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Field Guides Tour Report
Nowhere but Northeast Brazil 2020
Jan 21, 2020 to Feb 7, 2020
Bret Whitney & Marcelo Barreiros

Here is a 9.5 minute highlight reel from the first week of our tour, in the states of Pernambuco and Ceará. Video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.

"Northeast Brazil” encompasses a vast area, larger than the countries of Colombia or Venezuela, for example. Finding (almost) all of the resident birds of an area this size in 3.5 weeks of birding is a major challenge, to say the least, but this year we again met it head-on, and our congenial group of birders came away with good views of just about all of the special birds of Brazil’s northeast. Of necessity we covered a lot of ground and visited many different habitats and reserves, requiring several days of long drives, but in each of those cases, the hoped-for birds cooperated and the ultimate reward was worthwhile. Also very much on our side this year was the weather. Most days had sufficient cloud cover to keep temperatures comfortable, especially mornings, and the few hard rains we experienced did not last so long that we missed seeing any of the birds we were after. The most disappointing aspect of the trip was certainly the Murici Reserve, where the several local rarities we have seen on many past tours have, over just the past few years, all but disappeared, such as Alagoas and Orange-bellied antwrens, and Alagoas Tyrannulet (and Novaes’s [Alagoas] Foliage-gleaner was recently declared extinct). We did manage to see the distinctive subspecies taunayi of Plain-brown Woodcreeper, and the pernambucensis subspecies of White-backed Fire-eye. Happily however, not far away, in Pernambuco state, the Frei Caneca and Pedra D’Anta reserves were quite productive. We saw Orange-bellied Antwren and Willis’s Antbird very well, and also Pinto’s Spinetail, Alagoas Tyrannulet, Seven-colored Tanagers, the rare Forbes’s Blackbird, and a fine assortment of hummers, including Long-tailed Woodnymph. Unfortunately, White-collared Kite got away “heard only” this time around, as a bird responded to playback of the song a couple of times, on two different days, but refused to show (it was likely on a nest, sitting tight).

The next several days of our tour found us birding a north-south transect of the far-northern state of Ceara. The Serra de Baturite, an isolated range of verdant, forest-cloaked hills, was home to Ochraceous Piculet, Ochre-backed Woodpecker, Ceara Gnateater, Ceara (Rufous-breasted) Leaftosser, Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant, and Band-tailed Manakin. Continuing south, we were delighted to find some White-browed Guans, and stops to scope the rather few ponds we saw along the way south turned up a single Masked Duck and one flock of 10 Southern Pochards (alas, nary a Comb Duck to be found). By this time, we had entered the “caatinga”, an indigenous, (Tupi) descriptor for “white forest”, because the tall deciduous forest of this region (now essentially ALL gone) looked starkly white in the dry season. The birding was exciting! A few of the characteristic species that appeared in those early stops included Silvery-cheeked Antshrike, Black-bellied Antwren, Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, dapper White-naped Jays, Red-cowled Cardinal, and White-throated Seedeater. A couple of action-packed days in the southern part of the state at Chapada do Araripe were highlighted by excellent views of Tawny Piculet, Caatinga Antwren, Ash-throated Casiornis, Red-shouldered Spinetail, and (yip yip yip!) Great Xenops! Special accolades go to the fabulous, recently described Araripe Manakin, which performed so beautifully – that adult male bird was calling like crazy, really fired up!

We swung back into far-western Pernambuco state for a couple of days birding the caatinga out of Petrolina, a fairly large city on the bank of the Rio Sao Francisco. Among the prizes there were day-roosting Least Nighthawks, Cactus Parakeets (perched, finally!), a handsome Stripe-backed Antbird that eventually showed itself to great advantage, Spot-backed Puffbirds, Caatinga Cachalote, both Greater and Lesser wagtail-tyrants (excellent comparison, one right after the other), Suiriri Flycatcher, an impressive Long-billed Wren, and several brilliant Campo Troupials. But the most-appreciated sighting (high-fives all around) went to the Small-billed Tinamou we coaxed into showing itself remarkably well, right down to the glowing red legs and scalloped flanks!

Next morning we racked up some goodies (Rufous-sided Crake, Stripe-backed Bittern, and Black-backed Water-Tyrant) before traversing a rather desolate stretch of northern Bahia en route to the little town of Canudos. A late-afternoon foray into well-developed, arboreal caatinga gave us a fabulous adult male Ruby Topaz and our only Stripe-breasted Starthroat of the trip, an adult male that showed briefly but well, along with exceptional views of Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant. Canudos is the gateway to the Raso da Catarina, world stronghold of the rare Indigo (Lear’s) Macaw. Following a very early breakfast, spirits were running high as we piled into the Biodiversitas 4x4s for the one-hour drive into the remote Raso, a labyrinth of ancient redrock, sandstone cliffs and canyons. Fortunately, the roads and tracks were quite dry. Unfortunately, the headlights on one of the vehicles had gone out, but our experienced driver/guide didn’t let that stop us, and we barely ran off the track a couple of times as we barreled around some curves (who needs a second cup of coffee with an adrenaline rush like that?). We made it to the stopping point as “rosy-fingered dawn” was barely lining the eastern horizon, a deep, starry sky twinkling overhead. Our guides had us wait for a while, so as not to approach the cliffs before the macaws had begun to stir. Soon came the first, distant cries of the macaws, such a wild sound(!), heralding great reward for the considerable investment of time required to be here. We now had just enough light to hike toward the cliffs without headlamps/lights. Some 15 minutes later, as we neared the main canyon, the first pair of Lear’s Macaws flew over us, imperfectly visible against the still-dark sky, but what a thrill it was! Settling ourselves just back from the canyon rim, the din of waking, gabbling, flying Lear’s Macaws was absolutely all around us. Some 30-40 birds, almost all in pairs, a few in trios (adults with a youngster from the previous year’s nesting) blasted past us, some high, others below eye-level, many wheeling around as they prepared to depart on the commute to feeding areas some 40 miles to the east. Other pairs were closer to nesting, taking advantage of this relatively good season of rainfall. Some 20 birds remained in their canyon fortress all morning, several of them investigating cavities in the steep cliffs, a few pairs engaging in lengthy, animated bouts of copulation. It was such a wonderful privilege to be there, to behold that primordial scene. Be sure to check out the photos and videos, below (and from previous year’s triplists, as every year brings a somewhat different experience).

Getting to the Raso da Catarina is a milestone; getting anywhere else after that is a stony bunch of miles. And that’s exactly what we did, pedal to the metal for the rest of the day (happily, nowadays, all on good paved highways). But there was one other important stop on our docket – we needed to find Pectoral Antwren. This dapper little northeast endemic used to have a wide range across the semi-humid (mostly evergreen) woodlands that have now been cut and burned to near oblivion; only scattered pockets, mostly quite small, persist across most of its former distribution, and there is darned little of it left anywhere near the roads we would have to use on our route. Thus, with little room for error, err we did not: the reliable pair we scrounged up several years ago was still there and looking great (whew!). Hard on the heels of those feats came a narrow window to cross paths with the rare Fringe-backed Fire-eye, which has an even smaller world range. Next morning, it took us a while to find them, but we finally walked away with great views of a pair of birds under our belts (not literally). Before we finally located the fire-eyes, I had decided to take a significant risk, and devote precious time to trying to call a Variegated Tinamou across the road as Marcelo and the group kept watch. The risk, of course, was starting this process, which (to do adequately) might require 20-30 minutes, and which would be unlikely to actually work. But, the bird had called fairly close at hand, so we went for it – and, by gum, the bird, and its mate(?) did finally sneak across – wowee!! We celebrated the last several days of resounding successes with a to-die-for (or at) “rodizio” (never-ending, served-to-the-table) lunch at a famous Brazilian BBQ with a half-football field of salad bar. Waddling out the door, and in the absence of a dozen hammocks to snooze in, we tipped our seats back and footrests up for the long drive west, due west, to our final birding venue, the dramatic Chapada Diamantina. I tell you, it was sooo nice having that big bus with two seats for each of us, standing room in the center aisle, on-board bathroom and fridge, plate-glass windows, good AC, and our truly professional (and more-than-jovial) Marcondes at the wheel. Oh yes, and all the ice cream stops!!

Having attained the fabled fields and buttes of the Chapada, we caught our second (or was it third?) wind, staying in a couple of lovely hotels close to excellent birding. The wide variety of habitats in the Chapada Diamantina makes for a diverse birdlife. We birded “cerrado” savannas with a sparse, fire-adapted woodland and scrub (Collared Crescentchest, Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, Gray-backed Tachuri, White-banded Tanager, Black-throated Saltator); enclaves of semi-humid forest (Diamantina Tapaculo, Gilt-edged Tanager); bizarre, Vellozia-dominated chaparral-like valleys and escarpments (Hooded Visorbearer, Brown Violetear, Sincora Antwren, Copper Seedeater, Pale-throated Pampa-Finch); and finally, another sector of arboreal caatinga west of the Chapada that produced an incredible Broad-tipped Hermit, our first male Ultramarine Grosbeak, and a bottom-of-the-ninth home-run with a flock of Scarlet-throated Tanagers.

Our flight back to Salvador was delayed a couple of times that last afternoon, which caused us to rush our normally relaxed city-tour of Salvador with a stroll and dinner in the old, colonial part of town, Pelourinho (pel-o-REEN-yo). Still, Conor, our indefatigable man-on-the-ground in Salvador, was there to give us an excellent orientation of one of the oldest cities in the Americas, and our walk through Pelourinho punctuated with a wonderful shrimp moqueca (coconut-milk-based stew) was pleasant and highly memorable. That day we also said good-bye to Brad and Steve, who were not continuing for the “Bahia Birding Getaway” post-tour extension.

Now moving on to the extension… to ensure we would have ample time to search for a very important bird -- the Pink-legged Graveteiro -- we altered our plans a bit for the first day. Great luck still at our side, we made it to our venue in good time that afternoon, the weather was fine, and we indeed found the graveteiro! An adult bird was rather stand-offish, but stayed put long enough for scope views (not often the case with this acrobatic little bird!). I reckon it had an active nest not too far away, but we just did not have time to search for it, and made our way south to the little town of Boa Nova.

As always, Boa Nova was fabulous! There are just too many good birds to list here, but suffice to say that all of the “megas” showed well, we picked up an excellent White-browed Antpitta (which we had only heard up to then), and our stalwart Giant Snipes provided all their usual suspense, and thrills. Porto Seguro, at the VERACEL Reserve, was our final stop, and it, too was excellent. Hook-billed Hermit performed perfectly, as did Band-tailed Antwren, Black-headed Berryeater, and Kinglet Manakin, and we also had a nice view of the rare tinnunculus subspecies of Ringed Woodpecker (when split, probably to be called Atlantic Black-breasted Woodpecker). The true icing on the cake, though, was cotinga-flavored. We had spent nearly a half hour watching fruiting trees that we’ve been checking on the tours for years, and there were at least five White-winged Cotingas in them, but that seemed to be about all. Then, just as we were beginning to move on, Libby made a great spot on a male Banded Cotinga sitting quietly in one of the trees – and it stayed there for 10 minutes of great scope-study!! We have missed this rare endemic on most of the tours, so it was a fantastic bird to get – thanks, Libby!

Marcelo and I had a great time birding Northeast Brazil with you all, and we certainly look forward to seeing you again (probably for more of big, beautiful Brazil) when the stars align. When you’re dreaming of coming back to Brazil, don’t forget all of the wonderful food! Meanwhile, stay safe and healthy, and we wish you the best of luck birding wherever your plans may take you.

Com grandes abraços, Bret e Marcelo

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

We close out the main tour in the spectacular landscapes of Chapada Diamantina National Park, which protects a remarkable diversity of habitats. We ran into a higher-than-usual amount of rain there this year, but that didn’t stop us from finding practically all of the wonderful birds there! Video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – One of the best tours for tinamous in many years! We saw (!!) 5 species (Solitary, Little, Variegated, Small-billed and Red-winged, seen at Lençois airport). Unforgettable! [E]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui)
YELLOW-LEGGED TINAMOU (Crypturellus noctivagus) [E*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus)
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) – One of the highlight moments on the tour, a single bird seen walking in the open for a few minutes.
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa)
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – One bird seen walking on the airfield at Lençois airport.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna bicolor) – A small group seen on the way to Crato.
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – Seen a couple of times.
WHITE-CHEEKED PINTAIL (Anas bahamensis) – Three birds seen nicely near Petrolina.
SOUTHERN POCHARD (Netta erythrophthalma) – Great bird! We saw a group with ten birds on the way to Crato.
MASKED DUCK (Nomonyx dominicus) – A female seen once.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
EAST BRAZILIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis araucuan) [*]
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris)
WHITE-BROWED GUAN (Penelope jacucaca) – A bird we have not seen on the tour in many years! We were lucky and saw a small group at Pedra dos Ventos hotel.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [*]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – A nice looking pigeon seen a couple of times.
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
RUDDY GROUND DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
PICUI GROUND DOVE (Columbina picui)
BLUE GROUND DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – A male seen flying from its nest at Boa Nova. [N]
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – A group of birds seen at Pedra dos Ventos hotel.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
DARK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus melacoryphus) – Nice bird seen a few times.

A nice group shot at Jajedo dos beija-flores (Hummingbird rocky area) at Boa Nova. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

PEARLY-BREASTED CUCKOO (Coccyzus euleri) [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LEAST NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles pusillus) – At least two birds seen completely camouflaged near Petrolina.
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – Great looks at RPPN Estação Veracel.
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) – Two very responsive birds seen at dusk near Boa Nova.
PYGMY NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus hirundinaceus) – Another master of camouflage seen well during the tour. [E]
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SCISSOR-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis torquata)
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus)
RUFOUS NIGHTJAR (Antrostomus rufus)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – A young bird seen at its nest near Porto Seguro. [N]
Apodidae (Swifts)
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – A big group of birds seen flying over our heads at Chapada Diamantina.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – This is usually an amazing tour for hummers and it wasn't different this year! [E]
HOOK-BILLED HERMIT (Glaucis dohrnii) – A rare and endemic hummingbird seen extremely well at Estação Veracel. [E]
BROAD-TIPPED HERMIT (Anopetia gounellei) – What a bird! This very restricted bird gave us a show on the Chapada Diamantina area. [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – One of the smallest birds in the country; seen a few times.
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome)
HOODED VISORBEARER (Augastes lumachella) – One of the big stars of the Northeast Brazil! This gorgeous hummer is only found on the Chapada Diamantina mountain range. [E]
BROWN VIOLETEAR (Colibri delphinae)
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris) – Great looks near Mucugê.
HORNED SUNGEM (Heliactin bilophus) – A male came in to check us right in front of the group near Mucugê.

A nice shot of a male Sincorá Antwren by participant Dave Sedgeley.

BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
RUBY-TOPAZ HUMMINGBIRD (Chrysolampis mosquitus) – I'm sure this is one of the best hummers in Brazil!
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
STRIPE-BREASTED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster squamosus) – An adult male seen briefly near Canudos. [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – A female seen once at Boa Nova.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
BLUE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Chlorestes notata)
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
LONG-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania watertonii) – Now it's much easier to see this endemic bird at the feeders at Pedra D'Anta and Frei Caneca reserves. [E]
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis)
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris)
PLAIN-BELLIED EMERALD (Amazilia leucogaster) – This one is only found in the coastal region.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – Great looks at Boa Nova.
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis)
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus)
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)
RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE (Anurolimnas viridis)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – WOW! It's always a challenge to see any Crake, especially to have a great look at two birds in the open for a few minutes. Great moment, you guys!
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis) [*]
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – Two birds spotted by Brad on the way to Crato.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE (Gallinago paraguaiae) – During a foggy morning near Catu, we saw a single bird flying over a wetland.

Our morning at the remote Raso da Catarina of north-central Bahia, home to the entire world population of Lear’s (Indigo) Macaws, is always the most memorable experience of the tour. Estimates of the global population this year topped 1800 individuals, which is the highest number we have ever heard. What a fabulous experience it is! Video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – This is an awesome bird! With the amazing help of our friend Josafá, we saw a bird foraging on the ground for a few minutes.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – Seen a couple of times during the tour.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
STRIPE-BACKED BITTERN (Ixobrychus involucris) – WOW! We got it! Great and hard bird to see everywhere. We saw one bird foraging in a marsh at Petrolina.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – A group of 4 birds flew over our heads at Petrolina.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Fantastic looks during the tour, especially during our days at Porto Seguro.
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – Seen once, from our bus!
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) [*]
WHITE-COLLARED KITE (Leptodon forbesi) – Well, we heard it, TWICE, near Tamandaré. The bird sang back right after the recording but never showed up. We really believe that bird was sitting on its nest. [E*]
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – Leigh Ann spotted one bird soaring with some Black Vultures near Tamandaré.

What a moment! This Small-billed Tinamou walked in the open for a few minutes. Photo by participant Brian Stech.

SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – Nice looking bird seen a couple of times.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
HARRIS'S HAWK (Parabuteo unicinctus) – A hard bird to see in Northeast Brazil nowadays.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus)
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – Yes! A bird we have not seen on this tour in a few years. We were very lucky to see three individuals on the way to Boa Nova, on our very first day on the Extension. [E]
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) [*]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
ZONE-TAILED HAWK (Buteo albonotatus) – Seen once flying over our hotel in Guaramiranga.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) [*]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – Minute bird! This tiny owl was seen nicely on the extension. [E]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum)
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – A female seen near Catu.
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – Great looks at Remanso Hotel, in Guaramiranga.
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – The subspecies aurantius has a orange/yellow belly, different from the nominate one, with the red belly. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (CHRYSOCHLOROS) (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – Fantastic looks at Boa Nova. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
SPOT-BACKED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus maculatus)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
LETTERED ARACARI (Pteroglossus inscriptus) – Very nice scope studies near Tamandaré.
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari)
GOULD'S TOUCANET (Selenidera gouldii) [*]
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) [E*]

Here is a taste of our late-afternoon stroll through the old, colonial part of the city of Salvador, Bahia, which closed out the main Northeast Brazil tour. Inserted are a couple of clips made with a drone a couple of days after the tour, for flavor and perspective. Video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET (PERNAMBUCO) (Picumnus exilis pernambucensis) – The "pernambucensis" race, restricted to the Pernambuco Endemism Center is a hard bird to see nowadays.
GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET (BAHIA) (Picumnus exilis exilis) [*]
SPOTTED PICULET (Picumnus pygmaeus) – Unusual; only heard during the regular tour and seen very well near Boa Nova, on our first morning of the extension.
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – Great looks at Estação Veracel headquarters. [E]
TAWNY PICULET (Picumnus fulvescens) – A recent paper has lumped Tawny and Ochraceous piculets by their voices, plumage and genetics. We saw both birds (or races) very well during our tour. [E]
OCHRACEOUS PICULET (Picumnus limae) [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus)
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Dryobates affinis) – Seen well a few times.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – A hard bird to see in the Caatinga habitat due the massive deforestation.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RINGED WOODPECKER (ATLANTIC BLACK-BREASTED) (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) – In a very restricted range, this is a special bird to see. [E]
OCHRE-BACKED WOODPECKER (Celeus ochraceus) – A split from Blond-crested Woodpecker. [E]
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – Nice looks at Boa Nova and Porto Seguro. [E]
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros)
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris)
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) [*]
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – Seen a few times during the tour.
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – A single bird flying over our bus on the way to Catu.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – Great looks on the Lear's Macaw cliffs.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
GOLDEN-TAILED PARROTLET (Touit surdus) – Heard a few times and seen once, flying by near Tamandaré.
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica)
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) – Great looks near Tamandaré and later, on the extension, at Estação Veracel. [E]

The stunning Indigo (Lear's) Macaw, flying against the red rock cliffs. Photo by participant Brian Stech.

RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) – Great bird to see! We saw a pair of them enjoying the first sunlight on the Estação Veracel entrance road. [E]
TURQUOISE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva) – A couple of very quiet birds seen flying over the red rock cliffs near Canudos.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) [*]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
GRAY-BREASTED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura griseipectus) – One of the greatest birds in Northeast Brazil, this beautiful parakeet was in very bad shape a few years ago but nowadays, due to a massive conservation program, the population is increasing every season. [E]
INDIGO MACAW (Anodorhynchus leari) – In the middle of nowhere, a huge red rock mountain chain is home to one of the most wanted birds in Brazil. The total population is now over than 1400 birds, and is being studied every year by a group of very nice scientists and local guardians. [E]
CACTUS PARAKEET (Eupsittula cactorum) – Great bird, seen a few times during the tour. [E]
JANDAYA PARAKEET (Aratinga jandaya) – Fantastic looks near Tamandaré.
GOLDEN-CAPPED PARAKEET (Aratinga auricapillus auricapillus) – This beautiful parakeet belongs to the same group as the Jandaya Parakeet. [E]
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – Nice bird seen very well near Boa Nova.
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Thectocercus acuticaudatus)
RED-SHOULDERED MACAW (Diopsittaca nobilis)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) [E*]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – Both male and female seen a couple of times.
SILVERY-CHEEKED ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus cristatus) – Great bird, endemic to the Caatinga habitat. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (CAATINGA) (Thamnophilus doliatus capistratus) – A possible split from Barred Antshrike, this race has a bright red eye and some brown color on the primary feathers. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus torquatus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – Fantastic antshrike, seen very well near Tamandaré.
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni)
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens) [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens cearensis) [E*]
WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus aethiops distans) [E*]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – Another race endemic to the Atlantic Forest. [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula urosticta) – YES! Hard bird to see everywhere. [E]

The group going back after some great looks at Canudos Biological Reserve, home of the Indigo Macaw. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

STRIPE-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmorchilus strigilatus strigilatus) – One of the best Caatinga specialties, this is an ancient species among of the antbirds and is always a great show!
CAATINGA ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus sellowi) – Just one of the 5 species of Herpsilochmus seen during this tour.
BAHIA ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus pileatus) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus atricapillus)
PECTORAL ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus pectoralis) – A hard bird to see nowadays due to habitat loss; we saw a nice adult male on the way to Catu. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (NORTHERN) (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (SOUTHERN) (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) [E]
NARROW-BILLED ANTWREN (Formicivora iheringi) – Great bird and fantastic looks near Boa Nova. [E]
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea)
BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster) – A nice Caatinga specialty well seen at Pedra dos Ventos hotel.
SINCORA ANTWREN (Formicivora grantsaui) – Only described to the science in the 90's, this bird only occurs in the Sincorá mountains. [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – Fantastic bird seen near Boa Nova. [E]
ORANGE-BELLIED ANTWREN (Terenura sicki) – Like pretty much all the birds restricted to the Pernambuco Endemism Center, this little bird is becoming rarer through the years. We were very lucky and saw a pair of them foraging at Frei Caneca Reserve. [E]
WILLIS'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides laeta sabinoi) – A race endemic to the NE Brazil. [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – WOW! A target for all birders, for sure! We had some great looks near Boa Nova. [E]
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (PERNAMBUCO) (Pyriglena leuconota pernambucensis) [E]
FRINGE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena atra) – They were quieter this year. We spent a couple of hours looking for it and finally saw a pair of birds foraging for a few minutes. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
SLENDER ANTBIRD (Rhopornis ardesiacus) – A bird restricted to a very specific habitat, a transitional forest, known as viny forest, between Caatinga and Atlantic forest in Bahia. [E]
SCALLOPED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus ruficauda) – Another easy bird to miss due to habitat loss in NE Brazil. We saw it briefly a couple of times on the first two days of the tour. [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) [E*]
Melanopareiidae (Crescentchests)
COLLARED CRESCENTCHEST (Melanopareia torquata) – A special bird, that used to be considered a Tapaculo and now has its own family. This bird represents an old connection between Caatinga, Pantanal and Chaco (Paraguay and Bolivia).
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops nigrifrons) [E]
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops perspicillata) [E]
CEARA GNATEATER (Conopophaga cearae) – A recent split from Rufous Gnateater. [E]
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – Great looks near Boa Nova.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
WHITE-BROWED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus ochroleucus) – Heard during the regular tour and seen nicely on the extension. [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
DIAMANTINA TAPACULO (Scytalopus diamantinensis) – This is a bird only found on the humid slopes of Chapada Diamantina and those areas are scarce on our way. This year, we were very, very lucky and had a bird responding 2 minutes after the tape. [E]

A cloudy (and a little bit wet) morning at Chapada Diamantina NP. Great place and fantastic birding area. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – A very elusive bird, hard to see everywhere. Some people in the group managed to see it walking on the ground near Boa Nova. [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (CEARA) (Sclerurus scansor cearensis) – Another potential split, seen well at Guaramiranga. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (REISER'S) (Sittasomus griseicapillus reiseri) [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus olivaceus)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (PERNAMBUCO) (Dendrocincla turdina taunayi) – Seen a couple of times at Murici and Frei Caneca reserves. [E]
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (CUNEATUS GROUP) (Glyphorynchus spirurus cuneatus) – This race is restricted to the Atlantic Forest.
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) [*]
CEARA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus atlanticus) [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus)
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (DUSKY-BILLED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus gracilirostris)
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris trochilirostris) [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) [E]
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) – Nice looks near Petrolina.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus)
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – This is not a common bird in NE Brazil.
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura) – Fantastic looks near Boa Nova.
GREAT XENOPS (Megaxenops parnaguae) – Another big star for this tour! We had two great encounters with this bird. [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) [E*]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E*]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus leucophthalmus) – Nice looks at Boa Nova National Park.
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (RUFOUS-FRONTED) (Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons)
PINK-LEGGED GRAVETEIRO (Acrobatornis fonsecai) – Another bird that was quieter than usual. We just heard a few call notes this year. After a few minutes looking for it, a single bird was seen moving though the canopy. The other bird of the pair was probably sitting on the nest. [E]
STRIATED SOFTTAIL (Thripophaga macroura) – Great bird, seen very well a couple of times. [E]
GRAY-HEADED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca semicinerea) – Beautiful bird seen nicely at Guaramiranga. [E]
CAATINGA CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura cristata) [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
OCHRE-CHEEKED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis scutata) – Always a challenge to see, we had a few brief looks near Crato.
RED-SHOULDERED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis hellmayri) – A great Caatinga specialty! We had a couple of great encounters during the tour. [E]
BAHIA SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerea) – The breeding season was generous with us this year and this is a nice example of it. We saw a pair of birds building their big twiggy nest near Boa Nova. [E]

Master of camouflage, the Pygmy Nightjar. Photo by participant Brian Stech.

PINTO'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis infuscata) – Great bird, hard to see nowadays due to habitat loss. [E]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens) [*]
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
Pipridae (Manakins)
ARARIPE MANAKIN (Antilophia bokermanni) – What a bird! The total population is about 500 individuals, only found in the humid slopes of Chapada do Araripe. [E]
BLUE-BACKED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia pareola)
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – One of the most beautiful manakins in South America, seen very nicely in the scope for a few minutes at Boa Nova National Park. [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – Great looks at Guaramiranga area.
KINGLET MANAKIN (Machaeropterus regulus) – This tiny manakin is only found in the lowlands of Northeast and Southeast Brazil. We had some fantastic looks at Estação Veracel. [E]
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (WHITE-CROWNED) (Dixiphia pipra cephaleucos) [E]
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) – Fantastic endemic, seen well on the tour. A very responsive bird came close to our group at Estação Veracel. [E]
BANDED COTINGA (Cotinga maculata) – Maybe the most wanted bird for those who come to the Bahia Extension. We saw an immature male, perhaps a 2 or 3 year old bird, digesting some fruit at Estação Veracel. [E]
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – Great looks at this Atlantic Forest endemic at Boa Nova National Park. [E]
WHITE-WINGED COTINGA (Xipholena atropurpurea) – Gorgeous bird seen a few times, including some young males foraging with females at Estação Veracel. [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina intermedia) [E]
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
BUFF-THROATED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura pipra) [E*]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – Nice looking becard, seen on the very first day of the tour.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus)
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill, Royal Flycatcher, and Allies)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Yes! Hard bird to see in NE Brazil.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus)

Great bird in NE Brazil area, this is an adult male Scarlet-throated Tanager. Photo by participant Brian Stech.

BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (BLACK-TAILED) (Myiobius atricaudus snethlagei) [E]
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Nice looks at Frei Caneca Reserve.
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
BAHIA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes beckeri) – A special bird, almost endemic to the state of Bahia, restricted to forest higher than 900m above the sea level, which is hard to find nowadays. [E]
ALAGOAS TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ceciliae) – Great bird, and great looks at Frei Caneca Reserve. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – Seen briefly at Boa Nova National Park. [E]
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – A race, restricted to NE Brazil, seen nicely near Catu.
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E*]
WHITE-BELLIED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus griseipectus naumburgae) [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Great looks at Boa Nova. [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
BUFF-BREASTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus mirandae) – Another NE Brazil endemic for the tour! [E]
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – A nice looking flycatcher, only found in good forest with bamboo. [E]
SMOKY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus fumifrons)
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus)
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris)
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (SWALLOW) (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme) – Seen well near Tamandaré.
SUIRIRI FLYCATCHER (Suiriri suiriri bahiae)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
GRAY-BACKED TACHURI (Polystictus superciliaris) – A little Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah vegetation type) specialty seen very well near Mucugê. [E]
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata)
SMALL-HEADED ELAENIA (Elaenia sordida)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis)
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis)
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – Seen a couple of times on the tour, including a pair of birds nesting at Remanso Hotel.
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E*]
TAWNY-CROWNED PYGMY-TYRANT (Euscarthmus meloryphus)

Participant Dave Sedgeley captured this Lesser Nightjar at RPPN Estação Veracel.

RUFOUS-SIDED PYGMY-TYRANT (Euscarthmus rufomarginatus) – Another Cerrado specialty seen near Mucugê.
LESSER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (BAHIA) (Stigmatura napensis bahiae) – Both Lesser and Greater wagtail-tyrants seen very well near Petrolina. It was good to see them on the same day and have a chance to compare all the features. [E]
GREATER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (CAATINGA) (Stigmatura budytoides gracilis) [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) [E]
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero niveus) – Very nice looks during the tour. [E]
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – Nice scope studies near Boa Nova.
TODD'S SIRYSTES (Sirystes subcanescens)
ASH-THROATED CASIORNIS (Casiornis fuscus) – A hard bird to find, seen well a couple of times. [E]
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – Nice bird, common in the mixed-species flocks, usually very vocal and responsive. [E]
CHIVI VIREO (MIGRATORY) (Vireo chivi chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
WHITE-NAPED JAY (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) – Beautiful jay (as usual!), usually found in flocks looking for insects. [E]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
PURPLE MARTIN (Progne subis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)

The group at Canudos Biological Reserve. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
CLIFF SWALLOW (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) – A nice surprise for this tour. These birds winter in Cerrado areas and we saw a big group, maybe over 100 birds, flying after a big storm in a Cerrado habitat near Mucugê.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea) – One of the most common birds in the mixed-species flocks of NE Brazil.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus turdinus) [E]
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris bahiae) – Nice bird seen very well a couple of times. [E]
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (TROPICAL) (Mimus gilvus antelius) – During our last lunch, at Shalimar Hotel in Porto Seguro, we saw two birds feeding on some fruit at the hotel feeders. [E]
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens) – Great looks at a bird doing the flight display!
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E*]
YELLOW-FACED SISKIN (Spinus yarrellii) – Another great NE Brazil endemic! We saw a beautiful adult male near Tamandaré. [E]
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) [*]
SAO FRANCISCO SPARROW (Arremon franciscanus) [E*]
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)

Everyone from the main Northeast Brazil tour continued on for the Southern Bahia post-tour extension. As always, a few days birding the forests of southern Bahia produced a huge number of endemic species! Here is an overview video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Leistes superciliaris)
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius) – A few birds and nests being used were seen near Petrolina.
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis)
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii) – A bright orange and black bird foraging on the enormous cactus (Mandacarú) is a great scene.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
FORBES'S BLACKBIRD (Anumara forbesi) – YES! An easy bird to miss. This is a very old lineage among the blackbirds, usually found in marshes or at least near the water. We saw a small group near Tamandaré. [E]
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
PALE BAYWING (Agelaioides fringillarius)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola) – Nice yellow bird with bright orange legs.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis frontalis)
ULTRAMARINE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia brissonii) – We had some great looks near Crato.

Now the group is in the forest! Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-COWLED CARDINAL (Paroaria dominicana) [E]
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) – A nice looking bird seen briefly on this tour.
WHITE-BANDED TANAGER (Neothraupis fasciata) – A nice Cerrado specialty seen very well, including a young bird.
SCARLET-THROATED TANAGER (Compsothraupis loricata) – Fantastic Brazilian endemic. We had two fantastic encounters on both the regular tour and the Bahia Extension part. [E]
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
ORANGE-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis sordida)
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – Fantastic red bird seen very well. [E]
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) [E]
OPAL-RUMPED TANAGER (SILVER-BREASTED) (Tangara velia cyanomelas) [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – Nice looking tanager (as usual!!) seen very well during the extension. [E]
SEVEN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara fastuosa) – What a bird! How many colors can you see on that bird? One of the most beautiful (and endangered) birds in the country. [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala cearensis) [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – Great looks at Boa Nova NP. [E]
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor)
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris)
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola)
PALE-THROATED PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra longicauda) – Fantastic looks near Lençois. [E]
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera)
COPPER SEEDEATER (Sporophila bouvreuil) – A great moment near Mucugê, a male singing a lot and a female feeding some chicks nearby.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea)
WHITE-THROATED SEEDEATER (Sporophila albogularis) – Nice NE Brazil endemic seen nicely a few times. [E]
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
SOOTY GRASSQUIT (Asemospiza fuliginosa)
BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltatricula atricollis)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)

And now, for fun, here are a few lighter moments from our tour. Video shot and produced by Bret Whitney.

TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus) [E]
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) [E]
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) [E]
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.)
BLACK-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta prymnolopha)


Other nice encounters: Cane Toad, Black-eared Toad, Tropydurus sp (small lizard on the rocks), Hammadryias sp (Cracker Butterfly), Anolis sp (nice lizard with a colorful bib, Rhinella margaritifera (leaf frog)

Totals for the tour: 471 bird taxa and 6 mammal taxa