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Field Guides Tour Report
Newfoundland & Nova Scotia 2013
Jun 28, 2013 to Jul 8, 2013
Chris Benesh & Lena Senko

The sight of thousands upon thousands of breeding Northern Gannets at Cape St. Mary’s was quite the mind-boggling and unforgettable experience! (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

This year’s Newfoundland and Nova Scotia tour was a wonderful adventure indeed! There were a few challenges to endure, such as a bus break-down, hungry blackflies, and humid heat, but we made it through those bumps in the road to collect big bundles of birds and memories to last a lifetime.

The first leg of our journey took us to Newfoundland, home of screech, cod tongues, and scrunchions. We delighted in the fresh seafood fare, as well as the visual feast of seabirds. Newfoundland’s tourism page boasts: “Newfoundland is one of the best places to see and appreciate nature in all its glory. Dramatic coastlines, sweeping barrens, thick boreal forests, ancient rock formations, teeming seabird colonies, tiny alpine blossoms, and rich marine life are all part of our diverse natural heritage.” Well, we did not leave a single stone of that description unturned!

Newfoundland’s plankton-rich waters attract around 40 million seabirds each year, and in the summer, almost every small island and cliff face is populated by a colony of ocean-loving nesters. Our first taste of seabird spectacles came on a boat tour in Witless Bay. The swarms of Atlantic Puffins, Common Murres, Razorbills, and Black-legged Kittiwakes flying to and from their island nests by the thousands sent our heads spinning. We were able to pick out a few Thick-billed Murres and Northern Fulmars on their nests, while enjoying close looks at several Humpback and Minke Whales. Later, at Cape St. Mary’s, we gawked at the spectacular sight of 50,000+ nesting Northern Gannets. The rocks were literally alive with birds perching, displaying, diving, and scrambling about on the ledges - a flurry of sights, sounds, and, uh, smells. We couldn’t have asked for a better gannet-viewing day, as the sun came out to shoo away the fog and brighten the scene for miles (quite a gift, since it’s foggy 8 out of 10 times on the cape). Before we left Newfoundland, we also picked up some nice northern land birds such as Fox Sparrow, Gray Jay, Pine Grosbeak, nesting American Pipits, and Horned Larks. We even found a rare vagrant Sandwich Tern! But I must say, the people of Newfoundland, with their sincere friendship, warmth, and humor, delighted us as much as the birds.

A fruitful ferry crossing to Nova Scotia yielded sightings of Manx, Great, and Sooty shearwaters, a couple of Long-tailed Jaegers, many Northern Fulmars, and both Leach’s and Wilson’s storm-petrels. Pods of Harbor Porpoises and White-beaked and Atlantic White-sided dolphins were certainly nice additions to our growing wildlife list! In Nova Scotia, our goal was to track down breeding warblers and other forest denizens. Winter Wrens and Hermit Thrushes serenaded us as we hiked through woods and found ourselves Mourning, Black-throated Blue, Bay-breasted, Blackburnian, and Blackpoll warblers (just to name a few). None will soon forget the extremely cooperative Black-backed Woodpecker near Liscombe Lodge (it even made one of your guides do a little dance :). We were all thrilled to watch this gorgeous woodpecker feeding, preening, and sitting up proudly in the open for us. On top of the great forest birding, a boat trip out of Pleasant Bay brought us remarkably close to several family pods of Long-finned Pilot Whales and a harem of shy but inquisitive Gray Seals. Whilst exploring Nova Scotia’s shoreline, we added the Acadian subspecies of Nelson’s Sparrow, the dainty, endangered Piping Plover, and even an unexpected Laughing Gull. Everything from the scenery, birds, lobster rolls, butterflies, and bog plants made for one fine trip to the Maritimes!

We are grateful to our devoted driver, Fred, who saw us through with his friendship and caring. We are also thankful to Catherine & Paul Barrett for kindly inviting us to their home and showing us their yard’s feeders. Finally, Chris and I thank all of you for making this trip so fun and memorable. We really enjoyed birding with you and wish you well on your adventures ahead!

-- Lena

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)

Atlantic Puffins never fail to make any birder smile. This species was voted #1 favorite of the trip! (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

CANADA GOOSE (Branta canadensis)
MALLARD (Anas platyrhynchos)
NORTHERN PINTAIL (Anas acuta) – A charming family group of mom and teen pintails dabbled close to shore at a lovely lake bordered by blue flags.
RING-NECKED DUCK (Aythya collaris)
COMMON EIDER (ATLANTIC) (Somateria mollissima dresseri)
SURF SCOTER (Melanitta perspicillata)
WHITE-WINGED SCOTER (NORTH AMERICAN) (Melanitta fusca deglandi)
COMMON MERGANSER (Mergus merganser)
Phasianidae (Pheasants, Grouse, and Allies)
RING-NECKED PHEASANT (Phasianus colchicus) – Two males beside the road on our last day were quite the pleasant surprise! [I]
RUFFED GROUSE (Bonasa umbellus) – We were lucky to see both gray and rufous-form mothers with chicks, often as they flushed in front of our bus and ran across the road.
Gaviidae (Loons)
COMMON LOON (Gavia immer)
Procellariidae (Shearwaters and Petrels)
NORTHERN FULMAR (Fulmarus glacialis) – It was a treat to see three breeding pairs nesting on the cliff faces of Gull Island in Witless Bay. We saw a great deal more on our ferry trip. This bird is sometimes referred to as the “bread loaf with wings” due to its stocky body, thick neck, and wings and tail that are more rounded than gulls’. [N]
GREAT SHEARWATER (Puffinus gravis) – Joanna was skippin’ and a hoppin’ over this one, which was a sought-after lifer she happened to get on her birthday. A distinctive shearwater, it is identified by its large size, dark upperparts, mostly white underparts, and diagnostic blackish-brown cap. Also, this bird has the typically "shearing" flight of its genus, rarely flapping, and dipping from side to side on stiff, straight wings that nearly skim the surface of the water.

Our eyes feasted on many picturesque landscapes, including this colorful seaside scene at Bay Bulls, Newfoundland. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

SOOTY SHEARWATER (Puffinus griseus)
MANX SHEARWATER (Puffinus puffinus) – Compared to the Great Shearwater, this species is smaller and darker above, and it flaps its wings more frequently in flight.
Hydrobatidae (Storm-Petrels)
WILSON'S STORM-PETREL (Oceanites oceanicus) – We saw a group of more than a dozen from the boat on our whale-watching trip in Pleasant Bay. Frustrating for some due to their small size and distance from the boat. When feeding on the water’s surface, Wilson’s Storm-Petrels appear to ‘jump’ as they repeatedly dip their long legs into the water. This species has unique yellow webbing between its black toes, which is thought to attract prey. This is not a useful field mark, however, as it is rarely seen (unless the bird happens to be extremely close or is held in the hand).
LEACH'S STORM-PETREL (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) – Extremely abundant when we were crossing the Cabot Strait on the ferry but proved extremely difficult to get on due to their minute size, quick speed, and distance. The few that approached the boat briefly were a rare treat!
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)

A mama Northern Gannet and her precious baby at Cape St. Mary’s. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

NORTHERN GANNET (Morus bassanus) – Who could ever forget the spectacle at Cape St. Mary’s, which is home to over 50,000 gannets?! The colony we saw happens to be the southernmost and third largest colony of Northern Gannets in North America. We also loved the plunge-diving show the gannets put on for us near our lunch spot at The Rusty Anchor. Voted as one of the most favorite birds of the tour… understandably so! [N]
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax auritus)
GREAT CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax carbo) – Some seen perching on the rocks near the gannet colony at Cape St. Mary’s; a couple more were viewed from the ferry as it approached the Nova Scotia shoreline. Compared to this species, the adult Double-crested is smaller and slimmer. The Double-crested also has orange facial skin unlike the Great, which has a yellow chin-patch that is bordered by white.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias)
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
NORTHERN HARRIER (Circus cyaneus) – A couple seen sweeping over the vast, boggy barrens on our way to and from Cape St. Mary’s.
BALD EAGLE (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – A couple flew by the bus on the last day, offering only quick glimpses to some. This species’ piercing, double-whistle call was also heard while we were woodland birding.
RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)

We couldn’t believe how lucky we were to see Long-finned Pilot Whales so up-close and personal out of Pleasant Bay, Nova Scotia. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

PIPING PLOVER (Charadrius melodus) – Sadly, all populations of this pale shorebird are either endangered or threatened due to human disturbance. We trekked out onto the open beach on a super hot day to find it and were fortunate to get great scope looks at one foraging near the water’s edge. Seeing this rare, special bird was well worth the sweatiness!
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – A common little sandpiper in Newfoundland.
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca)
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata) – On our last day, we encountered a protective mother who insistently complained and warned us to keep our distance with her loud cries, likely because she had a nest nearby.
WILSON'S SNIPE (Gallinago delicata) – Great spotting by Rusty, who picked one out as it flew over our heads near Signal Hill.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE (Rissa tridactyla) [N]
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla) – We saw this out-of-place straggler among the hundreds of Ring-billed, Herring, and Great Black-backed Gulls on our way to Cape St. Mary’s.

This vagrant Sandwich Tern took us all by surprise. It is only the 5th-ever record for Newfoundland! (Photo by guide Chris Benesh)

RING-BILLED GULL (Larus delawarensis)
HERRING GULL (AMERICAN) (Larus argentatus smithsonianus)
COMMON TERN (Sterna hirundo)
ARCTIC TERN (Sterna paradisaea) – Renowned for the longest yearly migration of any bird on Earth (25,000 miles!). It is told from the similar Common Tern, with which we had many nice comparisons, by having darker gray underparts, an entirely dark red bill, very little black in the primaries, and a longer tail. [N]
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis) – The one at Renews took us all by surprise! This species is only the 5th record ever for Newfoundland. It is quite the exceptional rarity, especially since the bird's field marks (thin, long, and drooping bill as well as the hook-shaped primary tips) suggest that this individual may be a vagrant from the Old World rather than from North America. An exciting possibility, though more scrutiny is needed to nail this bird’s ID down for sure.
Stercorariidae (Skuas and Jaegers)
PARASITIC JAEGER (Stercorarius parasiticus) – One distant bird seen by some from the ferry.
LONG-TAILED JAEGER (Stercorarius longicaudus) – A couple of young birds flew past our ferry’s windows at the end of dinner, making for an exciting treat!
Alcidae (Auks, Murres, and Puffins)

On this trip, we had excellent comparisons of Common Murres with Thick-billeds (the bird preening in the background). (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

COMMON MURRE (Uria aalge) [N]
THICK-BILLED MURRE (Uria lomvia) – We had good looks at one wedged between a bunch of Common Murres in Witless Bay, and we saw several more at Cape St. Mary’s. In fact, Cape St. Mary's is the southernmost breeding area for Thick-billed Murres in the world! Told apart from the similar-looking Common Murre by the shorter bill and prominently pale tomium (cutting edge of the bill), as well as its dark black upperparts (Common is a dusky chocolate all over). [N]
RAZORBILL (Alca torda) – Such stately alcids! [N]
BLACK GUILLEMOT (Cepphus grylle)
ATLANTIC PUFFIN (Fratercula arctica) – Voted #1 most favorite bird of the tour. It’s easy to see why… their colorful, clown-like appearance and habits are nothing short of endearing. We saw seemingly endless numbers of puffins in and around their burrows on the islands of Witless Bay, which happens to be home to the largest colony of puffins in the world… over 300,000! [N]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
MOURNING DOVE (Zenaida macroura) – Amazingly enough, we saw one flying out in the middle of the ocean in Cabot Strait. It landed on our ferry boat’s railing for a brief rest before taking off again. This dove’s endurance was impressive!
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Archilochus colubris)
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
BELTED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle alcyon)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
DOWNY WOODPECKER (Picoides pubescens)
HAIRY WOODPECKER (Picoides villosus)
BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER (Picoides arcticus) – Voted the second most favorite bird of the tour! This gorgeous woodpecker was kind enough to come into the open for us on a trail near Liscombe Lodge. It stayed for a while, giving us simply sensational looks. A lifer for many - including one of the guides!

Voted #2 favorite bird of the trip, this Black-backed Woodpecker put on quite the show for us near our hotel in Nova Scotia! (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

NORTHERN FLICKER (Colaptes auratus) [N]
PILEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus pileatus) – One of driver Fred’s most favorite birds. We watched a couple of pileateds as they fed, called, and flew overhead on the Waternish to Glenelg Road.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
MERLIN (Falco columbarius) – A brief but unmistakable fly-by bird was seen from the bus on the first day.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
EASTERN WOOD-PEWEE (Contopus virens)
YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax flaviventris) – With its distinctive yellow underparts, this is perhaps the easiest eastern Empidonax to identify. Its habitat requirements - boreal forests and bogs - are unique, too.
ALDER FLYCATCHER (Empidonax alnorum)
LEAST FLYCATCHER (Empidonax minimus)
EASTERN KINGBIRD (Tyrannus tyrannus)
Vireonidae (Vireos)
BLUE-HEADED VIREO (Vireo solitarius)
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
GRAY JAY (Perisoreus canadensis) – It was great to see an adult with a couple of juveniles at La Manche Provincial Park.
BLUE JAY (Cyanocitta cristata)
AMERICAN CROW (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
COMMON RAVEN (Corvus corax)
Alaudidae (Larks)

In spite of some logistical bumps along the way, such as having to tour around in a school bus for most of the trip, we made it through with an excellent species count and many fun memories! We couldn’t have asked for a more jovial group of people who were so cheerful and understanding in the face of our unexpected transportation obstacle :). (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

HORNED LARK (Eremophila alpestris) – A couple sang and perched up for us in the fog when we were passing through the extensive Eastern Hyper-Oceanic Barrens ecoregion on our way to the Cape Race Lighthouse. This ecosystem is characterized by flat to rolling, open country with very cool summers, mild winters, and frequent fog. The barrens are treeless aside from tuckamore (a Newfoundland term for the stunted Balsam Firs that grow in such alpine areas along the coast).
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
TREE SWALLOW (Tachycineta bicolor)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
Paridae (Chickadees and Tits)
BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE (Poecile atricapillus)
BOREAL CHICKADEE (Poecile hudsonicus) – This lively chickadee sports a brown cap, brown back, and rufous flanks. Its calls are much slower and scratcher than the Black-capped Chickadee’s.
Sittidae (Nuthatches)
RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH (Sitta canadensis)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
WINTER WREN (Troglodytes hiemalis hiemalis) – What a phenomenal songster! We had excellent scope views of this amazing, little wren in the forest near Liscombe Lodge.
Regulidae (Kinglets)

We saw several Ruffed Grouse families on our drives in the Maritimes. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET (Regulus calendula)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus)
HERMIT THRUSH (Catharus guttatus)
AMERICAN ROBIN (Turdus migratorius)
Sturnidae (Starlings)
EUROPEAN STARLING (Sturnus vulgaris) [I]
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
AMERICAN PIPIT (Anthus rubescens) – Watching the pipits perform their flight displays was a memorable treat.
Bombycillidae (Waxwings)
CEDAR WAXWING (Bombycilla cedrorum)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
OVENBIRD (Seiurus aurocapilla)
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis) – Posed for us a few time at Bidgood. The flank and eyebrow color always match in the Northern whereas Louisiana may have creamy flanks but always a white eyebrow.
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina) – Chris wowed us all when he heard the one bird from a crack in the window of our fairly loud schoolbus. Fred quickly pulled over, and we enjoyed nice looks at the Tennessee singing his heart out from atop a spruce in someone’s yard.
NASHVILLE WARBLER (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia) – Such a beautiful warbler… certainly a highlight for several on this trip. Though this species usually prefers to remain hidden in low, thick vegetation, we had good looks at both a male and female on separate days along the Waternish to Glenelg Road.

On this trip, we learned just how hardy the little Savannah Sparrow is! It was the most numerous and frequently-encountered sparrow species, inhabiting even the most desolate of landscapes. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

COMMON YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis trichas)
AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla)
NORTHERN PARULA (Setophaga americana)
MAGNOLIA WARBLER (Setophaga magnolia)
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea)
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – Cher spotted a nice female for the group at Dollar Lake Provincial Park on our last day.
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)
BLACKPOLL WARBLER (Setophaga striata) – One seen carrying food by Rusty at La Manche Provincial Park. Later, one pretty male showed himself briefly at Taylor’s Head Provincial Park for most of us. [N]
BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER (Setophaga caerulescens) – Thanks to the helpful efforts of Joanna and Gayle, we were able to finally get this colorful fellow.
PALM WARBLER (YELLOW) (Setophaga palmarum hypochrysea)
YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER (Setophaga coronata)
BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER (Setophaga virens) – Great scope looks at a couple singing from the tops of the firs at La Manche Provincial Park.
WILSON'S WARBLER (Cardellina pusilla)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
SAVANNAH SPARROW (Passerculus sandwichensis) – We all marveled at the hardiness of this common sparrow, which made its home on harsh barrens that are almost perpetually drenched in sea-fog.
NELSON'S SPARROW (ATLANTIC COAST) (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus) – This secretive sparrow of brackish marshes perched up for us nicely at the Morien Bar beach.
FOX SPARROW (RED) (Passerella iliaca iliaca)
SONG SPARROW (Melospiza melodia)
LINCOLN'S SPARROW (Melospiza lincolnii) – We had several lively, singing individuals on the road to Meat Cove.

There’s something very endearing about the little, challenging Empidonax flycatchers, like this Yellow-bellied. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

SWAMP SPARROW (Melospiza georgiana) – Several showed themselves nicely at the marshy area in the Bidgood Reserve.
WHITE-THROATED SPARROW (Zonotrichia albicollis)
DARK-EYED JUNCO (SLATE-COLORED) (Junco hyemalis hyemalis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus ludovicianus)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD (Agelaius phoeniceus)
COMMON GRACKLE (Quiscalus quiscula)
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PINE GROSBEAK (Pinicola enucleator) – We picked up a road-killed young male (with orange plumage) by the side of the road and gave it a proper burial later on at a peaceful lake. Fortunately, we also saw several live ones either fly-overs or at feeders.
PURPLE FINCH (Haemorhous purpureus)
RED CROSSBILL (Loxia curvirostra) – Only heard and seen as fly-overs on this trip.
PINE SISKIN (Spinus pinus)

Your two happy guides standing at the most easterly point in North America, where we saw Great Shearwaters, Black Guillemots, and American Pipits, to name a few. (Photo by Lena Senko)

EVENING GROSBEAK (Coccothraustes vespertinus) – Liscombe Lodge treated us to very close views of these colorful grosbeaks at the feeders while we awaited dinner. This species has been sharply declining since the 80s. Reasons for the decline are uncertain but could be due to a number of factors, including exploitation of “tar sands,” which has led to an enormous loss of Canadian forest habitat.
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]

SNOWSHOE HARE (Lepus americanus)
RED SQUIRREL (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
MEADOW VOLE (Microtus pennsylvanicus) – Ran across the road at random points throughout the tour.
WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) – Some nice pods showed themselves alongside the ferry. The White-beaked Dolphin is usually larger than the Atlantic White-sided and lacks the diagnostic yellowish streaks on its side.
ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED DOLPHIN (Lagenorhynchus acutus) – A few were briefly seen off the ferry early in the morning by the early risers.
LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALE (Globicephala melas) – Not actually a whale but a dolphin. We saw a stunning show of more than 18 individuals, in several family pods, on our whale-watching trip in Pleasant Bay.
HARBOR PORPOISE (Phocoena phocoena) – A pod of half a dozen or so were seen off the ferry.
COMMON MINKE WHALE (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) – The ‘blow’ of a minke whale is rarely seen, though it is easily smelled if upwind of observers, giving this species the nickname “stinky minke”. It is rare to see one breaching, but we were lucky enough to see one breach on our boat trip in Witless Bay.
HUMPBACK WHALE (Megaptera novaeangliae) – Excellent looks at a mother and her calf swimming below the cliffs of thousands of nesting gannets at Cape St. Mary’s. Awesome!

Mammals are not very easy to see or get close to, so when one does encounter them like this in the wild, it is an exceptional treat! (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

RED FOX (Vulpes vulpes) – One sat up quite cooperatively for us near its den at Morien Bar.
SHORT-TAILED WEASEL (STOAT) (Mustela erminea) – A family group of about six bounded across the road in front of our bus on our way up to Signal Hill on the second day. Their slim, hot dog-like bodies and frisky manners were quite amusing.
HARBOR SEAL (Phoca vitulina)
GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus) – We saw a male and his large harem of females on the whale–watching trip out of Pleasant Bay.
WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoileus virginianus)


Other wildlife seen on this tour included (but was not limited to) the following:

INSECTS: Short-tailed Swallowtail (Papilio brevicauda) Common Ringlet (Coenonympha tullia) Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis)

Northern Crescent (Phyciodes selenis) White Admiral (Limenitis arthemis arthemis) Phantom Crane Fly (Family Ptychopteridae) Hudsonian Whiteface (dragonfly) (Leucorrhinia hudsonica) TREES: American Mountain Ash (Sorbus Americana) Larch or Tamarack (Larix laricina) White Pine (Pinus strobus) Douglas Fir (Abies balsamea) Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum) Speckled Alder (Alnus incana) Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Mountain White Birch (Betula cordifolia) Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

SHRUBS AND WILDFLOWERS: Three-toothed Cinquefoil (Sibbaldiopsis tridentate) Labrador Tea (Ledum groenlandicum) Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia is a genus comprising 8 to 11 species of North American pitcher plants) Tall White Bog Orchid a.k.a. Bog Candle (Platanthera dilatata) OTHER: Black Slug (Arion ater) – also known as black arion, European black slug, or large black slug. An invasive species from Northern Europe, it is extremely destructive to gardens, and its slime is foul-tasting to many predators.

Totals for the tour: 120 bird taxa and 14 mammal taxa