET (MANGROVE) (Picumnus spilogaster pallidus) – Great looks at these minute woodpeckers on the boardwalk through the mangroves near our hotel in Salinopolis.
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus)
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus)
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Dryobates affinis)
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis)
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
WAVED WOODPECKER (Celeus undatus)
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
CRYPTIC FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mintoni) [*]
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater) – A great spot by Peggy.
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – Seen right around the parking lot of the airport in Carajas upon our arrival.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
SAPPHIRE-RUMPED PARROTLET (Touit purpuratus) – It took a bit of work but we managed to see a group of birds during a boat trip at Mexiana Island.
WHITE-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris versicolurus) – Common around Belem.
GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera)
VULTURINE PARROT (Pyrilia vulturina) – We heard them as they flew by and managed to call them across an open area for a brief view of a pair of birds as they flew by. [E]
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva) – Scope views behind our hotel at Mexiana. This species is only found along rivers as they forage in Varzea Forest.
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala)
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – Seen at the Gunma reserve outside of Belem.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – One of the most memorable experiences of the tour was watching (and listening) as thousands of these birds flew off an Island on the Amazon at the crack of dawn.
WHITE-BELLIED PARROT (Pionites leucogaster) – David spotted these distinctive parrots perched on a tree at Gunma reserve and we had great scope views of them.
RED-FAN PARROT (Deroptyus accipitrinus fuscifrons)
PEARLY PARAKEET (Pyrrhura lepida) [E]
SANTAREM PARAKEET (Pyrrhura amazonum)
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

Scarlet Ibis are such a great color, and watching them go to roost near Salinoplis was a wonderful experience. Participants David and Judy Smith got a very nice image of a few of them settling in.

JANDAYA PARAKEET (Aratinga jandaya) – I was beginning to sweat a bit over these guys, but on our last day at Carajas we found a group of them and had great scope views. [E]
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus)
GOLDEN PARAKEET (Guaruba guarouba) – We saw a pair of the birds that have been reintroduced in Belem as they were drawn in by the calls of other birds that are being prepared for reintroduction at the Utinga reserve aviary. [E]
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
GLOSSY ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus luctuosus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – David spotted this one on the Combu island for us.
PLAIN-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus schistaceus)
BLACKISH-GRAY ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus nigrocinereus) – Seen nicely in flooded forest at Mexiana Island.
NATTERER'S SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus stictocephalus)
WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus aethiops) – Seen at the Gunma reserve. The birds here belong to the incertus subspecies.

The Golden Parakeet is a Brazilian endemic that has become quite rare, but a reintroduction project seems to be going OK. The birds we saw have been released, and were visiting some of their still-captive relatives at the Utinga reserve. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus)
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius)
PLAIN-THROATED ANTWREN (Isleria hauxwelli)
WHITE-EYED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma)
ORNATE ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla ornata)
PYGMY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula brachyura)
AMAZONIAN STREAKED-ANTWREN (Myrmotherula multostriata)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
LONG-WINGED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula longipennis) – Subspecies paraensis.
GRAY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula menetriesii)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) – This is a canopy species so it was a real treat seeing them at eye level.
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea)
SPIX'S WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis striata)
WILLIS'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides laeta)
BLACKISH ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides nigrescens)

Chestnut-fronted Macaw is widespread, but we still enjoyed seeing them on the tour. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

MANU ANTBIRD (Cercomacra manu) – This bamboo specialist was recently found around Carajas by our local guide Filho Manfredini. We had great looks at them on the Aguas Claras trail.
GRAY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra cinerascens)
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota) – There are several disjunct populations of this species and there are almost certainly several species involved. The birds we saw on our tour are the nominate subspecies.
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) – We were trying to call in an antpitta but this guy came in and treated us to the best views ever of an antbird.
BLACK-FACED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus myotherinus) – It is not every day you see an antbird in the scope, so we were certainly happy to enjoy great scope views of this bird.
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon)
SPOT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevius)
BLACK-SPOTTED BARE-EYE (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) – Subspecies paraensis. Seen at Aguas Claras in the Carajas National Forest.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-BELLIED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanogaster) – A true show stopper and we had great looks at one on the Lagoa da Mata trail. [E]
CHESTNUT-BELTED GNATEATER (SNETHLAGE'S) (Conopophaga aurita pallida)
HOODED GNATEATER (Conopophaga roberti) – Another fantastic gnateater that is endemic to Brazil. We found this one at the Gunma reserve outside of Belem. [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
SNETHLAGE'S ANTPITTA (Hylopezus paraensis) [E*]
AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA (Hylopezus berlepschi) – After quite a bit of work it jumped out into an opening for a brief amount of time, allowing a few folks to see it.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus) – The most common of the woodcreepers seen on the tour.
CINNAMON-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Dendrexetastes rufigula) – Seen late in the day at the Maria Bonita Trail at Carajas.
LONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Nasica longirostris) [*]
RED-BILLED WOODCREEPER (BRIGIDA'S) (Hylexetastes perrotii brigidai)
SPIX'S WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus spixii)
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (DUSKY-BILLED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni)
CURVE-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus procurvoides) – This species is often found in bamboo and can be quite hard to see but we had amazing views of a bird on the Pojuca Trail at Carajas.
LAYARD'S WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes layardi) – A recent split from Lineated Woodcreeper. [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
POINT-TAILED PALMCREEPER (Berlepschia rikeri) – Seen from a boat during our visit to the Combu Island.
RUFOUS-RUMPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor erythrocercum)

Participants David and Judy Smith got a lovely image of a Straight-billed Woodcreeper.

RUFOUS-TAILED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia ruficaudata)
PARA FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus paraensis) [E]
SCALED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca muelleri) – This range restricted Brazilian endemic was one of our great targets at Mexiana island and we had excellent views of them during our brief visit. [E]
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens)
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
RUDDY SPINETAIL (Synallaxis rutilans) – The bird we saw at Carajas belongs to the omissa subspecies and is a strong candidate for a future split.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme) [*]
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – We had great fun watching a bird building a nest.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) [*]
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) [*]
YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA (Myiopagis flavivertex)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)

White-shouldered Antshrikes were seen at the Gunma reserve. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis)
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis ecaudatus) – This minute bird is the smallest passerine in the world.
HELMETED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus galeatus) – Seen at Gunma.
SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus minor)
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
BLACK-AND-WHITE TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus capitalis) – Despite the fact that distribution maps say that it does not occur here, we had great views on the Pojuca trail at Carajas.
SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus sylvia) [*]
BLACK-CHESTED TYRANT (Taeniotriccus andrei) – One of the stars at Carajas and we knew exactly where to find it.
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum)
YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) [*]
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias assimilis) [*]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus)
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) [*]
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (Onychorhynchus coronatus)

Crimson-crested Woodpecker is one of the larger woodpecker species that we saw. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus)
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea) – Alice spotted our first ones.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus) – We saw one individual moving through the understory with a mixed species flock at Carajas.
BLACKISH PEWEE (Contopus nigrescens) – This species has two highly disjunct populations occurring on the east slope of the Andes and in Northeastern Amazonia. We had great scope views of one at Carajas.
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus)
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – This species and the Cinnamon Attila were seen just a few minutes apart in Belem, allowing us to fully appreciate the differences between one and the other.
ASH-THROATED CASIORNIS (Casiornis fuscus) – Alice found this seasonal visitor at Carajas. [E]
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex) [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
DUSKY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes luteiventris)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
CROWNED SLATY FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus) – This austral migrant was one of many birds our driver spotted for us at Carajas.
SULPHURY FLYCATCHER (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) – We found this mauritia palm specialist right in the backyard of the Vila Rica hotel in Belem.
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – Seen at the Mexiana island.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – The birds found at Carajas belong to the tocantinsi subspecies and have a very distinctive song.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GUIANAN RED-COTINGA (Phoenicircus carnifex) – What a magnificent bird! We had great scope views of an adult male.
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – Seen a couple of times on the tour but watching a male sit low on a palm tree and aggressively display that purple pompom on its throat was one of the best treats of this tour.
PURPLE-BREASTED COTINGA (Cotinga cotinga) – A scarce bird but I spotted one individual perched on top of a tree and we had great looks at it through the scope.

We had a good view of a pair of Mangrove Rails on our boat trip at Salinopolis. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

SPANGLED COTINGA (Cotinga cayana)
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
WHITE BELLBIRD (Procnias albus)
WHITE-TAILED COTINGA (Xipholena lamellipennis) – A couple of friends of mine had found a fruiting tree a few days before the tour and we watched it as several individuals visited and fed on its fruits. [E]
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus)
Pipridae (Manakins)
DWARF TYRANT-MANAKIN (Tyranneutes stolzmanni)
OPAL-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix iris) – I am seriously partial to this bird as this is the bird that prompted me to walk out of law school and become a birding guide. We found a nice adult male at Carajas. [E]
CRIMSON-HOODED MANAKIN (Pipra aureola) – Many great looks both at Mexiana and around the Combu island in Belem.
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda)
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla) – The most common species of manakin we saw on the tour.
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)

Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant is one of a number of small flycatchers that we saw on the tour. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis turdina) – Formerly known as Thrush-like Schiffornis.
WHITE-BROWED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura isabellae)
CINEREOUS BECARD (Pachyramphus rufus)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) [*]
PINK-THROATED BECARD (Pachyramphus minor)
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus)
SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius leucotis) – This is a nuclear species of canopy flocks and is a constant sound when such flocks are around, but seeing one is often a challenge as they are always high up on trees, therefore it was a real treat seeing one through the scope.
DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET (Pachysylvia hypoxantha)
CHIVI VIREO (MIGRATORY) (Vireo chivi chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-NAPED JAY (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) [E*]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata)

This handsome Black-necked Aracari posed nicely for participants David and Judy Smith.

SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) – Always an incredibly tricky bird to see but we managed to call one in for good views
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus)
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) [*]
CORAYA WREN (Pheugopedius coraya) – Another wren that is easily heard but seldom seen. We worked hard on bringing one into view on the Pojuca Trail at Carajas
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) [*]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
SPECTACLED THRUSH (Turdus nudigenis) – This was a somewhat unexpected surprise and a lifer for me. We saw it in some altered habitat right in the town of Parauapebas.
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GOLDEN-SIDED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cayennensis)
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Leistes militaris) – Seen on our way to the airport on the very last day of the tour.
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (PARA) (Psarocolius bifasciatus bifasciatus) – We had great looks at this unique subspecies of Olive Oropendola while enjoying the great spectacle of Orange-winged Parrots on Parrot Island.
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus) – A great spot by David on Mexiana Island.

Large-billed Seed-Finches have become rare, so we were excited to get a good look at this male on Mexiana Island. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
RED-BILLED PIED TANAGER (Lamprospiza melanoleuca)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis)
AMAZONIAN GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia rothschildii)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis)
BLACK-FACED TANAGER (Schistochlamys melanopis)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
FULVOUS-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus surinamus) – A common species with the mixed species flocks at the Gunma reserve outside of Belem.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
SPOTTED TANAGER (Ixothraupis punctata)

Silky-tailed Nightjar is a large nightjar, but it is rare, especially in northern Brazil. Our guide at Carajas knew where to find this one, though, so we got great views. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

MASKED TANAGER (Tangara nigrocincta)
TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana)
OPAL-RUMPED TANAGER (Tangara velia) – Subspecies signata.
BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus)
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor) – Seen in the mangroves of Salinopolis.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila castaneiventris)
RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila minuta) – The distribution range of this species barely makes it into Brazil. We found a few individuals on Mexiana Island.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis)

We got to watch this Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet as it was building its nest. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

LARGE-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila crassirostris) – A rare species that has become really scarce in many areas due to cage trapping. We found a nice male at Mexiana Island.
WING-BARRED SEEDEATER (Sporophila americana)
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) [I]

We saw some interesting mammals on the tour, including these Dusky Titi Monkeys. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

LONG-NOSED BAT (Rhynchonycteris naso)
GHOST BAT SP. (Diclidurus virgo)
DUSKY TITI MONKEY (Callicebus moloch)
RED-HANDED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta belzebul)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
AMAZON DWARF SQUIRREL (Microsciurus flaviventer)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti)
SPECTACLED CAIMAN (Caiman crocodilus)


Totals for the tour: 384 bird taxa and 13 mammal taxa