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Field Guides Tour Report
Northern Peru: Endemics Galore 2013
Nov 3, 2013 to Nov 23, 2013
Richard Webster & Pepe Rojas

Fantastic looks at the rare and endangered Marvelous Spatuletail was clearly a tour highlight. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

Great Trip! But let us not avoid the truth, which is that it could have been greater. The landslide that caused a two-day drive around the landslide and removed three days from the itinerary was a major disappointment. In terms of endemic birds, the landslide could have been in a worse place, but we certainly missed some birds and some scenery while experiencing a bad case of "butt numbification." Still, we managed to capture the last four days of the itinerary in fine fashion and, as this triplist shows, saw a terrific variety of birds including a very high percentage of the specialties, and had many aspects of the tour go very, very well.

Our rapid visit to the Lomas de Lachay before our flight to Chiclayo was aided by some cooperative birds, especially the Thick-billed, Grayish, and Coastal miners and the Cactus Canastero, with the bonus of enough flowers to attract Oasis and other hummingbirds.

After reaching Chiclayo our first destination was Bosque de Pomac (= Batan Grande), where we had to struggle a little to find our first Peruvian Plantcutter and Rufous Flycatcher, but we did, and we added a decent look at the rare Tumbes Swallow, along with many Tumbesian species that were new to us. On the coast at Puerto Eten we had a nice walk on the beach, although the river mouth not only did not have Peruvian Tern -- it had almost no terns or gulls. Before reaching Chaparri, a stop at Tinajones Reservoir was productive, including two Comb Ducks.

Our morning at Chaparri was fun, with tame Sechuran Foxes around the buildings and White-winged Guans throughout the canyon. White-tailed Jays and many other birds sought scraps, and walking up and down the canyon was "Tumbes" territory -- Hummingbird, Tyrant, and Sparrow, along with White-headed Brush-Finches, flocks of Sulphur-throated Finches and Parrot-billed Seedeaters, and Andean Condors and King Vultures overhead.

Our first night of camping preceded another White-winged Guan experience in the dramatic setting of Quebrada Frejolillo (=Limon), where we saw a West Peruvian Screech-Owl by night and a host of Tumbesian species by day, including Ecuadorian Piculet, Black-capped Sparrow, and Gray-and-gold Warbler. After a night in Olmos, we pursued higher-elevation Tumbesian species below Abra Porcuya (= Porculla), finding several difficult species -- Piura Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-necked and Henna-hooded foliage-gleaners -- and some easier ones -- Plumbeous-backed Thrush, Line-cheeked Spinetail, and Black-cowled Saltator.

Based out of Jaen, we birded in arid to moist habitats in the valley of the Rio Chinchipe, finding both more Tumbesian species and some isolates of more widespread South American birds. Highlights included Scrub Nightjar, Maranon Crescentchest, Maranon Spinetail, "Chinchipe" Necklaced Spinetail, and then Little Inca-Finch as we headed toward the Eastern Andes.

Our luck was good at the Huembo Spatuletail Center, where the feeders were hosting multiple Marvelous Spatuletails, which we spent several hours enjoying. After a night at the mystery hotel (now you know what we are talking about, but explaining it is another matter), we were guided up the steep trail above San Lorenzo, both groups managing to see Pale-billed Antpitta along with some other interesting birds, such as Russet-mantled Softtail, Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant, and Plain-tailed Wren.

Based for four nights at Owlet Lodge at Abra Patricia, we moved up and down the east slope from 1000-2300m. The Long-whiskered Owlet was heard at length and glimpsed. We did better in the stunted forest, finding Royal Sunangel and Bar-winged Wood-Wren, while work inside the forest produced views for many of Rusty-tinged and Ochre-fronted antpittas. The hummingbird feeders at the lodge were fun, with a bonus Rufous-capped Thornbill on top of the expected Emerald-bellied Pufflegs and friends (and foes!). Highlights were many, including Lanceolated Monklet, Black-mandibled Toucan, Speckle-chested Piculet, Chestnut-crested Cotinga, Johnson's Tody-Tyrant, and White-capped, Yellow-scarfed, Vermilion, and Blue-browed tanagers. However, flock activity was less than normal, and it was a quieter time than is often the case, the one area on the trip where the birding faltered.

Our long drive was enlivened by only a little birding, with a Green-backed Becard and repeat Peruvian Sheartail, Peruvian Plantcutter, Rufous Flycatcher, and Cinereous Finch standing out. But we were then ready for action from Celendin to Balsas and back, seeing almost everything we sought, particularly Yellow-faced Parrotlet, Peruvian Pigeon, Chestnut-backed Thornbird, Jelski's Chat-Tyrant, Black-crested Tit-tyrant, Maranon Thrush, Buff-bridled and Gray-winged inca-finches, and Rufous-eared Brush-Finch. The high country from Celendin to Cajamarca featured three canasteros, White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant, and Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch. A final day and a few hours around Cajamarca produced Gray-bellied Comet, Black Metaltail, Striated Earthcreeper, Great Spinetail, and Unicolored Tapaculo, along with some eye candy like Purple-throated Sunangel and Golden-rumped Euphonia.

In addition to being a spectacular avifauna, it is a threatened one. As a rough count, we encountered two Critically Endangered, 10 Endangered, 18 Vulnerable, and 20 Near Threatened species, as evaluated by BirdLife International. We know you have your favorite charities, but if this trip developed a special interest in this region, you can channel money to habitat for species you saw to ECOAN (through the American Bird Conservancy if U.S. tax deductions are relevant) for its Huembo and Abra Patricia reserves, and BirdLife International is working on another Spatuletail project right now.

Our journey would not have been possible without the superb crew from Manu, special thanks to their chief and our chef, Aurelio, along with Rene, Alejandro, and Luis.

Taxonomy follows Clements in large part; we are in the process of a transition to Clements 6.8, which may produce a quirk or two. Additional comments rely on various published papers as well as material in the Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) and from the South American Classification Committee (S.A.C.C.) website. Apologies are due the Spanish language because we avoid the orthographic marks that do not translate well across the various computer platforms and programs.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)

We all enjoyed up close and personal looks at the very rare White-winged Guan. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

HOODED TINAMOU (Nothocercus nigrocapillus) – Heard near Abra Patricia. [*]
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa inops) – Heard near Tamborapa; this isolated subspecies sounds similar to the widespread nominate form. [*]
ANDEAN TINAMOU (Nothoprocta pentlandii ambigua) – Distant birds sounded quite like the parrotlets for which we were looking above Balsas, creating an initial confusion. [*]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
COMB DUCK (Sarkidiornis melanotos) – Local in South America; uncommon in Peru, perhaps increasing with agriculture. We saw two arrive at Tinajones Reservoir; nice views.
YELLOW-BILLED PINTAIL (Anas georgica) – Four were seen our last day, near Cajamarca.
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris) – Two were with the pintails south of Cajamarca; as split (former Speckled/Andean Teal), we saw this form, Yellow-billed, near the northern end of its extensive range.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
SPECKLED CHACHALACA (Ortalis guttata) [*]
WHITE-WINGED GUAN (Penelope albipennis) – Wonderful views at Chaparri, followed by good views of the "uninterrupted" population at Quebrada Frejolillo, thanks to guiding by Lino Rico. It is classified at "Critical," with a population under 250. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – A couple on the lagoon south of Cajamarca.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – Two at Tinajones and one near Olmos; casual on the coastal plain in this region.
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
PERUVIAN BOOBY (Sula variegata) – Common along the coast at Puerto Eten.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
GUANAY CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) – Seen by the part of the group that went birding around Lima.
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)

The Rio Maranon flows through the huge valley it has carved, forming one of the most important biogeographical barriers in the Andes (and South America). The interior valley is a desert in a rainshadow, while the high Eastern Cordillera rises in the background, the more arid Western Cordillera behind the photo. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

PERUVIAN PELICAN (Pelecanus thagus) – Common over the ocean near Puerto Eten.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
FASCIATED TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma fasciatum) – Seen in the Utcubamba Valley, including good views of two immatures our first day along the river, and then nice adults along the lower Rio Chido as we departed.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – A couple at Tinajones Reservoir.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – Fairly common at Tinajones and again in the rice fields along the Rio Jequetepeque en route to Cajamarca.
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – One at Tinajones; uncommon this far south on the coastal plain.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – Several at Tinajones Reservoir.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) – A few were roosting in the reeds at Sulluscocha.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
PUNA IBIS (Plegadis ridgwayi) – A handful were at Tinajones Reservoir (somewhat regular at lowland sites like this) and a flock was seen over the puna west of Celendin.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Almost daily.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Almost daily, common in many Andean areas.
ANDEAN CONDOR (Vultur gryphus) – We saw two soaring over Chaparri, wild birds where additional birds are being prepared for release and establishment. An immature was also seen briefly at Quebrada Frejolillo. Both of these locations were new for our tour.
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Nice views of adults at Chaparri and Quebrada Frejolillo/Limon.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Several at Tinajones Reservoir; also seen from a bus at a reservoir along the Rio Jequetepeque. [b]
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (PLAIN-BREASTED) (Accipiter striatus ventralis) – This Andean resident form was seen by John above San Lorenzo.

Although this bird is elegant, it is not the Elegant Crescentchest. It is the Maranon Crescentchest with an extremely limited range. (Photo by participant Brian Stech)

SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – A couple of sightings from the bus.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – A very vocal pair was seen around Tamborapa. It has been returned to this monotypic genus from Buteo.
HARRIS'S HAWK (Parabuteo unicinctus) – At least four scattered individuals were seen, including nicely in flight at Chaparri and that odd, rather white-faced young bird in the Utcubamba Valley.
WHITE-RUMPED HAWK (Parabuteo leucorrhous) – Ed and a few others saw a bird in flight at the Huembo Visitor Center; uncommon in general and on this tour route. Genetic studies have shown that it is related to Harris's Hawk, one of many recent raptor reorganizations.
VARIABLE HAWK (Geranoaetus polyosoma) – One ("Red-backed" type) was seen from the bus in the Pacific lowlands, and one ("Puna" type), a lovely dark bird, was seen soaring over the puna west of Celendin.
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – Scattered, from the Lomas near Lima, where common, to Quebrada Frejolillo, to the Maranon gorge above Balsas and the Rio Chonta near Cajamarca.
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – An adult near Tamborapa on 9 November, an adult at Abra Patricia on 11 November, and an adult above Pedro Ruiz on 16 November, all probably on their wintering grounds. [b]
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
SPOTTED RAIL (Pardirallus maculatus) – A real highlight near Olmos, where we had excellent looks at a very cooperative bird, after having checked a couple of other spots to no avail.
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – John glimpsed this lowland species at the lower edge of our coverage on the east slope.
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – Sarah located one at Puerto Eten that was eventually seen by many, and we all saw a very responsive (run, baby, run) pair near La Encanada.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Common at several marshes (as split from Common Moorhen of the Eastern Hemisphere).
SLATE-COLORED COOT (Fulica ardesiaca) – Seen on the lagoon south of Cajamarca.
Burhinidae (Thick-knees)
PERUVIAN THICK-KNEE (Burhinus superciliaris) – Juan took us to a stakeout spot near Tinajones, where we enjoyed four resting birds, and our own stakeout en route to Quebrada Limon worked well the next day, with at least 19 loafing birds.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
ANDEAN LAPWING (Vanellus resplendens) – Good views in the puna west of Celendin, where we enjoyed the colorful sheen on the upperparts.
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER (Pluvialis squatarola) – As with most of the migrant shorebirds, seen at Puerto Eten. [b]

Persistence paid off in searching for the Spotted Rail. We caught up to this bird near Olmos. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

AMERICAN GOLDEN-PLOVER (Pluvialis dominica) – Two in a marshy field near Puerto Eten were an uncommon migrant at this coastal location on 5 November. [b]
SNOWY PLOVER (HUMBOLDT) (Charadrius nivosus occidentalis) – A dozen along the beach at Puerto Eten; a local population, not a boreal migrant.
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) [b]
KILLDEER (Charadrius vociferus) – At Puerto Eten, a local population, not a boreal migrant.
Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus) – Puerto Eten; local residents.
BLACKISH OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus ater) – Seen by the part of the group that went birding around Lima; a species of the Humboldt Current.
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (BLACK-NECKED) (Himantopus mexicanus mexicanus) – Puerto Eten, and some coastal wet spots elsewhere on the coastal plain.
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) [b]
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – One John spotted at a small marsh near Olmos. [b]
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca) [b]
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus) [b]
RUDDY TURNSTONE (Arenaria interpres) [b]
SANDERLING (Calidris alba) [b]
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER (Calidris pusilla) [b]
WESTERN SANDPIPER (Calidris mauri) [b]
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla) [b]
WILSON'S PHALAROPE (Phalaropus tricolor) – One at Sulluscocha south of Cajamarca (they winter in large numbers on other high-elevation Andean lakes farther south). [b]
Thinocoridae (Seedsnipes)
LEAST SEEDSNIPE (Thinocorus rumicivorus) – Several on the lightly-vegetated dunes of the Lomas de Lachay.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
ANDEAN GULL (Chroicocephalus serranus) – A couple of flocks were on plowed fields near Cajamarca, with a few others scattered in the nearby highlands.
GRAY-HOODED GULL (Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus) – Puerto Eten.
GRAY GULL (Leucophaeus modestus) – For a few in the group that went birding around Lima.
FRANKLIN'S GULL (Leucophaeus pipixcan) – Wintering around Lima. [b]
BELCHER'S GULL (Larus belcheri) – Seen well by the group that went birding around Lima. Part of the split of Band-tailed Gull.

Long-tailed Slyph -- one of the most elegant hummingbirds. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus) – Puerto Eten.
INCA TERN (Larosterna inca) – This distinctive and stunning bird was seen by the group that went birding around Lima.
COMMON TERN (Sterna hirundo) – Seen by the group that went birding around Lima. [b]
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus) – Seen by the group that went birding around Lima. [b]
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis) – Seen by the group that went birding around Lima. [b]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) – Scattered around habitations. [I]
BAND-TAILED PIGEON (Patagioenas fasciata) – On the east slope, from Abra Patricia down.
PERUVIAN PIGEON (Patagioenas oenops) – This specialty of the Maranon drainage (also occurring in a small part of Ecuador) was seen in the telescopes at Balsas, often perched on mango trees.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) – Heard daily on the east slope, and seen several times by some in the group.
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – A few were heard on the east slope (and perhaps seen?). [*]
WEST PERUVIAN DOVE (Zenaida meloda) – Common on the coastal plain in the north and around Lima. a.k.a. Pacific Dove, as split from White-winged Dove of North America.
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – The congener of Mourning Dove, and like it, widespread in dry, open areas.
CROAKING GROUND-DOVE (Columbina cruziana) – Common in dry areas.
BLUE GROUND-DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – A few were seen in flight, and others heard, near Tamborapa.
BARE-FACED GROUND-DOVE (Metriopelia ceciliae) – Pairs or small groups were seen several times on the dry slopes above Balsas; nice telescope views.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – This retiring dove was mostly seen flushing away, but with time there were several good views.
WHITE-THROATED QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon frenata) – This very, very retiring dove was, as usual, heard only. [*]
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – A scattered few, always a pleasant encounter.
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – Mostly heard, but a responsive bird was spotted by Kate at Hacienda Limon, and then watched as it started foraging in a field.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – Seen around rice fields in the Utcubamba Valley and in the foothills of the wet East slope.
GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga sulcirostris) – The widespread ani of the tour, seen repeatedly in dry areas, and sympatrically with Smooth-billed in the rice fields.
Strigidae (Owls)
PERUVIAN SCREECH-OWL (Megascops roboratus) – On our second attempt, good views of M. r. pacificus at Quebrada Frejolillo, and then M. r. roboratus north of Jaen after an early morning start. The two poulations differ markedly in size, but are similar in voice; a split has been suggested by some.
CINNAMON SCREECH-OWL (Megascops petersoni) – Apologies, as we concentrated on the Long-whiskered Owlet and not on this species, and then could not find one in a later attempt. [*]

Thankfully, Peruvian Pygmy-Owl isn't too hard to find west of the Andes. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus) – A pair was quite vocal under a bright moon, high above our camp at Balsas. Vocalizations here are quite similar to North American birds, and different from the more southerly "Magellanic." [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) [*]
PERUVIAN PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium peruanum) – Heard often and seen regularly in dry areas of the Pacific slope and the Maranon. As split from Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl.
LONG-WHISKERED OWLET (Xenoglaux loweryi) – Treated as "heard only" as a fair general statement, although many did see the bird take off from a perch (but to our knowledge, no one had a good look) and in flight one other time. We certainly heard it very, very well for a long time, as it came closer and closer. Sorry! Our other attempt did not even produce a response. [E*]
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – Seen well at the Lomas de Lachay, and again near Tinajones and en route on the coastal plain.
RUFOUS-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba albitarsis) [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – A few of this widespread bird in the dawn light from a moving bus in the Maranon Valley.
BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Caprimulgus longirostris) – Heard by John at Pomacochas. [*]
SCRUB NIGHTJAR (Caprimulgus anthonyi) – We heard and saw nothing on the Pacific side, but in wetter conditions in the Maranon Valley we had good looks at a responsive bird flying around us, and heard others nearby.
LYRE-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Uropsalis lyra) – We heard a very vocal male below Abra Patricia, but could not get a visual; later that day we enjoyed wonderful views of a roosting female on a cliff lower down the mountain.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne rutila) – This was a much poorer tour for swifts than normal, starting with this species, which we saw once very distantly near Tamborapa.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Seen several times, including once well on the east slope.
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (TUMBES) (Chaetura brachyura ocypetes) – This Tumbesian population was seen well during our guan hike in Quebrada Frejolillo; some suggest splitting it.

Lyre-tailed Nightjar is one of many species whose range is limited to a narrow elevational band along the Andes. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

WHITE-TIPPED SWIFT (Aeronautes montivagus) – Seen below Abra Patricia.
ANDEAN SWIFT (Aeronautes andecolus) – Above the Rio Chonta, the northern end of its long range.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
GRAY-CHINNED HERMIT (Phaethornis griseogularis porcullae) – A quick one for most of the group below Abra Porculla, for which this subspecies is named. This population is larger and paler than those of the east; the significance (if any) of that has not been studied.
BROWN VIOLETEAR (Colibri delphinae) – Great looks at one in the garden at Pomacochas, a surprising location for what is an uncommon species on the east slope.
GREEN VIOLETEAR (Colibri thalassinus) – Sarah spotted one that was an occasional visitor among the many Sparkling at Huembo, and there were a couple more at the feeders at Owlet Lodge.
SPARKLING VIOLETEAR (Colibri coruscans) – The thugs of the Huembo feeders, but have you ever seen a more beautiful thug?
AMETHYST-THROATED SUNANGEL (Heliangelus amethysticollis) – One was seen along the trail above San Lorenzo.
PURPLE-THROATED SUNANGEL (Heliangelus viola) – One visited the Huembo feeders quickly several times, and we then had great views of several on the west slope below Abra El Gavilan. A recent paper by A. Weller (Orn. Neo. 22: 601-614, 2011) described a second species, Brilliant Sunangel, H. splendidus. The paper is unsatisfying, and has not been widely accepted. It was also unclear about field characters. If the split is valid, then we saw the nominate form at Huembo, and H. splendidus at Abra El Gavilan, at least on the basis of the range map in the paper.
ROYAL SUNANGEL (Heliangelus regalis) – We saw one male several times for good looks (albeit not glowing in the sun!) in the stunted forest below Abra Patricia. It is considered Endangered, with a population under 10,000. It is not an endemic, having been found in southern Ecuador.
SPECKLED HUMMINGBIRD (Adelomyia melanogenys) – Regular at the feeders at Owlet Lodge; a paler population was seen below Abra El Gavilan.
LONG-TAILED SYLPH (Aglaiocercus kingi) – The daily show at the feeders at Owlet Lodge was much enjoyed.
GRAY-BELLIED COMET (Taphrolesbia griseiventris) – Fortunately, our favorite "pet" was at home along the Rio Chonta, otherwise it could have been a challenge to find one among the few flowers this year. While not stunning, this long-tailed hummingbird is a striking species. It is considered "Endangered," with a population under 1,000. [E]
BLACK-TAILED TRAINBEARER (Lesbia victoriae) – Trainbearer identification is difficult. This species was identified by John above San Lorenzo and then by all west of Celendin, both good areas for this bird, which is the more common trainbearer overall, but perhaps the less common one on this route.

In the right light, the Emerald-bellied Puffleg practically sparkles. (Photo by participant Brian Stech)

GREEN-TAILED TRAINBEARER (Lesbia nuna) – One female below Abra Porculla, several individuals in the garden at Pomacochas, a couple at the head of the Great Spinetail canyon, and briefly at Abra El Gavilan.
RUFOUS-CAPPED THORNBILL (Chalcostigma ruficeps) – We miss this bird on most tours, so it was a wonderful surprise to find one visiting the feeders at Owlet Lodge; great looks.
TYRIAN METALTAIL (Metallura tyrianthina) – One of the more widespread high-elevation hummingbirds. We were able to observe them filching from the holes in corollas made by the filching flowerpiercers.
BLACK METALTAIL (Metallura phoebe) – At least two were seen, including flycatching over the Rio Chonta. [E]
EMERALD-BELLIED PUFFLEG (Eriocnemis aline) – This stunning bird was regular at the Owlet Lodge feeders, though less common (like most species there) than in some other years. Great looks at a bird that is generally scarce and local, and not habituated to feeders. E. a. dybowskii.
MARVELOUS SPATULETAIL (Loddigesia mirabilis) – Numbers were up at the Huembo feeders, where we saw perhaps five different individuals, with repeated good looks as they slipped in between the thugs. It was a great show by an amazing bird. It is "Endangered," with a population under 1,000. [E]
SHINING SUNBEAM (Aglaeactis cupripennis) – Daily at high elevation in the western Andes. Brian found a nest near Celendin on 19 November. [N]
BRONZY INCA (Coeligena coeligena) – Regular at the feeders at both Huembo and Abra Patricia.
COLLARED INCA (Coeligena torquata) – This striking bird was seen daily at the Owlet Lodge feeders.
VIOLET-THROATED STARFRONTLET (Coeligena violifer) – A number were seen above San Lorenzo, although good looks were few as they were mostly in transit.
RAINBOW STARFRONTLET (Coeligena iris) – Several sightings of striking individuals east of Celendin, but we lacked a "point source" at which to really admire them.
SWORD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD (Ensifera ensifera) – Two sightings above San Lorenzo, one of them perched.
CHESTNUT-BREASTED CORONET (Boissonneaua matthewsii) – Another stunning thug, enjoyed at the Huembo and Owlet Lodge feeders.
FAWN-BREASTED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa rubinoides) – Just a few individuals, but a regular visitor to the feeders at Owlet Lodge (and not easy to see away from feeders).
VIOLET-FRONTED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa leadbeateri) – Perhaps three different individuals were occasional visitors to the Huembo feeders; with time, some fairly good looks.
GIANT HUMMINGBIRD (Patagona gigas) – Repeated views at La Encanada, even in the telescope; also along the Rio Chonta. In terms of bulk, the largest hummingbird.
PURPLE-COLLARED WOODSTAR (Myrtis fanny) – Birds early in the trip did not include males in breeding plumage, but toward the end, in some country freshened by rain, we heard a number displaying, and had some quick views of full males.
OASIS HUMMINGBIRD (Rhodopis vesper) – A good showing in the blooming Nicotiana at the Lomas de Lachay, including of some with full tails and some nice color on the gorget.
PERUVIAN SHEARTAIL (Thaumastura cora) – The males at the Lomas de Lachay and Rafan had sheartails, but were mostly in eclipse plumage, with limited or no color on the gorget.
WHITE-BELLIED WOODSTAR (Chaetocercus mulsant) – A couple of females were regular visitors to the Owlet Lodge feeders, and a male was called out at least once. The bumblebee-helicopter flight is always great fun.
LITTLE WOODSTAR (Chaetocercus bombus) – One female was seen perched near Hacienda Limon. This species is considered "Vulnerable," and is never a sure thing on this tour route.
SHORT-TAILED WOODSTAR (Myrmia micrura) – We saw more than normal, including birds visiting the sap on Prosopis at Chaparri and the bougainvilla by our picnic table at Quebrada Frejolillo.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata) – Several males were seen in the foothills of the east slope.

Participant Kevin Heffernan shared this beautiful capture of a Green-tailed Trainbearer.

MANY-SPOTTED HUMMINGBIRD (Taphrospilus hypostictus) – At least two were seen at Aguas Verdes, including one that perched long enough for telescope views.
TUMBES HUMMINGBIRD (Leucippus baeri) – Great views of perched birds at Chaparri were followed by several more observed at Quebrada Frejolillo.
SPOT-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucippus taczanowskii) – Common in dry areas of the Maranon drainage, and regularly attracted to the pygmy-owl sessions. Not a dramatic bird, but an engaging endemic. [E]
WHITE-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia chionogaster) – Seen first at the Huembo feeders, and again in the garden at Pomacochas.
AMAZILIA HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia amazilia) – Regular on the Pacific slope, and also locally in the Maranon above San Marcos.
ANDEAN EMERALD (Amazilia franciae) – A scattered few for some folks near Tamborapa and at Huembo, with the best looks coming around Hacienda Limon, where fairly common.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GOLDEN-HEADED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus auriceps) – A very responsive bird was seen below Abra Patricia, with another admired the next day.
CRESTED QUETZAL (Pharomachrus antisianus) – A very unresponsive bird was heard at length below Abra Patricia.
MASKED TROGON (Trogon personatus) – Good looks for one group of a female near Owlet Lodge.
Momotidae (Motmots)
WHOOPING MOTMOT (ARGENTICINCTUS) (Momotus subrufescens argenticinctus) – Good views in Quebrada Frejolillo. As split from Blue-crowned Motmot (based on a paper by Gary Stiles in Orn. Col.).
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – One at Tinajones Reservoir.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
LANCEOLATED MONKLET (Micromonacha lanceolata) – One heard singing at Aguas Verdes became a highlight when Sarah spotted it quite close to us. Lengthy views and a nice photographic opportunity. A widespread but seldom-seen bird that is fairly regular on this tour.
WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa morphoeus) – We saw a pair near Afluente, near the upper limit for this Amazonian bird.
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
VERSICOLORED BARBET (Eubucco versicolor) [*]
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
EMERALD TOUCANET (BLACK-THROATED) (Aulacorhynchus prasinus cyanolaemus) – A couple were seen on the hike above San Lorenzo, with one or two more sightings at Abra Patricia. Various splits of Emerald Toucanet have been proposed, most of which seem premature toward just plain wrong.
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – A pair at Aguas Verdes, unfortunately in flight only.
BLACK-MANDIBLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos ambiguus) – Great views of two near Afluente. Considered "Vulnerable," this declining foothill species has not been seen much in the fragmented forest close to the road in recent years.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
ECUADORIAN PICULET (Picumnus sclateri) – A Tumbesian species that we saw in Quebrada Frejolillo after the guan search.
SPECKLE-CHESTED PICULET (Picumnus steindachneri) – Seen twice with flocks near Afluente, first spotted by Sarah. It is considered "Endangered," which reflects the limited range, but the bird is versatile in habitat use, including in the disturbed Utcubamba Valley, and seems more secure than that. [E]

All of the world's Marvelous Spatuletails live in the valley of the Rio Utcubamba, the main valley of which runs in front of the back ridge. This photograph was taken from the Huembo Spatuletail Center, where we enjoyed great looks at it. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus) [*]
SMOKY-BROWN WOODPECKER (Picoides fumigatus) – Several sightings, first below Abra Porculla, then above San Lorenzo, and again near Celendin. Based on a genetic study, it was recently transfered from Veniliornis to Picoides.
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus) – This lowland species was observed near Aguas Verdes.
SCARLET-BACKED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis callonotus) – Seen first at Chaparri and then at Quebrada Limon, and Kevin spotted one in the Maranon near Tamborapa.
GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER (Colaptes rubiginosus) – Quite versatile, ranging from the dry Tumbesian woodland at Batan Grande and Quebrada Frejolillo to the wet forest of the east slope near Afluente.
CRIMSON-MANTLED WOODPECKER (Colaptes rivolii) – Seen by John while birding above San Lorenzo, and heard at Abra Patricia.
BLACK-NECKED WOODPECKER (Colaptes atricollis) – This endemic flicker was enjoyed greatly in woodland above Balsas, then in the cactus desert near camp. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER (Colaptes punctigula) – A lowland species of open habitats, which we saw in a pasture at the base of the eastern foothills.
ANDEAN FLICKER (Colaptes rupicola) – Common at the end of the tour, where widespread in the puna and disturbed areas of the highlands.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – Heard a couple of times, and a pair was seen at close range at Chaparri. D. l. fuscipennis.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
MOUNTAIN CARACARA (Phalcoboenus megalopterus) – We saw multiples of this striking falcon in the highlands from Celendin to Cajamarca.
CRESTED CARACARA (Caracara cheriway) – Multiples in the Pacific lowlands.
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – Brian spotted one perched in a distant tree in Quebrada Frejolillo; it looked fine in the telescope.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – Never common, but widespread in open, dry areas from low to high elevation.
MERLIN (Falco columbarius) – One seen by most of the group above La Encanada; a rare bird this far south. [b]
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – Singles at the Lomas de Lachay, Puerto Eten, and Tinajones Reservoir. Probably boreal migrants, but there are also austral migrants and residents in Peru.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
MOUNTAIN PARAKEET (Psilopsiagon aurifrons) – Although some saw departing shapes in the fog, it was essentially 'heard only,' and that was marginal at the Lomas de Lachay. [*]

More than a dozen subspecies are recognized for the wide-ranging Golden-olive Woodpecker. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

SCARLET-FRONTED PARAKEET (Aratinga wagleri) – Heard near Jaen, and finally seen above Balsas, even perched on the tops of the columnar cacti.
MITRED PARAKEET (Aratinga mitrata) – Usually the most common Aratinga, this year only heard marginally above Pedro Ruiz. [*]
RED-MASKED PARAKEET (Aratinga erythrogenys) – Especially common in Quebrada Frejolillo, with many views of flocks in flight through that dramatic landscape, but unusually not seen perched. It is considered "Near Threatened."
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – Heard or seen daily on the east slope, eventually seen perched above Afluente. An Amazonian bird that ranges well up into the Andes here.
BARRED PARAKEET (Bolborhynchus lineola) – We failed to write it in our checklists, and if you don't remember it, not many people were there, and we did not have more than the sounds coming from departing shapes in the clouds above San Lorenzo. Widespread, but scarce and nomadic. [*]
PACIFIC PARROTLET (Forpus coelestis) – Common on the Pacific slope, also locally in the Maranon; seen well, especially at Chaparri.
YELLOW-FACED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthops) – A highlight, in part because the struggle had been long the prior afternoon. We could hear one, and then had telescope views after Kate spotted it, and finished with close views of several on the cactus-clad slopes above Balsas. It is considered "Endangered," with a population under 1,000; BirdLife now considers it stable, as the threat from the pet trade has decreased. [E]
RED-BILLED PARROT (Pionus sordidus) – Regular, mostly in transit, but also perched on the east slope.
SCALY-NAPED PARROT (Amazona mercenarius) – Impressively large flocks were seen around Abra Patricia, especially headed to roost in the evening; at least 120 on one occasion.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – Heard and then seen at Aguas Verdes.
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus jaczewskii) – Good views of a pair on the grounds at the mystery hotel; heard a couple of other times.
CHAPMAN'S ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus zarumae) – This Tumbesian split from Barred Antshrike was relatively difficult this year below Abra Porcuya, with just a couple of brief sightings.
LINED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus) – One cooperative pair of this foothill species at Afluente.
COLLARED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus bernardi) – Fairly common and easily seen on the Pacific slope.
COLLARED ANTSHRIKE (SHUMBAE) (Thamnophilus bernardi shumbae) – Seen by a few people near Jaen and then by the whole group near Bagua Grande; this Maranon isolate is always a bit of a struggle, and this was a relatively good experience with it. A split has been proposed by some, but the differences do not seem major.
NORTHERN SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (MARA–ON) (Thamnophilus punctatus leucogaster) – It took several attempts, but we ended up with everyone seeing one or both members of the pair north of Tamborapa. This subspecies has been split, but is currently treated as part of a larger group.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens subandinus) – Sarah found one while birding around Owlet Lodge.
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – One responsive bird was with a mixed flock near Afluente.
SLATY ANTWREN (Myrmotherula schisticolor) – About a quarter of the group saw one in the understory near Afluente.
YELLOW-BREASTED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus axillaris) – Heard well with a flock near Afluente, but unresponsive. [*]
LONG-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila caudata) – We worked on this twice, once above San Lorenzo and again below Owlet Lodge, with looks for most of this bamboo-loving bird. Based on a recent study, "Long-tailed" is being split into four, with the most widespread group being what we saw, Streak-headed Antbird, D. striaticeps.

The beautiful White-tailed Jay is another Tumbesian specialty. (Photo by participant Brian Stech)

BLACKISH ANTBIRD (Cercomacra nigrescens) – A pair (rusty female, gray male) responded by moving into the roadside shrubbery near Afluente, and others were heard nearby.
WHITE-BACKED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leuconota) [*]
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) [*]
COMMON SCALE-BACKED ANTBIRD (Willisornis poecilinotus) [*]
Melanopareiidae (Crescentchests)
MARA–ON CRESCENTCHEST (Melanopareia maranonica) – One of the subtle highlights of the trip; all four crescentchests (now a separate family) are variations on a theme, but it is a lovely theme, and the appearance of this individual in front of us was magical. It is considered "Near Threatened" (for a limited range, rather than an inability to handle goat-modification to habitat).
ELEGANT CRESCENTCHEST (Melanopareia elegans) – The Pacific gem of the group, seen well at Chaparri and heard in Quebrada Frejolillo.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED ANTPITTA (Grallaria ruficapilla) – Thanks to Kevin, the whole group had good views of this big antpitta below Abra Porculla; more heard intermittently the rest of the way.
PALE-BILLED ANTPITTA (Grallaria carrikeri) – One of the prizes of the trip, as both groups were able to see this large, localized antpitta after hiking high above San Lorenzo, thanks to Santos' guidance. It is considered "Near Threatened." [E]
RUSTY-TINGED ANTPITTA (Grallaria przewalskii) – Heard a few times, and some in both groups saw it, as we had two visual encounters, one quick but close, the other at greater length but sharp. This is the antpitta with which we have been having the most difficulty in recent years, so this was a good reversal of trend. It is considered "Vulnerable." [E]
RUFOUS ANTPITTA (Grallaria rufula cajamarcae) – Worse than normal, as while we had a few vocal responses, only one was seen, and by just a few folks. Rufous Antpitta is likely to be split into about eight species, this being one.
CHESTNUT ANTPITTA (Grallaria blakei) – Heard only, and just once; this species has usually been fairly common by voice and moderately seeable around Abra Patricia at this time of year, but we barely had a whiff. [E*]
OCHRE-FRONTED ANTPITTA (Grallaricula ochraceifrons) – Generally a tough specialty, we did well this year, with many in both groups getting to see one moving around at eye level in the cloud forest near Owlet Lodge. It is considered "Endangered." [E]
RUSTY-BREASTED ANTPITTA (TUMBES) (Grallaricula ferrugineipectus leymebambae) – Heard well once, but from the road . . . . [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
UNICOLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus unicolor) – Having some bonus time because of our flight schedule, we were able to pursue this highly localized endemic, the original/nominate Unicolored Tapaculo, outside of Cajamarca, and had once of our best tapaculo experiences. [E]
TRILLING TAPACULO (Scytalopus parvirostris) – Heard at Abra Patricia, and it circled us, but was only seen by Kate.
RUFOUS-VENTED TAPACULO (Scytalopus femoralis) – Like Unicolored, this species has been much split, with the original/nominate Rufous-vented endemic to northern and central Peru. After several attempts, seen by most, although by the usual varying degrees to which gray mice are seen! [E]
WHITE-CROWNED TAPACULO (Scytalopus atratus atratus) – We worked on one near Afluente, and almost all had some kind of view, some good, of one, and the diagnostic voice was heard well. We joke about calling it "Middle White-crowned," because while Southern = Bolivian has been split, further splits are likely between northern and middle populations, so keep track of where you see them.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BARRED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza mollissima) – We have only seen it a few times on this tour; even hearing it well, as we did twice, is "good." [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
COASTAL MINER (Geositta peruviana) – Good views in a sandy wash at the start of the canastero hike at the Lomas de Lachay. [E]

Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant was an unexpected bonus from our Pale-billed Antpitta hike. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

SLENDER-BILLED MINER (Geositta tenuirostris) – After missing it on a high pass, we were happy to stumble into one south of Cajamarca. Good views.
GRAYISH MINER (Geositta maritima) – At this time of year this miner seems highly mobile at the Lomas de Lachay, and we were fortunate to have good looks at several on the ground. A limited range, extending into northern Chile.
THICK-BILLED MINER (Geositta crassirostris) – We had to look and listen (and wait for the fog to lift a little more), but we eventually had a responsive bird at the Lomas de Lachay, with good looks and some wing lifts. [E]
TYRANNINE WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla tyrannina) – Blair spotted one that was seen well by one group on a forest trail at Abra Patricia; a widespread but uncommon Andean woodcreeper.
STRONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) – One group had a fun experience with a pair in the cloud forest behind Owlet Lodge.
OLIVE-BACKED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) – Seen with a couple of flocks in forest near Afluente.
STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) – Several sightings in the dry Tumbesian woodland of Quebrada Frejolillo.
MONTANE WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger) – One at Abra Patricia. As split from Spot-crowned Woodcreeper.
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – Several with flocks around Afluente, and one as high as Abra Patricia.
STREAKED TUFTEDCHEEK (Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii) – Seen well by one group at Abra Patricia, and then one bird with the "last-gasp" flock (we were leaving) responded by freezing, allowing even some telescope views.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (PACIFIC) (Furnarius leucopus cinnamomeus) – Common in dry areas of the Pacific and Maranon regions. This subspecies is sometimes split as Pacific Hornero.
WREN-LIKE RUSHBIRD (Phleocryptes melanops) – Seen in a marsh at Puerto Eten, near the northern end of its range.
STRIATED EARTHCREEPER (Geocerthia serrana) – After failing around Abra Gran Chimu, we saw one our last afternoon near Cajamarca. Based on a recent genetic study, this earthcreeper has been moved into a monotypic genus and represents one of the older lineages within the furnariids. [E]
CREAM-WINGED CINCLODES (Cinclodes albiventris) – Good views of several around Abra Gran Chimu. Bar-winged Cinclodes has been split recently into three species, this being the middle one.
WHITE-WINGED CINCLODES (Cinclodes atacamensis) – Multiples along the Rio Chonta near Cajamarca, this being at the northern edge of its long, Andean range.
SURF CINCLODES (Cinclodes taczanowskii) – Seen by the group that went birding around Lima. As split from (Chilean) Seaside Cinclodes. Regarded as the most maritime of passerines. [E]
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – Good views with one of our best flocks near Afluente.
MONTANE FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia striaticollis) – We had a great time with one pair near Afluente that was visiting its nest 14-15 November in a hole in a thin trunk next to the road. [N]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) – One with a flock at Abra Patricia was seen by just a few folks.

Our lunch table at Quebrada Frejolillo, in the shade of a sprawling pink-flowering bougainvilla, a native here. It was attracting a Short-tailed Woodstar, a surprise to us that these flowers attracted any hummingbird. It was a relaxing lunch after a long morning walk, a successful one. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

RUFOUS-NECKED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla ruficollis) – One of the challenging Tumbesian foliage-gleaners of Abra Porcuya, one that we don't see yearly, we did quite well, with most getting some kind of look, some of them good.
HENNA-HOODED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Hylocryptus erythrocephalus) – The other challenge there, this was a good show for all below Abra Porculla.
SPOTTED BARBTAIL (Premnoplex brunnescens) [*]
PEARLED TREERUNNER (Margarornis squamiger) – Seen with a couple of flocks above San Lorenzo and at Abra Patricia.
RUSTY-CROWNED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura pileata cajabambae) – This northern subspecies of this endemic was seen daily in the Cajamarca region at the end of the tour. This population has been suggested (Ridgely & Tudor, HBW) as a split, but it impresses us less. [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (RUFOUS-FRONTED) (Phacellodomus rufifrons peruvianus) – We ended up with good views near Tamborapa and Bagua Grande, and saw many nests along the road. This subspecies is isolated from others in dry pockets around South America.
CHESTNUT-BACKED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus dorsalis) – We saw a couple of pairs near Hacienda Limon, and had excellent looks at this large thornbird. It is considered "Vulnerable." [E]
MANY-STRIPED CANASTERO (Asthenes flammulata) – Seen well in the wetter puna west of Celendin.
STREAK-BACKED CANASTERO (Asthenes wyatti) – Ed heard the response and Karen got us onto it on the dry slopes above La Encanada; seldom seen on this tour, although undoubtedly always in the habitat where we saw it.
STREAK-THROATED CANASTERO (Asthenes humilis) – This rather plain canastero was seen in very open pastures with rocky walls below Abra Gran Chimu.
RUSSET-MANTLED SOFTTAIL (Thripophaga berlepschi) – With Sarah's help, seen in the Pale-billed Antpitta area, and re-found for the second group. It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population under 10,000. [E]
LINE-CHEEKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca antisiensis) – We had fairly good looks (it is usually easier) below Abra Porcuya, with others heard. As split on this list and some others from Baron's Spinetail, but the situation is complicated and not fully studied (see HBW, SACC).
BARON'S SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca baroni) – Really a lovely bird, as best savored our last morning west of Cajamarca, after seeing others above Balsas and Celendin. [E]
CACTUS CANASTERO (Pseudasthenes cactorum) – At the Lomas de Lachay, after a brisk walk up the desert alluvial fan to the sparse cacti that are their home. We were fortunate that they were 'home' where we started, saving what can be a longer search. [E]
AZARA'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis azarae) – Not exactly a priority, and we did try several times, but we tried snarly ones, and had limited views.
DARK-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albigularis) – Much better behaved than Azara's, this attractive spinetail climbed out of the thick grass into some leafless little trees, even allowing some telescope views.

Yellow-faced Parrotlet is not the favorite bird of the guides, who know that the search can be short or long, and not always successful--one is looking for 1/1000th of the population. After an unsuccessful afternoon search, our morning started off just fine with several of this attractive parrotlet above Balsas. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

RUFOUS SPINETAIL (Synallaxis unirufa) – Seen by one group near Owlet Lodge.
MARA–ON SPINETAIL (Synallaxis maranonica) – As usual, a major struggle, although we did end up with views for all, or at least all who still cared!, particularly of the bird that Ray localized. Not a bad looking bird, but if there is a secret to seeing this bird, we have not learned it. It has recently been "uplisted" to Critically Endangered, which seems a bit extreme (the range is limited, but they are fairly dense in some disturbed habitats).
NECKLACED SPINETAIL (NECKLACED) (Synallaxis stictothorax maculata) – This Pacific taxon was seen well at Batan Grande, and again by some at Quebrada Limon.
NECKLACED SPINETAIL (CHINCHIPE) (Synallaxis stictothorax chinchipensis) – The Maranon representative was seen well near our breakfast spot by Tamborapa. It has not been thoroughly studied; there are some vocal and plumage differences, and may be split (as some have done) as Chinchipe Spinetail.
GREAT SPINETAIL (Siptornopsis hypochondriaca) – We were pleased to have a fairly quick find of this local bird near San Marcos, and had good views as the pair worked back toward their large stick nest. A recent genetic study is moving this bird from monotypic Siptornopsis into Synallaxis, near the similar Necklaced Spinetail. It is still a distinctive bird, and considered "Vulnerable," which seems understated given the limited number of known localities and heavy human pressure in the region. [E]
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – One of the common first responders to pygmy-owl sessions; seen widely in dry areas. We saw populations often labeled griseum and maranonicum, which are part of a Tumbesian group that is likely to be split (Rheindt et al., Emu 108: 261) under [long story omitted] sclateri; in any event, keep track of where you see this "species."
WHITE-BANDED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus stictopterus) – Seen our last morning on Abra El Gavilan.
SULPHUR-BELLIED TYRANNULET (Mecocerculus minor) – Seen by some at Abra Patricia.
BLACK-CRESTED TIT-TYRANT (Anairetes nigrocristatus) – This distinctive flycatcher with its spikey crest was seen well the last several days of the tour in high-elevation scrub. a.k.a. Maranon Tit-Tyrant
TUFTED TIT-TYRANT (Anairetes parulus) – Seen at breakfast west of Celendin, but at distance and not by all.
UNSTREAKED TIT-TYRANT (Anairetes agraphia) – A bonus from the Pale-billed Antpitta hike, as this species does not occur along any road on this tour route (but it is regularly seen at Abra Malaga near Machu Picchu). We had great looks at a responsive pair. [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (TUMBES) (Phaeomyias murina tumbezana) – Common in many dry areas. This subspecies group (technically we saw the subspecies inflava and maranonicum) tumbezana is likely to be split, as suggested by some, e.g. Robert Ridgely, and supported by the Rheindt paper cited under Southern Beardless.

Participant Brian Stech caught the light perfectly to showcase the flashy Purple-collared Woodstar.

PACIFIC ELAENIA (Myiopagis subplacens) – Heard at Chaparri, and eventually seen in Quebrada Frejolillo.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Scattered in moist woodland and plantations.
WHITE-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia albiceps) – A few in the high country of the Western Andes at the end of the tour.
MOTTLE-BACKED ELAENIA (Elaenia gigas) – Good views of the bifurcated crest in a pasture near Aguas Verdes; also along the Rio Utcubamba.
SIERRAN ELAENIA (Elaenia pallatangae) – Best seen in secondary shrubbery around Abra Patricia.
TORRENT TYRANNULET (Serpophaga cinerea) – Nice views of this distinctive tyrannulet along streams above La Encanada and Cajamarca.
STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes striaticollis) – Seen our last afternoon at Abra Patricia.
OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes olivaceus) – Several sightings of this fruit-eating flycatcher on the lower east slope.
SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon superciliaris) – Just a couple, a sign of our poor fortunes at finding flocks on the east slope.
ECUADORIAN TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes gualaquizae) – We did find several of this foothill flock species, and had excellent, close views; very local in Peru with a small range to SE Colombia.
PERUVIAN TYRANNULET (Zimmerius viridiflavus) – This is real murky. We saw a number of birds we generally called "Golden-faced (Peruvian) Tyrannulets," and talked about the fact that the birds of the east slope here look like Golden-faced, but sound more like Peruvian and are genetically closer to Peruvian (never mind that some lists lump Peruvian and Golden-faced). Based on that study (Rheindt, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 2013), it is highly likely that the bird we saw will be combined with Peruvian, and they are included in this list. However, technically, based on the ranges in Clements 6.8, the split has still not been extended to the populations we saw (the S.A.C.C. has not had a proposal for a change submitted to it), and what we saw is "Golden-faced." But we are happy to jump the gun, and use Peruvian here. Seen by all from Owlet Lodge to the base of the foothills. [E]
MANY-COLORED RUSH TYRANT (Tachuris rubrigastra) – We had good views of a couple of birds in a small marsh near Puerto Eten.
RUFOUS-HEADED PYGMY-TYRANT (Pseudotriccus ruficeps) – One group had a great view of a bird inside the cloud forest behind Owlet Lodge.
TAWNY-CROWNED PYGMY-TYRANT (Euscarthmus meloryphus) – Seen regularly and heard often in arid areas throughout. E. m. fulviceps.
GRAY-AND-WHITE TYRANNULET (Pseudelaenia leucospodia) – The punk hairdo makes the ID of this species relatively easy; this Tumbesian species was seen at most stops in arid habitats on the Pacific slope.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – Heard regularly, and seen by many around Afluente.
BLACK-THROATED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus granadensis) – Seen by one group on a walk at Abra Patricia.
JOHNSON'S TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus luluae) – We all had wonderful views of this distinctive flycatcher, closely related to Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher from north of the Maranon. a.k.a. Lulu's Tody-Flycatcher and Little Darling Gem of a Tody-Tyrant. [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – In diverse habitats from arid scrub with the Little Inca-Finches to the wet eastern slopes.

Rufous Flycatcher is considered "Endangered," with a population under 7,000 birds. Genetically and in plumage it is the outlier in the genus Myiarchus, and may well be split as its own genus, Muscifur. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) – Good views of four in Quebrada Frejolillo (T. s. aequatorialis) and of one near Afluente (T. s. peruvianus); splits are likely in this species, although it will take a major study.
CINNAMON FLYCATCHER (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus) – Daily in small numbers on the east slope; lovely and often confiding.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea) – A trio perched on a ridgetop; distant views of perched and sallying birds. This bird has become less common on our route--have the road cuts become too overgrown for it?
OLIVE-CHESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus cryptoxanthus) – This foothill relative of Bran-colored was seen well in a pasture near Afluente; a bird of disturbed areas.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – Seen at Batan Grande and Hacienda Limon. M. f. crypterythrus (the one at Batan Grande showed slight approach to M. f. rufescens; the main intergradation zone is farther south).
WESTERN WOOD-PEWEE (Contopus sordidulus) – One near Afluente on 14 November, a regular wintering area (unusually scarce). [b]
TROPICAL PEWEE (TUMBES) (Contopus cinereus punensis) – Widespread in small numbers in dry woodland. This Tumbesian subspecies is a potential split.
BLACK PHOEBE (Sayornis nigricans) – A few along rushing streams such as the Rio Chido and the Rio Utcubamba.
VERMILION FLYCATCHER (Pyrocephalus rubinus) – A common beauty of dry, open areas, including the subspecies ardens of the Maranon Valley, with the brightest female plumage in the species.
RUFOUS-TAILED TYRANT (Knipolegus poecilurus) – Good looks at several around Afluente; widespread in the Andes, but local, and this is a good tour route for this species.
WHITE-WINGED BLACK-TYRANT (WHITE-WINGED) (Knipolegus aterrimus heterogyna) – After our Great Spinetail encounter we had an exciting view of a male farther up the same quebrada.
RUFOUS-NAPED GROUND-TYRANT (Muscisaxicola rufivertex) – Several seen in open areas of the high country around Celendin and Cajamarca; good views.
BLACK-BILLED SHRIKE-TYRANT (Agriornis montanus) – Several west of Celendin and one south of Cajamarca.
WHITE-TAILED SHRIKE-TYRANT (Agriornis albicauda) – Lenora and John got us on our first one above Celendin; good views of it, and of a half dozen more farther west. This may be the only area in which White-tailed (considered "Vulnerable" and declining) is as common as Black-billed.
STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT (Myiotheretes striaticollis) – One seen by one group above San Lorenzo.
RUFOUS-WEBBED BUSH-TYRANT (Polioxolmis rufipennis) – Several encounters in the high country the last two days, including one hovering like a kestrel at Sulluscocha. Near the northern end of its long range.
TUMBES TYRANT (Tumbezia salvini) – This striking tyrant has been recorded in Ecuador, but is virtually a Peruvian endemic. After struggling with a couple at Chaparri, we found a cooperative one there, followed by another in Quebrada Frejolillo. Closely related to the chat-tyrants, but this lowland bird is placed in a monotypic genus.

Celendin, at an elevation of 8,600' (2600m) is a convenient base between the Maranon at Balsas and Cajamarca. Our breakfast birding stop had included Rufous-eared Brush-Finch and White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant, and we were headed for Gray-winged Inca-Finches. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

JELSKI'S CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca jelskii) – In our scheme, one of the bad chat-tyrants, and the first one, spotted by Ray and seen by few, was not kind to us, but after much searching we found a very good pair east of Celendin.
RUFOUS-BREASTED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) – Seen well above San Lorenzo (a good chat-tyrant).
PIURA CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca piurae) – This can be a very bad chat-tyrant, but 2013 was marked by a wonderfully cooperative bird that ascended into the only trees around and provided about as easy viewing as we have ever had. It is considered "Near Threatened." [E]
WHITE-BROWED CHAT-TYRANT (Ochthoeca leucophrys) – A good one, seen easily daily at the end of the tour.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – One of this lowland species near Aguas Verdes.
SHORT-TAILED FIELD TYRANT (Muscigralla brevicauda) – Good views of one near Tinajones Reservoir, and Brian photographed one in the vacant lot that was the backyard to our Olmos hotel.
RUFOUS FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus semirufus) – This species was somewhat easier than normal, seen first at Batan Grande, and then well again on our reprise of this habitat at Rafan. It is considered "Endangered," with a population of under 7,000. Genetic studies show that it is the outlying Myiarchus, and it may be returned to the monotypic genus Muscifur. [E]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer atriceps) – Heard above Balsas and seen above Hacienda Limon.
SOOTY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus phaeocephalus phaeocephalus) – Seen once and heard once in Quebrada Frejolillo; they were not cooperative, and were seen by only a few folks.
PALE-EDGED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus cephalotes) – Excellent views on the east slope, around Garcia and Abra Patricia.
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – Encountered on four days. While the range is huge across the Western Hemisphere, it is very local in Peru, and this is one of few areas in which it occurs.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – A few along the Rio Utcubamba and at the lower edge of the east slope.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Ditto, plus one prospecting bird relatively high on the east slope at 1800m.
GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) – Nice views of this montane representative of the genus at Aguas Verdes.
BAIRD'S FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes bairdii) – A Tumbesian specialty, first seen at Tinajones and then for the next two days.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Good views above Pedro Ruiz, where they nest in the shade trees of the coffee plantations.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Scarce on the Pacific slope, more common in wetter, lower, open areas along the rest of the way.
EASTERN KINGBIRD (Tyrannus tyrannus) – Two at Tinajones Reservoir on 5 November were unusual for being on the Pacific slope. [b]
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
GREEN-AND-BLACK FRUITEATER (Pipreola riefferii) – Fairly common by voice on the east slope, and seen several times with patience.
PERUVIAN PLANTCUTTER (Phytotoma raimondii) – Good views, first at Batan Grande, where Karen picked up on the song, then at Rafan, but overall a little more difficult than average, and only two males total. It is considered "Endangered," with a population of under 1,000 birds. Formerly treated as a family, this genus is genetically part of the cotingas, and sounds like the next genus. [E]
RED-CRESTED COTINGA (Ampelion rubrocristatus) – Perhaps a dozen in total, starting above San Lorenzo, and then daily at the end of the tour.
CHESTNUT-CRESTED COTINGA (Ampelion rufaxilla) – Good views from the tower near Owlet Lodge for one group, a great find. Although occurring from Colombia to Bolivia, it is absent from large areas and regular in only a few, this being a fairly good place for it (Bolivia is best).
ANDEAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Rupicola peruvianus) – Despite the fragmented forest, this species persists and was fairly conspicuous along the road above and below Afluente; some great views.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)

Vermilion Flycatcher -- a common species but one you never tire of seeing. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

GREEN-BACKED BECARD (YELLOW-CHEEKED) (Pachyramphus viridis xanthogenys) – We had good views on our second attempt above Pedro Ruiz, a regular spot for this uncommon foothill subspecies (which is often split from the the Green-backed group of the eastern lowlands).
BARRED BECARD (Pachyramphus versicolor) – Seen well by one group at Abra Patricia.
BLACK-AND-WHITE BECARD (Pachyramphus albogriseus) – One with a mixed flock near Afluente was seen by some.
Vireonidae (Vireos)
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – Several near Tamborapa, Bagua Grande, and Pedro Ruiz; they probably were all of a local breeding population, part of the "Chivi" Vireo group, rather than northern migrants.
OLIVACEOUS GREENLET (Hylophilus olivaceus) – Somewhat short on field marks, but a foothill specialty seen well near Afluente.
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – Heard regularly, and seen periodically. The birds in this area are of the virenticeps group, with more rufous on the crown as well as the brow, and much more yellow elsewhere. Splits are not expected.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
GREEN JAY (Cyanocorax yncas) – Seen in the dry woodland near Tamborapa, on the wet east slope, and on the desert slopes above Balsas. South American birds are often split as Inca Jay.
WHITE-TAILED JAY (Cyanocorax mystacalis) – This spectacular Tumbesian species was seen coming for food at Chaparri, and again in Quebrada Frejolillo.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – Widespread.
BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW (Orochelidon murina) – A couple of quick-moving flocks at high elevation west of Celendin and near La Encanada.
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – Five around Aguas Verdes seemed novel, but not really surprising, given that they are a widespread lowland swallow.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Just a few, first at Batan Grande, later in the Maranon drainage.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – Scattered small numbers, mostly around settlements, starting at the Chiclayo airport.
TUMBES SWALLOW (Tachycineta stolzmanni) – A distant flock of ten at Batan Grande, one of which fortunately came closer for a reasonable look. As split from Mangrove Swallow, this Tumbesian woodland swallow is very local (this is the only place on our tour route), and while not classified as threatened, seems to warrant more attention.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – Seen at one stop along the lower Rio Utcubamba.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – Regularly seen over the coastal plain, where they winter (could still be migrating, too). [b]
CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWALLOW (Petrochelidon rufocollaris) – Always difficult in the non-breeding season, we had a quick encounter with some swooping to drink at Tinajones Reservoir. As split from Cave Swallow. A Tumbesian species.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (Microcerculus marginatus) – A.k.a. Southern Nightingale-Wren [*]
GRAY-MANTLED WREN (Odontorchilus branickii) – One of our (few) good flocks had a family group of this arboreal wren, and they were wonderfully responsive at near eye level, as opposed to the usual canopy location. Some of the best looks ever.
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Widespread, multiple subspecies/populations, all part of "Southern" House Wren.
MOUNTAIN WREN (Troglodytes solstitialis) – One was seen well above San Lorenzo; also heard at Abra Patricia.
SEDGE WREN (Cistothorus platensis) – Close views of a singing bird in the puna west of Celendin. a.k.a. Grass Wren, a name often applied to South American populations, which are very different vocally from northern "Sedge" Wren (but complicated, and may require a detailed study).
FASCIATED WREN (Campylorhynchus fasciatus) – Common in groups in arid areas; a large, arboreal species in the Cactus Wren genus.
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – Another arboreal relative of Cactus Wren, this one from wet, lowland forests, extending into the foothills, where we heard them and then saw them very well, with the thrushlike spots. The birds were perhaps 'frozen' in response to playback like that tuftedcheek, looking down from the canopy, wondering why the voice was coming from the ground.
PLAIN-TAILED WREN (Pheugopedius euophrys schulenbergi) – Heard by all, and for one group a close concert interspersed with quick views of a pair moving through the undergrowth.
SPECKLE-BREASTED WREN (SPECKLE-BREASTED) (Pheugopedius sclateri paucimaculatus) – Scarce in Quebrada Frejolillo, but with time we found one that moved around us several times in fairly good view.
SPECKLE-BREASTED WREN (MARA–ON) (Pheugopedius sclateri sclateri) – The nominate subspecies of the Maranon, seen well eventually, but only after several attempts, so better than those spinetails, but . . . . What a great song, though! (On which basis some have proposed splits, so keep track of this species).

The presence of Golden-billed Saltators is often first detected by their loud song. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

SUPERCILIATED WREN (Cantorchilus superciliaris) – This striking and somewhat bold wren was seen well in dry areas of the Pacific slope. The formerly large (now two species, including Carolina Wren) genus Thryothorus has been changed to four genera, closely related but separate lineages.
SHARPE'S WREN (Cinnycerthia olivascens) – Blair saw this split of Sepia-brown Wren at Abra Patricia, where they were quiet and sneaky.
PERUVIAN WREN (Cinnycerthia peruana) – Another third of the former Sepia-brown Wren, this taxon was heard above San Lorenzo; this species is not accessible by road on our route. This region is the area of altitudinal overlap/contact that contributed greatly to the splitting of this complex. [*]
BAR-WINGED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucoptera) – We had a pretty good show (given that it is furtive) in the stunted forest at Garcia, and heard it well also. Now known from southern Ecuador, it is no longer an endemic.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – We saw them a couple of times, but they were surprisingly tough in medium effort. Otherwise, heard often, tending toward taller forest than the related Bar-winged (which is actually more closely related to White-breasted, but still related).
CHESTNUT-BREASTED WREN (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) – For many folks, a great concert our last afternoon at Abra Patricia, but the roadside habitat made seeing this skulker difficult to the point of impossible; they were within two meters of us, but . . . . [*]
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (WHITE-BROWED) (Polioptila plumbea bilineata) – Common, and like the Southern Beardless First Responder, the Responding Gnatcatcher was viewed often at close range during pygmy-owl sessions. This taxon of the Pacific slope is one of several likely splits when the complex complex of Tropical Gnatcatcher is thoroughly evaluated.
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (MARA–ON) (Polioptila plumbea maior) – This taxon of the Maranon drainage may be included with the preceding, while some advocate a further split. As a First Responder, they are equal!
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – We had been hearing them, and fortunately Brian spotted them, and we had good views in a wet pasture at Aguas Verdes.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
ANDEAN SOLITAIRE (Myadestes ralloides) – Heard regularly, and seen a couple of times, e.g. at Garcia.
SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus) – Wintering C. u. swainsoni were eating fruit in the canopy of montane forest, although we saw fewer than normal. [b]
PLUMBEOUS-BACKED THRUSH (Turdus reevei) – This Tumbesian specialty was absent from the extra dry Quebrada Frejolillo, and as expected (certainly hoped for), it was then found upslope near Abra Porculla, where there were a couple of rapidly moving feeding flocks.
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (Turdus ignobilis) – In disturbed areas around Aguas Verdes.
MARA–ON THRUSH (Turdus maranonicus) – First seen around a fruiting tree at Hacienda Limon, then along the Rio Maranon at Balsas, where one even perched above our active cook crew at breakfast. Like a half dozen other species, it extends up the Rio Chinchipe into Ecuador, and so is not an endemic.
GREAT THRUSH (Turdus fuscater) – Common in the wetter highlands.
CHIGUANCO THRUSH (Turdus chiguanco) – Tending toward the drier highlands, these two large, dark thrushes do overlap regularly.
GLOSSY-BLACK THRUSH (Turdus serranus) – Heard daily at Owlet Lodge, and seen on most days, although it is a furtive species in comparison with Great Thrush.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
LONG-TAILED MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus longicaudatus) – Common, even abundant, in the arid areas on the Pacific slope, and locally in the Maranon.
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)

The dramatic landscape of Quebrada Frejolillo, where we sought White-winged Guans in one of their most important centers of breeding, and otherwise enjoyed a rich selection of Tumbesian birds, including Black-capped Sparrow and Gray-and-gold Warbler. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

PARAMO PIPIT (Anthus bogotensis) – It took a while, but we ended up with excellent views of a couple in the wet puna west of Celendin.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (MASKED) (Geothlypis aequinoctialis peruviana) – Several encounters in the Maranon drainage, first at Hacienda Limon, then above San Marcos. This complex could be split several ways, and some suggest that this should stand alone, others with the next form.
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (BLACK-LORED) (Geothlypis aequinoctialis auricularis) – The Pacific representative, seen near Lima in the Lomas de Lachay.
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – Common in the guan canyon, where feeding on the trees oozing sap; scattered elsewhere, to include the wet east slope.
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – Unusually scarce for this regular winterer--just a few on the east slope. [b]
THREE-STRIPED WARBLER (Basileuterus tristriatus) – A couple with a small flock above Afluente.
THREE-BANDED WARBLER (Basileuterus trifasciatus) – This Tumbesian specialty was fairly common below Abra Porcuya, seen again on the west side of Abra El Gavilan the last morning.
CITRINE WARBLER (Myiothlypis luteoviridis) – Seen well by one group above San Lorenzo; quiet/inconspicuous at Abra Patricia.
BLACK-CRESTED WARBLER (Myiothlypis nigrocristata) – First seen at Pomacochas, then daily at the end of the tour in the scrub of the high country of the Cajamarca area.
GRAY-AND-GOLD WARBLER (Myiothlypis fraseri) – One in Quebrada Frejolillo for part of the group, with some catchup opportunities with a couple upslope near Abra Porculla the next day. A lovely Tumbesian specialty.
RUSSET-CROWNED WARBLER (Myiothlypis coronata) – Seen by most at Abra Patricia, with more heard.
CANADA WARBLER (Cardellina canadensis) – Less common than normal, with about four seen from Afluente down to Aguas Verdes. [b]
SLATE-THROATED REDSTART (Myioborus miniatus) – Regular, often with flocks, at lower elevations than the next where it is present.
SPECTACLED REDSTART (Myioborus melanocephalus) – Common at higher elevations in the eastern Andes, also in the Cajamarca region, where the local population has rufous coronal patches.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – A few in open areas on the lower half of the east slope. With the tanagers, we tend to throw the thesaurus at them from the start, because 3/4 of them are gorgeous, and trying to come up with fresh adjectives wears thin. So consider the thesaurus thrown: Peru's tanagers are wonderful.
WHITE-CAPPED TANAGER (Sericossypha albocristata) – Traveling in wide-ranging, pure flocks, this species is hard to pin down; for one group, a prize look at a flock at Owlet Lodge.
RUFOUS-CRESTED TANAGER (Creurgops verticalis) – One with our 'last gasp' flock provided a decent look at an uncommon species.
BLACK-CAPPED HEMISPINGUS (WHITE-BROWED) (Hemispingus atropileus auricularis) – Seen by one group above San Lorenzo.
DRAB HEMISPINGUS (Hemispingus xanthophthalmus) – Seen by one group above San Lorenzo, and missed at Abra Patricia, where often seen!?
GRAY-HOODED BUSH TANAGER (Cnemoscopus rubrirostris) – Several with our 'last gasp' flock at Abra Patricia.
RUFOUS-CHESTED TANAGER (Thlypopsis ornata) – Spotted by John in the garden at Pomacochas, and seen again very nicely in high elevation shrubbery above Hacienda Limon.

Three-banded Warbler -- a Tumbesian specialty. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

BUFF-BELLIED TANAGER (Thlypopsis inornata) – A regional specialty of moist slopes above the Maranon Valley, extending up the Rio Chinchipe barely into Ecuador. We had nice looks at several spots from Tamborapa to Hacienda Limon.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – A pair was in a clearing near Afluente. Seen again at Balsas near our campsite.
BLACK-BELLIED TANAGER (Ramphocelus melanogaster) – Small numbers, first near Afluente, then better the next morning at Aguas Verdes; a colonizer of clearings on the east slope. a.k.a. Huallaga Tanager, recognizing the center of its distribution. [E]
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – We saw the duller types without white shoulders on the Pacific side at Batan Grande, and then the Amazonian types at lower elevations throughout the Maranon and east slope.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – A few along the Rio Utcubamba and at Aguas Verdes.
BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanocephala) – Widespread at moderate elevations in forests of the east.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Thraupis bonariensis darwinii) – Several sightings around Hacienda Limon, then better views for all above San Marcos.
VERMILION TANAGER (Calochaetes coccineus) – Brilliant, but distant--a few with a flock above Afluente.
HOODED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Buthraupis montana) – Seen by one group at Abra Patricia.
LACRIMOSE MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus lacrymosus) – A few seen by one group with a flock at Abra Patricia.
SCARLET-BELLIED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus igniventris) – Seen by one group above San Lorenzo, then by all at our breakfast spot above Celendin.
BLUE-WINGED MOUNTAIN-TANAGER (Anisognathus somptuosus) – Two seen above Afluente. Remember the thesaurus!
GRASS-GREEN TANAGER (Chlorornis riefferii) – Several sightings at Abra Patricia, including by the lodge.
YELLOW-SCARFED TANAGER (Iridosornis reinhardti) – Sarah spotted one with a flock behind Owlet Lodge; last year they were fairly conspicuous around the lodge, but this was back to normal, or even a little worse. [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota) – Seen by some above San Lorenzo.
SILVERY TANAGER (Tangara viridicollis) – Seen regularly, one of the more widespread species.
BLUE-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanicollis) – Fairly common on the lower east slope.
SPOTTED TANAGER (Tangara punctata) – Several with flocks around Afluente.
BLUE-AND-BLACK TANAGER (Tangara vassorii) – A few around Abra Patricia.
BERYL-SPANGLED TANAGER (Tangara nigroviridis) – One of the more numerous Tangara from Garcia up to Abra Patricia.
BLUE-BROWED TANAGER (Tangara cyanotis) – Quick views of one with the Vermilion Tanager flock above Afluente; an uncommon mid-montane specialty.
PARADISE TANAGER (Tangara chilensis) – Good views of several small flocks in the foothills. Worthy of many fine adjectives.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola) – A few in the foothills.
GOLDEN-EARED TANAGER (Tangara chrysotis) – One of the least common Tangara, a specialty of the foothills; two near Afluente, seen fairly well, but briefly.
SAFFRON-CROWNED TANAGER (Tangara xanthocephala) – Fewer than normal, but daily on the upper slopes.
FLAME-FACED TANAGER (Tangara parzudakii) – Several sightings from Garcia up to Abra Patricia.
GREEN-AND-GOLD TANAGER (Tangara schrankii) – Nice views from the big orange bridge.
GOLDEN TANAGER (Tangara arthus) – Several good views from Afluente to Aguas Verdes.

We studied a pair of Lineated Woodpeckers at Chaparri. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – Ditto.
BLACK-FACED DACNIS (Dacnis lineata) – Ditto.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – One near Aguas Verdes.
PURPLE HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes caeruleus) – Fairly common on the lower slopes.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Seen by a few near Afluente.
CINEREOUS CONEBILL (Conirostrum cinereum) – An interesting variety of habitats, from the arid coastal lowlands to the highlands around Cajamarca, but not in between.
CAPPED CONEBILL (Conirostrum albifrons) – A couple with the last gasp flock at Abra Patricia; there was not much time to get to know them!
TIT-LIKE DACNIS (Xenodacnis parina) – A localized specialty of treeline habitats that we saw in planted Polylepis west of Celendin.
BLACK-THROATED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa brunneiventris) – Daily and fairly common in the highlands around Celendin and Cajamarca.
WHITE-SIDED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa albilatera) – Seen along the trail above San Lorenzo and twice at Abra Patricia.
RUSTY FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa sittoides) – The best views were in the garden at Pomacochas; also seen below Abra Porcuya and at Hacienda Limon.
BLUISH FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa caerulescens) – Seen above San Lorenzo and at Abra Patricia.
MASKED FLOWERPIERCER (Diglossa cyanea) – Unusually scarce; seen above San Lorenzo.
PERUVIAN SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus punensis) – Lovely enough to be an honorary tanager! Great looks near Celendin.
MOURNING SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus fruticeti) – One of our last new birds, seen along the Rio Chonta above Cajamarca. Near the northern limits of its long range.
PLUMBEOUS SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus unicolor) – Several in the high-elevation pastures of Abra Gran Chimu.
ASH-BREASTED SIERRA-FINCH (Phrygilus plebejus) – In the same area, and again along the Rio Chonta.
CINEREOUS FINCH (Piezorhina cinerea) – Endemic to the deserts of the coastal plain, seen first at Batan Grande, and then better in a nice reprise around breakfast at Rafan. [E]
GRAY-WINGED INCA-FINCH (Incaspiza ortizi) – The rain-freshened slopes of Hacienda Limon supported several pairs at which we had good looks. It is considered "Vulnerable," with a population under 7,000. [E]
BUFF-BRIDLED INCA-FINCH (Incaspiza laeta) – Fairly common above Balsas, seen again above San Marcos. We twice had pairs carrying food and acting nervous, apparently already having young in this relatively green region. [EN]
LITTLE INCA-FINCH (Incaspiza watkinsi) – Near Bagua Grande, good views of birds perhaps also refreshed by recent rains, and relatively conspicuous in the dense desert growth. It is considered "Near Threatened." [E]
PLAIN-TAILED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza alticola) – We are starting to find this bird regularly now, although never with ease--good spotting by "Many-spotted" Sarah in the high country west of Celendin. It is classified as "Endangered" with a population under 1,700. [E]
COLLARED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza hispaniolensis) – In good numbers this year, seen well at the Lomas de Lachay, Chaparri, and Rafan.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – Common in open areas, often seen from the bus.
SULPHUR-THROATED FINCH (Sicalis taczanowskii) – A local bird in its small range in SW Ecuador and NW Peru. Chaparri remains the best place, and once again flocks were coming to drink at the lower end of flowing water in the quebrada--a couple hundred at least. Good views of a close few.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – Scattered small numbers.
BLACK-AND-WHITE SEEDEATER (Sporophila luctuosa) – Distant flocks of seedeaters leaving the pastures below Aguas Verdes at dawn were this species, but most did not have good looks as they departed.
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – Seen well in a rice field along the Rio Chamaya.
PARROT-BILLED SEEDEATER (Sporophila peruviana) – Unusually common at Chaparri, with several flocks up the canyon, this year apart from the Sulphur-throated Finches. Good views.
DRAB SEEDEATER (Sporophila simplex) – Everyone's favorite! Singing near Tamborapa and again near Bagua Grande.
CHESTNUT-THROATED SEEDEATER (Sporophila telasco) – First seen in the rice fields along the Rio Chamaya, and then good looks around breakfast in the Little Inca-Finch desert.

Buff-bridled Inca-Finch are one of the species restricted to the Maranon Valley. (Photo by participant Kevin Heffernan)

BAND-TAILED SEEDEATER (Catamenia analis) – First at the Lomas de Lachay, again in good numbers around Cajamarca.
PLAIN-COLORED SEEDEATER (Catamenia inornata) – Widespread from Celendin to Cajamarca.
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus) – Several sightings, but frustratingly quick near Tamborapa, and John saw it the next day near Bagua Grande. An isolated pocket of a widespread species.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Widespread on the Pacific slope, with further pockets in the Maranon drainage and on the wet east slope.
DULL-COLORED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris obscurus) – Competing to be everyone's favorite! A scattering in dry scrub near Tamborapa, Bagua Grande, Balsas, and above San Marcos.
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus immaculatus) – This unstreaked version was seen on the Pacific slope at Batan Grande and then heard at Rafan.
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus peruvianus) – The very streaked version of the Maranon drainage, common in the drier habitats throughout.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens) – Near Aguas Verdes.
BLACK-COWLED SALTATOR (Saltator nigriceps) – Good views below Abra Porculla. The Tumbesian representative of the Golden-billed Saltator, which occurs as close as Celendin and Cajamarca, where we saw them.
GOLDEN-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator aurantiirostris)
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – As with Grayish, a lowland species seen in the Amazonian foothills.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – Near Afluente. [*]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
BLACK-CAPPED SPARROW (Arremon abeillei abeillei) – Several furtive birds in Quebrada Frejolillo.
BLACK-CAPPED SPARROW (Arremon abeillei nigriceps) – This Maranon subspecies was seen by about a third of the group near Tamborapa.
GRAY-BROWED BRUSH-FINCH (Arremon assimilis) – At our feet, but furtive and hard to see in the dense brush above Celendin. Stripe-headed Brush-Finch was split into five species after a series of excellent papers by C. D. Cadena; Gray-browed is widespread from central Colombia to northern Peru.
YELLOW-BREASTED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes latinuchus latinuchus) – The nominate form was seen above San Lorenzo and near Owlet Lodge.
YELLOW-BREASTED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes latinuchus baroni) – This subspecies was seen above Celendin on two days. It is visually distinctive, but genetically similar to the nominate Yellow-breasted, and further splits in the former "Rufous-naped" Brush-Finch seem unlikely.
RUFOUS-EARED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes rufigenis) – We again found it near Celendin, a range extension by participant Dave Pearson several years ago. They stayed upslope, but in the open, with some telescope views. [E]
WHITE-WINGED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes leucopterus) – Fairly common below Abra Porculla.
WHITE-HEADED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes albiceps) – Seen first at Chaparri, and again in Quebrada Frejolillo, where fairly common; a Tumbesian specialty.
BAY-CROWNED BRUSH-FINCH (Atlapetes seebohmi) – Another Tumbesian brush-finch, often tough, but seen several times this year below Abra Porculla.
TUMBES SPARROW (Rhynchospiza stolzmanni) – Good views at Chaparri, heard again near camp at Quebrada Frejolillo/Limon.
YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW (Ammodramus aurifrons) – Brian had one in a cleared area at Garcia, as high up the slope as they get, and we all saw a singing bird near Aguas Verdes.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Common at upper elevations.
COMMON BUSH-TANAGER (NORTHERN ANDES) (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus hiaticolus) – Usually common around Owlet Lodge, we saw and heard only a few. "Bush-tanagers," which are not "tanagers," are being re-named using the generic name, Chlorospingus. From a genetic study (Weir et al., MPE 2007), this subspecies clumps with the flavopectus group of Colombia and Ecuador; expect splits in this widespread species.
YELLOW-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus flavigularis) – A species that has become scarce with forest fragmentation along the road, and we miss on some trips, was seen twice in 2013 near Afluente.
ASHY-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER (Chlorospingus canigularis) – One briefly with a flock above Afluente.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)

Participant Kevin Heffernan scored this excellent photo of a Collared Inca at the feeding station at the Owlet Lodge.

HEPATIC TANAGER (HIGHLAND) (Piranga flava lutea) – Widespread in dry woodland, in small numbers. Hepatic Tanager could be split into three species, this being the "Highland" form of the Andes.
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – Three on the east slope, fewer wintering birds than normal. P. r. rubra [b]
WHITE-WINGED TANAGER (Piranga leucoptera) – Several with a flock near Afluente.
GOLDEN-BELLIED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus chrysogaster) – This stunning bird was common in arid areas throughout the tour route, starting around Chaparri. As split from Yellow Grosbeak of Mexico and Central America.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
PERUVIAN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella bellicosa) – Widespread in pastures and fields. a.k.a. Peruvian Red-breasted Meadowlark.
SCRUB BLACKBIRD (Dives warszewiczi) – Small numbers daily on the Pacific slope. D. w. warszewiczi.
ORIOLE BLACKBIRD (Gymnomystax mexicanus) – Brian spotted one in the rice fields along the Rio Utcubamba.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – Seen on the Pacific slope, and also in the Maranon, where M. b. occidentalis from the Pacific side has been expanding its range.
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – A few in flight over the lower east slope.
WHITE-EDGED ORIOLE (Icterus graceannae) – A Tumbesian specialty, seen at several spots on the Pacific side, starting at Chaparri.
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – One in Quebrada Frejolillo, with good looks at two more in our camp at Balsas.
MOUNTAIN CACIQUE (GOLDEN-SHOULDERED) (Cacicus chrysonotus peruvianus) – One in flight below Abra Patricia.
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus uropygialis) – A good showing this year, as we had good views of two flocks above Afluente.
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – A widespread bird of Amazonia, seen several times on the lower slopes.
RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius angustifrons) – Seen regularly on the lower east slope.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – A couple on the east slope.
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – Scattered in the dry country of the Maranon drainage.
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris) – Ray found it in Quebrada Frejolillo, and we had a nesting pair in a pasture near Afluente.
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala) – Great views of this exquisite bird in the Great Spinetail quebrada. As split from Blue-hooded Euphonia.
BRONZE-GREEN EUPHONIA (Euphonia mesochrysa) – A couple near Aguas Verdes.
WHITE-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia minuta) – A lowland bird we don't usually see; one male near Aguas Verdes.
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – The most common euphonia on the east slope.
LESSER GOLDFINCH (Spinus psaltria) – Near the southern limit of its long range; seen on both visits to Hacienda Limon.
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus) – Scattered in small numbers.
OLIVACEOUS SISKIN (Spinus olivaceus) – A few at Afluente, below the level of Hooded.
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)

We arrived at our campsite in Balsas on a lovely evening, the setting sun lighting up the clouds as the Rio Maranon, barely visible in this photograph, flowed quietly (but strongly) through this immense valley. (Photo by guide Richard Webster)

HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) – Scattered in lowland towns like Jaen and Bagua Grande. [I]

GUAYAQUIL SQUIRREL (Sciurus stramineus) – Good views of this attractive squirrel at Batan Grande and Quebrada Frejolillo.
SECHURAN FOX (Pseudalopex sechurae) – Easily seen at Chaparri, where they are not persecuted; also seen at Quebrada Limon.
TAYRA (Eira barbara) – One or two daily at Owlet Lodge, where they are becoming tamer and tamer, eating bananas and drinking hummingbird syrup.
COLLARED PECCARY (Tayassu tajacu) – At Chaparri, where perhaps becoming more regular, but still a scarce sighting on this tour.
WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoileus virginianus) – Several sightings (more than normal--they are not like they are around many of our homes), the best views coming at Chaparri.


There were, of course, many other critters, including:


several smaller lizard species, probably including Dicrodon guttulatum in the coastal deserts (Blue-headed Whiptail) and Microlophus (Tropidurus) koepckeorum above Balsas in the Maranon Valley (Koepcke's Curly-tailed Lizard)

Bat sp. several times

Cicadas and more cicadas

Millipedes and more millipedes

That fascinating Tarantula Hawk/Pepsis Wasp with its spider prey

That less fascinating tarantula that was in someone's shower!

An impressive selection of moths attracted by the lights at Owlet Lodge

Morphos repeatedly, and a moderate selection of other lovely butterflies

white-winged grasshoppers at Aguas Verdes

Totals for the tour: 502 bird taxa and 5 mammal taxa