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Field Guides Tour Report
NE Brazil Part Two: West to the Araguaia 2014
Jan 29, 2014 to Feb 15, 2014
Bret Whitney & Pepe Rojas

Blond-crested Woodpeckers are even more blond in the interior of Brazil's Northeast, where the pale-backed "ochraceus" subspecies occurs. (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

Our 2014 birding adventure through Northeast Brazil was a really fun trip! It began, however, with a walk around Salvador and the beautiful, old Pelourinho district, where we had an excellent moqueca stew (the best I've ever had!). And as if that were not enough, our evening was enlivened by a group of kids playing percussion around our restaurant. It was a fantastic introduction to Bahian culture!

The tour started, appropriately, in the state of Bahia, where we enjoyed very good views of the rare Pectoral Antwren, Stripe-breasted Starthroat, Spotted Piculet, and Gray-headed Spinetail on our way to Jequie. From there, we explored the mata-de-cipo (vine-forest) habitat in search of several great specialties, and we succeeded: Silvery-cheeked Antshrike, Narrow-billed Antwren, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, and Slender Antbird. However, seeing the Bahia Spinetail with our very own Bret Whitney was a very special treat few get the chance to experience: the bird was named after him, after all! Continuing our drive, our next stop was at a cacao plantation in southern Bahia, where we had high hopes of seeing the bizarre Pink-legged Graveteiro, a species that has survived in the canopy of tall native and introduced trees shading the cacao below. We birded diligently before eventually finding not only one but three! Bret's great knowledge of the area and the species helped tremendously to locate a pair that was off-trail, and it was another special moment that we all enjoyed very much. Our birding around Porto Seguro produced more great birds such as Black-capped Screech-Owl, Hook-billed Hermit, White-flanked Antwren, Band-tailed Antwren, Bahia Antwren, Rufous-winged Antwren, and lovely views of a cooperative Black-cheeked Gnateater, not to mention the White-winged Cotinga!

Once we left Bahia, we entered the state of Minas Gerais, where our main target was the Stresemann's Bristlefront, a very rare and endangered bird that is very localized in a protected area. Here, only part of the group had the chance to see a young male crossing the trail as we were moving along the path. The local reserve manager, Alexander, was very pleased to see this young bird moving away from the nest site in search of his own territory. Other noteworthy sightings here were the responsive Spot-winged Wood-Quail pair that came in response to the recording for great views and a pair of Three-toed Jacamars sitting right along the trail.

Westward, into the Cerrado habitats and the Sao Francisco River valley that dominates northern Minas Gerais, we enjoyed great views of the massive Moustached Woodcreeper, a very cooperative Minas Gerais Tyrannulet (it popped out in front of us as soon as Bret mentioned its name), and a responsive flock of Scarlet-throated Tanagers that, after flying by, came back and perched by the road, allowing superb views; but one of my favorite memories was when we flushed from the road a Bicolored Hawk that had just killed a Yellow-legged! Actually, the tinamou was still kicking and gasping, so… I'm just saying.

Our final venue was the Rio Araguaia valley, which is very similar to the pantanal but also features a strong influence of the Amazon around the Tocantins. Here we explored by road and by boat different habitats where we found an impressive variety of species such as Orinoco Goose, Chestnut-bellied Guan, Bare-faced Curassow, Jabiru, Roseate Spoonbill, several species of ibises, Band-tailed Nighthawk, five species of kingfishers, Blond-crested Woodpecker, Yellow-faced Parrot, and an as-yet-undescribed species of spinetail, just to mention a few.

Bret and I had a great time traveling and birding with you all. It was a real pleasure to share with you such a great trip, and we are both ready to do it again! Our thanks, and we'll hope to see you for more birds and good times somewhere down the road.

Com grandes abraços,


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Rheidae (Rheas)

The tall grasses through which they were moving left the bulk of these Greater Rheas to our imaginations! (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – We saw our first (of more to come) during the drive from Palmas to the Fazenda.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – At least one was seen briefly but mostly heard.
YELLOW-LEGGED TINAMOU (Crypturellus noctivagus) – This was incredible. A "heard only" for a while in our list until we found one that was dying from the mortal wound in the head inflicted by the grasp of a Bicolored Hawk. Amazing! A rare bird to see killed by another rare bird! [E]
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) [*]
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa) [*]
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) – During our drive around Almenara we saw one individual crossing the road.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – This one and the following species were quite common around the Fazenda in the Tocantins area.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
ORINOCO GOOSE (Neochen jubata) – On a very raining outing, we saw 8 individuals on the fields. This species is facing some serious threats and as a consequence its numbers are declining.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – Seen twice around the Tocantins area.

Dark bodies, red glowing must be a flock of the endemic Scarlet-throated Tanagers, highly restricted and very localized. We saw them well! (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – Our first encounter with this species was at the marsh we visited when we were in Jaquie.
WHITE-CHEEKED PINTAIL (Anas bahamensis) – This species was seen only at that marsh.
SOUTHERN POCHARD (Netta erythrophthalma) – Ditto.
MASKED DUCK (Nomonyx dominicus) – To see male and female at the marsh was a treat. Thanks to Bret's eagle....actually, Kite eyes!
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster) – We saw this species everyday during our time at the Tocantins area.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – During our river outing, a male was spotted flying across the river. Once he landed, he blended very well with the tree but allowed some looks before disappearing in the forest.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – We saw this species during our outing in search of the Bristlefront. Bret's magic powers brought from the forest this otherwise elusive species.
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps)
Ciconiidae (Storks)
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Another bird that was common around the Tocantins area.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis) – This individual not only responded very well to Bret's playback but also cooperated and stayed put for a while, allowing great looks (and pics) This is normally a VERY hard bird to see!
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – On our way to Palmas there were at least two walking in a pasture and hiding behind some termite nests.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – Seen around the pantanal-like areas on the Tocantins.
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – Ditto.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Every day.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Ditto.
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – We only had one, which was spotted by Judy.
Pandionidae (Osprey)

A look at the endemic Pectoral Antwren doesn't get much better than this. (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Seen only once at the Tocantins area.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – We had just one sighting of this species.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – We came across this species twice at the Araguaia valley.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – It was Bill who spotted this bird, which was very much appreciated.
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – Another species typical of Amazonia that we saw during the Araguaia portion of the trip.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – This one, a more common species of the Pantanal region, was also seen at the Tocantins area.
BICOLORED HAWK (Accipiter bicolor) – Now, when you talk about rare birds, this one will come out on the top of the list. But what were the chances to flush this bird from its kill, the endemic Yellow-legged Tinamou! I'm still thinking about how lucky we were to have such an amazing and rare two-for-one encounter!
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – This subspecies is restricted to Northeast Brazil, and it might be split in the future as a new species...stay tuned.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Seen at several locations during the trip.
GREAT BLACK-HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga) – We found this species during the last leg of our tour.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Another everyday bird.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – This species was spotted by Pat around the Tocantins area.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
ZONE-TAILED HAWK (Buteo albonotatus) – We saw this raptor once around the Refugio de Vida silvestre.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GIANT WOOD-RAIL (Aramides ypecaha) – Do you remember these birds along the Highway in Tocantins?
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) [*]
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Porzana albicollis) [*]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris)
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – Unfortunately we only heard this species, but they were quite active around our fazenda due the high water levels. [*]
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – Common at the Araguaia region along the roads.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)

Always lovely: Pied Lapwing (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – These lovely shorebirds were seen everyday at the Tocantins area.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – We saw these birds almost every day during the tour.
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris) – Also seen around the Tocantins area.
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus) – Seen only once along HWY 225.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex) – I was surprised we did not see more of these birds during the tour.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Another species of a more Amazonian distribution that we encountered in the Araguaia region.
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – This species was common from Almenara all the way to the Araguaia region.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – Another everyday bird.
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
PICUI GROUND-DOVE (Columbina picui) – The vocalization that called "al capone"
BLUE GROUND-DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – We had this bird at Pirapora, during our outing near at river.
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – We had only one of these rare ground-doves perched and singing at the road from our Pousada.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – Mostly heard but also seen in flight.
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – Ditto.
Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – Another species of Amazonian distribution that we saw in the Araguaia region.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – This is a species that really amazes me how common it is within its range.
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – An odd-looking bird whose name means "bird" in the tupi guarani language. An interesting fact about this species is that, as with other members of the Crotophaginae, it has a strong and pungent odor.
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – We came across some individuals of an isolated population of this species along the San Francisco river.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) – At the barn of our Pousada we found a pair.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – When we began the process to lure the following species, it was this one that responded first. It was mostly heard but also seen in flight.

Black-capped Screech-Owl provided some very fine views, too! (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) – On the other hand, this one took a little bit of effort and patience until it was found and we enjoyed great looks. Not only that, it was long enough there that we could get our share of pics, videos and recordings! I could not think of any better way to see an endemic! [E]
GREAT HORNED OWL (GREAT HORNED) (Bubo virginianus nacurutu) – Our last evening we were lucky to find not one but two of these impressive owls.
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – This Brazilian endemic remained as heard only despite your leaders' efforts to locate one. [E]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – This one was a similar situation, but boy, its vocalization helped us a lot to find other birds....thank you Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl!
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – We saw one sitting on the highway while driving back to our Pousada in heavy rain.
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga majuscula) – Another species of Amazonian distribution, which at this point was likely at the most southwestern extension of its range.
BAHIAN NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne vielliardi) – This Brazilian endemic was nicely seen. The scientific name viellardi was given to honor French ornithologist Jacques Viellardi for his many contributions to Brazilian ornithology. [E]
PYGMY NIGHTJAR (Caprimulgus hirundinaceus) – Another of the Brazilian endemics of which we enjoyed great views. This one was actually seen in the wonderful cactus gardens, a fragile and unique ecosystem where we enjoyed also some hummers. [E]
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
HOOK-BILLED HERMIT (Glaucis dohrnii) – We saw this hummer around Porto Seguro, in the reserve we visited. [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – The most common hermit we saw during our tour.
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei) – Only one was seen at the site where we were looking for the Bristlefront.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome)
WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus guainumbi) – Our first was seen around the HWY in the Tocantins area. Later we found a pair nesting. Bret spotted a female sitting on the nest! [N]
RUBY-TOPAZ HUMMINGBIRD (Chrysolampis mosquitus) – Seen well at the Cactus Gardens.
STRIPE-BREASTED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster squamosus) – This hummer was seen well around Milagres, outside of Salvador. [E]
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – At the Cactus Garden.
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis) – We saw the subspecies diamantinensis.
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – Seen at several locations on the tour but perhaps at the Cactus Garden was the best.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata) – This species has a very large distribution from the Amazon close to the Atlantic forest.
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – And this species replaces the previous species in the Atlantic forest.
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – Seen around Jaquie.
PLAIN-BELLIED EMERALD (Amazilia leucogaster) – I believe Judy and Dave saw this hummer at the hotel.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)

Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina)
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus)
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – We saw this species once at the reserve near Porto Seguro.
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – Seen and heard at different locations.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – This bird was seen first at the bridges near Januaria and later around the Tocantins area.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – We enjoyed great looks at male and female, and this was one of the best looks I ever had at this species.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
SPOT-BACKED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus maculatus) – Seen well during our outing out of Jequie.
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – One individual responded very well and showed when were hiking the trail around Boa Nova. [E]
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula) – We enjoyed lengthy views of a pair of these lovely tiny puffbirds at Rio Las Velhas. Later we also heard them.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – We saw and heard this species of Amazonian distribution at the Araguaia region.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – An unexpected surprise we came across during our outing looking for Bristelfronts.
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
LETTERED ARACARI (Pteroglossus inscriptus) – Seen by Dave and Chuck.
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari)
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET (GOLDEN-SPANGLED) (Picumnus exilis exilis) – One at least was seen by Dick.
SPOTTED PICULET (Picumnus pygmaeus) – We saw one first at Milagre, and later on the trip a female was seen around Januaria.
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus guttifer) – Our guide Alexandre mentioned that the species we saw at that particular area is being described as a new species.
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons)
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus)
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis)
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – This Brazilian endemic was nicely seen around Boa Nova. [E]
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros) [*]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris) – We only saw this species around Boa Nova during our morning outing.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – We enjoyed great looks of "blondie" during our outings at the Tocantins. A pair actually fooled us during our search for the Kaempfer's Woodpecker. [E]
RINGED WOODPECKER (Celeus torquatus) – The tinnunculus subspecies is restricted to Southern Bahia and Espirito Santo and may be split, giving full species in the future.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
Cariamidae (Seriemas)

Orinoco Geese (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – While driving from Pirapora we saw four individuals walking by the road. Later on the tour we heard them calling.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – Dona Judy Curry spotted the first of more to come during our tour.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
GOLDEN-CAPPED PARAKEET (Aratinga auricapillus) – This Brazilian endemic became Pat's 2600th bird on her list. What a nice way to celebrate a new bird. Congratulations! [E]
CACTUS PARAKEET (Aratinga cactorum) – Another endemic that was seen well. [E]
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – We saw this species during the last leg of our tour around the Tocantins.
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) [*]
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – We saw this species several times, including during our first day walking around the city of Salvador!
YELLOW-FACED PARROT (Alipiopsitta xanthops) – We were very lucky to see this rare and enigmatic parrot. Not an endemic but harder to see because of its seminomadic habits and the loss of their habitat. Currently the species status under the IUCN is Near Threatened.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) – This particular species is restricted to the Atlantic forest [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)

A male Silvery-cheeked Antshrike belts out a couple of songs. (Video clip by guide Bret Whitney)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – An Atlantic forest endemic seen very well around Boa Nova. [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – Ditto. [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
SILVERY-CHEEKED ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus cristatus) – This endemic was seen around the marsh near Boa Nova. [E]
GLOSSY ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus luctuosus) – Around the Tocantins.
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – The nominate subspecies doliatus we saw is the Amazonian type...
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (CAATINGA) (Thamnophilus doliatus capistratus) – ...and this other one, which is considered an endemic, is very different from doliatus. For instance, it has less barring in the front and an orange/red eye instead of a yellow one. [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) [*]
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus)
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni) – This species replaces the following species in the interior of eastern and central Brazil.
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – This endemic occurs mostly along the coast of eastern Brazil. [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – The Atlantic forest from of the White-flanked Antwren is considered by many to be a new species. [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula urosticta) – Another Brazilian endemic seen well near Porto Seguro. [E]
STRIPE-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmorchilus strigilatus strigilatus)
CAATINGA ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus sellowi) – We saw this species near Jaquie.
BAHIA ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus pileatus) – The endemic Bahia Antwren was seen also around the Jaquie area. [E]
BLACK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus atricapillus) – Ditto.
PECTORAL ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus pectoralis) – And this other endemic was seen around Milagre. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – This species has a broad distribution that includes the Andes, Amazonia, and the Atlantic forest. This particular species is the nominate race endemic to the Atlantic forest. [E]
NARROW-BILLED ANTWREN (Formicivora iheringi) – Restricted to the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais, this endemic is currently under the category of Near Threatened by the IUCN. And we saw it very well!!! [E]
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea) – We saw this lovely antwren during the last part of our tour.
BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster)
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa rufa)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – This other endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest was seen well in its favorite habitat, bamboo. [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – And this Brazilian endemic was also seen well! [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – Seen twice during the tour. [E]
BANANAL ANTBIRD (Cercomacra ferdinandi) [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
SLENDER ANTBIRD (Rhopornis ardesiacus) [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza loricata) – What a little gem! It took a little while to "convince" this bird to show up but it was worthy! [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (RUFOUS) (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – This nominal race was seen well around Almenara during our hike in search of Stresemann's Bristlefront.
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops perspicillata) – We saw it first around Porto Seguro and later it was heard. [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
WHITE-BROWED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus ochroleucus) [E*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
STRESEMANN'S BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis stresemanni) – With this bird, just few of us got the chance to see it and it was just pure luck. As we were moving ahead to look for other territory, a young male popped up from one side of the trail and as it was crossing along a log, Bill, Carol, Richard, Alexandre and I got to see it. Alexandre told us it was the first time he sees a young male, which is great! [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus olivaceus) – This subspecies is restricted to the cacao plantations.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (PLAIN-WINGED) (Dendrocincla fuliginosa turdina) – We saw one at the trail near Boa Nova. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – We saw this species around the same area we had the previous species.
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris intermedius) – And this one was seen around Januaria in the National park we visited.

The endemic Moustached Woodcreeper can do some serious damage working cracks and crevices with that bill. (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

MOUSTACHED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes falcirostris franciscanus) – Another Brazilian endemic that was seen very well around the same area where we had the previous species. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus)
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – This woodcreeper was seen and heard during our day at the river.
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris major) [*]
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris trochilirostris) – Seen and heard around Porto Seguro at the reserve we visited. [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – This bird is always a treat and we had it! [E]
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) – Pat got this bird earlier on the trip and later the whole group was able to see it around HWY 255.
SCALED WOODCREEPER (WAGLER'S) (Lepidocolaptes squamatus wagleri) – We saw this endemic woodcreeper around Januaria. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (SCALED) (Lepidocolaptes squamatus squamatus) – And this one around Rio Las Velhas.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – AKA Band-tailed Hornero.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – The commonest Hornero of the trip.
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura) – Only one seen briefly at the stream that ran parallel to our trail near Boa Nova.
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – Another endemic that was seen in the same area as the Streamcreeper. [E]
CHESTNUT-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Hylocryptus rectirostris) [E*]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus leucophthalmus) [*]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (RUFOUS-FRONTED) (Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons) – The first we encountered was around Jaquie. Later on the tour we came across another individual near Almenara.
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
PINK-LEGGED GRAVETEIRO (Acrobatornis fonsecai) – This acrobatic little gem was seen very well by everybody. Now, it was not easy; it took a combined effort and patience to finally find a pair that was working its way on a tree off the trail and Bret was able to find them. Later I saw another individual with Ann Margareth closer to the trail. [E]
STRIATED SOFTTAIL (Thripophaga macroura) [E]
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (RUSTY-BACKED) (Cranioleuca vulpina reiseri) [E]
GRAY-HEADED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca semicinerea) [E]
CAATINGA CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura cristata) [E]
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – Great views of a very responsive individual that showed itself very well after playback.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – Common around the marshy areas we bird.
UNDESCRIBED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis sp. nov.) – As Bret mentioned, the resemblance of this bird to the Red-and-white Spinetail was uncanny. [E]
BAHIA SPINETAIL (Synallaxis whitneyi) [E]
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (ARAGUAIA) (Synallaxis albilora simoni) – We looked for this bird tirelessly, but we had to settle for "heard only." [E*]
OCHRE-CHEEKED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis scutata)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – One of the first species to come and check on the pygmy-owl vocalizations.
SUIRIRI FLYCATCHER (Suiriri suiriri bahiae) – We had three around Pirapora.

This perspective exaggerates the difference, but a Jabiru is indeed a large bird! (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – We saw this flycatcher that has a very unique patchy distribution in South America at different locations.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) [*]
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – This little flycatcher is unique in the sense of being sexually dimorphic. Males tend to be gray overall, while females are olive and yellow.
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) – This elaenia has a huge and patchy distribution ranging all the way from Mexico to the southern parts of Brazil and Argentina. Most of the populations are resident but those at the southern end of South America are Austral migrants!
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Another elaenia with a wide distribution that we saw during our tour. This one ranges from southeast Mexico to Northern Argentina.
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis) – This species at some point was considered conspecific with the Yellow-bellied Elaenia, but Large Elaenia prefers more wooded habitats, is larger with a very small crest with little white, and has three instead of two wing bars.
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata)
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
BAHIA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes beckeri) – Although we found this Brazilian endemic in Jequie, Bahia, it also occurs in Minas Gerais. Unfortunately it is scarce and their numbers are declining within its range. The name beckeri was to honor Brazilian ornithologist Johann Becker for his efforts to protect a large area of the Atlantic forest where the species occurs. [E]
MINAS GERAIS TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes roquettei) – This other endemic, which we saw in Minas Gerais also occurs in Bahia. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – This Atlantic forest endemic likes a little bit of elevation within its range. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
SOUTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER (Sublegatus modestus) – This species overlaps during the Austral winter with its "cousin" the Amazonian Scrub Flycatcher in part of its range.
TAWNY-CROWNED PYGMY-TYRANT (Euscarthmus meloryphus) – This little bird with a big voice has three separate populations in South America. One at the north, the other in the Tumbesian region of Peru and Ecuador and at the dry forest of the southern part of the Amazon including part of the Atlantic forest.
LESSER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (Stigmatura napensis bahiae) – This is a species that has slit from the nominate race found in the Amazon and tributaries, where it likes river islands vegetation. The species we saw during our tour, prefers the interior caatinga of Northeast Brazil. [E]
GREATER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (Stigmatura budytoides gracilis) – This species occurs as part of a disjunct population in Northeast Brazil, where we saw it. The other species' comprises the Chaco of Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. [E]
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – This tiny one is in the same genus of the smallest of the passerines, the Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant....hard to imagine considering how small this species was already uh!
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E]
STRIPE-NECKED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus striaticollis) – This is another interesting species with three disjunct range. At the north of South America, it occurs in Colombia and Peru. From Southeastern Peru it can be found all the way to the Amazon mouth in the Atlantic including south to the state of Minas Gerais and the third population is at the state of Bahia.
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Interestingly, the name nidipendulus came from the description of its nest, which is a dome structure that hangs suspended from a branch. This is also a characteristic of the other members of the genus. [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – This is another Brazilian endemic that occurs in Southern Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais. The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) considers the species to be Vulnerable. [E]

Least Bittern (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris) – This one could be a potential undescribed species based on plumage and vocalization.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – Another Brazilian endemic restricted to the Atlantic forest. [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – Really common!
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (PARA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens mixtus) – Another species with a huge distribution (from southern Mexico to Northern Argentina) and 16 subspecies!
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens) – Ditto.
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – This is actually a species of a more Amazonian distribution however there is a disjunct population in the Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil, which is precisely where we saw it.
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris)
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – This is another bird with an interesting distribution. It can be found in Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela under the influence of the Guyanan Shield. Also from Venezuela south in the Andes all the way to Northeast Argentina and finally, in Brazil, from the Northeast south to Northeastern Argentina. Also this species has learn to take advantage of human altered habitats and in Sao Paulo, they nest on high-rise buildings.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – This species presents a real good challenge to identify since the "bran color" pattern varies a lot within the species' range.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri) [*]
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – This species likes cerrado and grasslands in central Brazil. They are cavity nesters and usually use the old nests of Campo Flickers.
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero niveus) – One of the most interesting things about this bird is the fact that usually white plumage is very unusual and associated to birds that occurs at Polar regions but this Monjitas are in a completely different region! Very interesting and as far as I know, nobody really knows why. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – This species also has a small population in Western Ecuador and Northwest Peru.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Beautiful.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – A species that prefers savannas and grasslands which shows in the regions where it occurs. The north part of South America including the Llanos and the Pantanal and Pampas in the southern part.
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator)
ASH-THROATED CASIORNIS (Casiornis fuscus) [E]
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex) – This species is another of those we found that has a wide distribution mostly at the Amazon basin but has as well as population in the Atlantic forest.
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – Another bird with a wide range. It has been recorded as far north as Utah to the south in Northeast Argentina. An interesting fact about this bird is that they are migratory at both reaches of their range. Can I say they are Boreal and Austral migrants?
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) [a]
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)

White-shouldered Fire-eye (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – Another species with a wide range from Southern Mexico to Southern Argentina. The interesting fact here is that those at the south part of the range are migratory and it is not unusual to see them in Amazonia flocking with Eastern Kingbirds.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – This species has a VERY patchy distribution. It can be found in Costa Rica and Panama, the Andes, the Guianan Shield and eastern Brazil to northern Argentina at foothill forests. The Sharpbill does not have any relatives and it is placed at its own family, the Oxyruncidae.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans) – Unmistakable call.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – And this endemic replaces the previous species in Southeast Brazil.....but didn't we see it during our Northeast tour? [E]
WHITE-WINGED COTINGA (Xipholena atropurpurea) – Listed under the category of Endangered, this species occurs at the Atlantic forest of Brazil and within its habitat, it includes the coastal forest. Apparently it seems to be able to endure the disturbance of the habitat better than it was thought. [E]
Pipridae (Manakins)
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – We saw mostly young males but also one or two adult males during our long outing at the trail near Boa Nova. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) – Mostly heard although some females were seen.
BLUE-BACKED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia pareola)
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – It took a while to find some male with the full tail but it was worthy it. [E]
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (WHITE-CROWNED) (Pipra pipra cephaleucos) [E]
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Pipra rubrocapilla)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina intermedia) [E]
WHITE-NAPED XENOPSARIS (Xenopsaris albinucha)
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – Perhaps one of the most encountered Becards in different types of habitats that has an unusual characteristic among becards: Plumage between males and females are identical.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – This bird has a great ability to adapt to modified habitats which has result on being the most widespread of its genus.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus) – In most of its distribution, this species occurs in tall humid forest. However within its range in southeastern Brazil, it can be found in scrub and low open woodland.
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus)
WHITE-NAPED JAY (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) – In the past, this Brazilian endemic was considered conspecific with the Plush-crested Jay. [E]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)

Part of our group scanning from a limestone outcrop near Peruacu National Park (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

BLACK-COLLARED SWALLOW (Pygochelidon melanoleuca) – A very nice surprise.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – Another species with an Amazonian and Atlantic forest population as well.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris bahiae) [E]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – This species, which likes marshes and pastures throughout its range, used to be call "Black-capped Mockingthrush"
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – Another species with a disjunct range, that occurs in Trinidad and Tobago, parts of the Guianan Shield and the Atlantic forest.
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (TROPICAL) (Mimus gilvus antelius) – This species replaces the Northern Mockingbird in the neotropics. The point of "replacement" has been identified to be at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. [E]
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)

The distinctive Three-toed Jacamar gave some great looks on this tour. (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola) – Another species with an unusual distribution. Most of its range is from Bolivia and Paraguay through the east to Brazil. Also occurs in Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-COWLED CARDINAL (Paroaria dominicana) – This beauty's ranges reaches Minas Gerais to the south and it is known to be a common species at caatinga habitats. [E]
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
SCARLET-THROATED TANAGER (Compsothraupis loricata) – A great display of a flock of this Brazilian endemic that liked Bret's tape. They did come back from a very long distance and perched by the road very close to us. This flock dwelling tanagers appear to have a great preference for the caatinga biome. [E]
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
ORANGE-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis sordida)
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – This species has a very interesting disjunct distribution. It occurs at the eastern slope of the Andes from northwest Peru to northwest Argentina where it can be found at elevation of 2200-2400 meters but also in the Atlantic forest of Brazil, where they occur at much lower elevations.
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata) – Seven subspecies of this tanager are recognized from southern Mexico to northern Paraguay and its the only member of the genus eucometis.
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – This species is recognized as the most geographically variable within its distribution: at least 10 subspecies!
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – What a gem! We saw this Atlantic forest endemic at the beginning of our trip around Boa Nova. [E]
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca) – An everyday tanager....actually an every day bird of the trip!
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – This Brazilian endemic overlaps with the previous species but could be separated from the other on the field by size, thicker bill, the deep blue color on its wing coverts and the buffy coloration of the belly. [E]
GOLDEN-CHEVRONED TANAGER (Thraupis ornata) – This bird reminded me a lot of the Blue-capped Tanager from the Andes. [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) – Unlike the most widespread species in the Amazon basin, this one shows a white bellied instead of yellow. [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – A crowd pleaser from the Atlantic forest that we enjoyed very much. [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Eye candy.
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – An interesting fact about the males of the species is that after breeding they have an atypical molt that results in a dull eclipse plumage.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – Another crowd pleaser.
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – A favorite of many that was well seen during our hike near Boa Nova. [E]

When there's "Giant" in your name, as for the Wood-Rail, it's hard to tiptoe across the road unnoticed--and that was just fine with us! (Photo by participants David & Judy Smith)

YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis melanoxantha) [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor) – This species has two well separated populations. One found on mangroves along the Atlantic and the Caribbean reaching southern Brazil and the other which at the Amazon basin, where it occurs mainly in river islands.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris)
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris collaris)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – This species has an interesting distribution in South America, which does not include a lot the Amazon.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – If I recall right, I think only Rick saw this bird.
WHITE-THROATED SEEDEATER (Sporophila albogularis) – As far as I know, this species remain as a poorly known species. It occurs between Piaui and northern Bahia and some records farther the south seem to be escapees. [E]
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera) – Another species with a disjunct distribution in South America, which we saw at the beginning of our tour.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Oryzoborus angolensis)
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
SOOTY GRASSQUIT (Tiaris fuliginosus)
BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator atricollis) – This "almost endemic" to Brazil has a great affinity for Cerrado habitats, where we saw it.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis) – The numbers of this bird were greatly reduced as a result of cagebird trappers in the past.
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – It was a shame really that we could not see this endemic. [E*]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) – This birds like the undergrowth of old forest as well as secondary growth and we saw them well during our hike near Boa Nova and later at the trail we hiked to look for Bristlefronts. The name "pectoral" comes from the black band at their chest.
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris) – This bird looks very similar to the previous species but unlike the other one, this species has a very colorful "saffron colored" bill.
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis) – Doesn't it reminded you of the Grasshopper Sparrow back home?
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
HEPATIC TANAGER (LOWLAND) (Piranga flava flava) – This Piranga tanager has the most wide distribution than other of its congeners. It ranges from southwest USA to northern Argentina.
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis)
ULTRAMARINE GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa brissonii brissonii) – We bumped into one at Peruacu Ntl Park.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)

A medley of a few fun video clips with the group in the field, filmed and narrated by Bret
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus) – Bret spotted a pair near the road to our Pousada.
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – We saw this species several times during our tour and mostly closer to marshes and vegetation associated with water as is the birds preference.
BAY-WINGED COWBIRD (PALE) (Agelaioides badius fringillarius) – We encountered this species twice during our tour. One around Boa Nova and later around Pirapora. An interesting fact about this species is that they are sometimes nest parasites but normally they will incubate and tae care of their own young with helpers. However it has been observe that Screaming Cowbirds will parasite Bay-winged Cowbirds almost exclusively.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis)
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – During this trip we were almost at the end of the range of this species.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala)
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – WOW!!! Is this eye cany or what?
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)

GREATER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio leporinus) – We saw this large bats fishing during our night outings.
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) [E]
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) [E]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.)
ROCK CAVY (Kerodon rupestris) – This little one is endemic to Bahia and Minas Gerais. [E]
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
NEOTROPICAL OTTER (Lontra longicaudis) – One was spotted by Dona Judy Curry from the top at Cavernas do Peruacu, while swimming.
MARSH DEER (Blastocerus dichotomus) – I was nicely surprised to see how common and tamed this species was.
GREEN IGUANA (Iguana iguana)


Totals for the tour: 443 bird taxa and 11 mammal taxa