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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil Nutshell: Intervales, Iguazu Falls & the Pantanal 2013
Mar 2, 2013 to Mar 16, 2013
Marcelo Padua & John Coons

Though all the Royal Flycatcher subspecies are currently treated as a single species, this form is sometimes split out as Atlantic Royal Flycatcher, endemic to SE Brazil. Split or lumped, it's a wonderful bird! (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

There are few places that have more specialty birds in a limited area than southern Brazil, and we saw a bunch of these specialties during our visit to three distinct areas. At all of our sites it was so great to essentially be staying right where we were birding. Intervales State Park is one of the birdiest forests I have visited and to be seeing great birds, including owls, right outside our rooms was tremendous. At Iguazu, we were in wonderful forest with short drives on the Argentina side, while on the Brazil side we were only a stone's throw from what is, perhaps, the most spectacular set of falls in the world. And in the Pantanal we watched curassows, guans, Jabirus, and parrots at the feeders from the grounds of our two lodges. Though it was technically the wet season, when there is much bird activity, we were fortunate with the weather, although the humidity could have held off until later in the morning on some of the days for my taste. The wet year turned the Pantanal into a wonderfully birdy place which made driving very far along the road without stopping quite difficult.

From our first day to our last morning we saw great birds. Some of the highlights included nice looks at the Undulated Tinamou at Rio Claro, those Bare-faced Curassows walking around the lodge, huge Jabirus, our wonderful experience with the rarely seen Stripe-backed Bittern, the odd looking Red-legged Seriemas, all those close Nanday Parakeets, fabulous looks at magnificent Hyacinth Macaws everyday in the Pantanal, Rusty-barred Owl from the steps of our lodge, a Great Potoo just overhead, and many hummingbirds, with a scope view of Plovercrest being upstaged by the fabulous Frilled Coquette at Piuval. Plus great views of trogons, Spot-billed Toucanets, many beautiful woodpeckers, from the tiny Ochre-collared Piculet to the large Helmeted Woodpecker, a giant Giant Antshrike, wonderful views of Rufous and Black-cheeked gnateaters, a displaying Streamer-tailed Tyrant, colorful Band-tailed Manakins, kleptomaniac Plush-crested Jays, multitudes of tanagers, and Scarlet-headed Blackbirds adding color to the marsh.

Marcelo certainly took very good care of us in his homeland, knowing every birding spot, restaurant, and chip note. No one can say that we went hungry with the array of various Brazilian dishes available everyday. I'm still wishing I had taken it easier on the desserts. Overall, it was a great experience and so nice to travel with all of you and I look forward to the next time.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – Several groups of these large and strange birds were seen in the Pantanal.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – Bill saw one cross the road at Intervales and we heard a couple of others.
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – We ended up with surprisingly good views of a quite responsive individual while at Rio Claro.
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) [*]
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – Good views of a handful of these unusual birds in the Pantanal.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – We saw several but the most memorable was the one in the mouth of a large caiman as its mate was feigning a broken wing nearby.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis) – These were quite common around the lodges in the Pantanal where they greeted us each morning with loud enthusiasm.
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris) – We saw three of these moving through the trees near Iguazu.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster) – Several were encountered in the Pantanal where they were mostly seen near the lodges.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – A few of these were walking around the lodge at Rio Claro including one that was in the courtyard early one morning. It seems incongruous to see these usually shy birds in this setting.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [*]
Ciconiidae (Storks)

Typical of the small bitterns, the Stripe-backed Bittern can be a tough bird to see, but we had some exceptional views of this one during the boat trip at Piuval! (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – We saw a number of these giants in the Pantanal.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
ZIGZAG HERON (Zebrilus undulatus) – We went fishing for one on our boat trip at Piuval and had one calling from a dense patch of vegetation. After some effort a few of us saw it fly out and duck into a thicker stand of reeds.
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis)
STRIPE-BACKED BITTERN (Ixobrychus involucris) – Marcelo heard one calling on the boat trip at Piuval. We got closer and positioned the two boats and had this rarely seen species flush and land on top of some reeds where we enjoyed a great look for a few minutes before it flew again.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens) – These large ibis with a serrated bill showed well on our last few days in the Pantanal.
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – Jane spotted one from the plane as we landed in Sao Paulo after leaving Cuiaba. A few of us on the left side of the plane saw it hovering over the grassy median.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – The scene of several hundred individuals going to roost at dusk in the Pantanal was one of the memorable sights of the trip.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – We even saw one grab a fish that was thrown by one of our boatmen.

Even if there weren't any birds there, the spectacular Iguazu Falls would still be a highlight of the trip. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis)
GREAT BLACK-HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Buteo magnirostris)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Buteo albicaudatus) – We had nice looks at a perched bird along the highway on our return to Sao Paulo.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – One was perched on the radio tower in Poconé.
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus)
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – We had good views at the Piuval Lodge of a few pairs in the pasture.
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajanea)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Two birds were hanging out around the same low spot in the road each time we passed at Intervales. [E]
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Porzana albicollis) [*]
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris) – We saw a couple of these uncommonly seen birds in the Pantanal.
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) [*]
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – We saw two of these handsome birds on our last morning in the Pantanal.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)

One of the many wonderful things about Intervales is that you can see birds like this Rusty-barred Owl right outside the cabins! (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex) – Several were seen but the one perched on the power line in the Pantanal seemed odd.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – These ended up being fairly commonly seen in the Pantanal.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
VIOLACEOUS QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon violacea) – Tom flushed one in the forest on the Brazil side of Iguazu Falls.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
NANDAY PARAKEET (Nandayus nenday) – Many of these came into the feeders at the Rio Claro Lodge.
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – It was great to see these where they belong.
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Aratinga acuticaudata)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – We had a couple of these in the scope on our last morning in the Pantanal.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – One of the most spectacular parrots in the world, we saw these well on a daily basis in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – After hearing many flocks passing over we finally got a group in the scopes for a good view at Intervales. [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – We chased this quite uncommon species around at Intervales. It sat up briefly a couple of times but never gave us a satisfying look.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – These were quite common in the Pantanal and, to me, resembled small hoatzins with there odd coloration and shape.

This fabulous male Frilled Coquette was a wonderful surprise out in the Pantanal. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – We saw a gray and rufous morph huddled together upon our arrival at Intervales.
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) [E*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We ended up seeing a couple of these widespread owls in the Pantanal.
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – There were two along the roadside median just after we passed the customs station on our way to Argentina.
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) [*]
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – Great looks at this wonderful species just outside our rooms at Intervales.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – We saw hundreds of these right at dusk as they flew over the lagoon and river on our boat trip at Rio Claro.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – Great views of one at Piuval that flew in across the meadow and eventually perched on a dead tree right above us.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Great views of one on a power pole at Intervales, then we had another individual while on our evening boat trip on the Rio Claro.
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – We never saw them close but we encountered two immense flocks of these high overhead at Iguazu Falls. There were thousands in one group. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – A few were coing to the feeders that we visited in Argentina. [E]
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – A handful were encountered at Intervales.
CINNAMON-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis nattereri) – This was the hermit that gave us a brief look when we were otherwise distracted by the Frilled Coquette in the Pantanal. Unfortunately we could not lure it in again.
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei) – Our only one was visiting the feeders at the Hummingbird Garden.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) [E]
WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus guainumbi) – Nice views of a few in the Pantanal.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – Stunning views of this highly colored tiny hummingbird that was a surprise to find in the Pantanal. It perched well for us for a few minutes.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon aureoventris)
PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) – Nice scope views of a young male at a lek at Intervales. The adult males had not yet set up to attract the females. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – We ended up seeing a handful during the trip. Another impressive hummingbird.

A female Spot-billed Toucanet gazes down from the canopy at Intervales. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris)
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
GLITTERING-THROATED EMERALD (Amazilia fimbriata) – These were rather common in the Pantanal.
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – Many were visiting the feeders at the Hummingbird Garden.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – These were a near daily sight in the Pantanal.
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – This red-bellied trogon gave us several good views in the forested areas of Intervales and Iguazu. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – I think the males of this species are one of the prettiest of the trogons.
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) [*]
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – This and the following species were plentiful in the Pantanal.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) [E*]
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – Good views of two individuals along the road at Intervales.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – We finally got nice looks at these at Piuval.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – A quite spectacular looking bird we saw a pair of these on successive days at Intervales. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – These were quite common at Iguazu.
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Piculets are, for the most part, a rather homogeneous group, but the lovely Ochre-collared Piculet is one of the exceptions to the rule, being a very distinctive little bird. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – We saw a handful but we really enjoyed great close views of this tiny woodpecker at the clearing at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus)
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – A sharply marked woodpecker, we saw a handful right around the lodge at Intervales.
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus) – Good views of another small woodpecker in the Pantanal.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris)
PALE-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus lugubris) – Great looks at a very handsome woodpecker.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – We had an awesome view of this great looking woodpecker at Intervales. [E]
HELMETED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus galeatus) – After hearing this quite rare woodpecker in the forest at Intervales, we ended up spotting it on a trunk of a large tree and got great scope views. Yip! Yip! Yip! [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus lineatus) – This is the subspecies with the white on the back that we saw in the Pantanal.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus erythrops) – This subspecies is the dark-backed form we saw at Iguazu. Some taxonomists have split this form and it has been called "Black-mantled Woodpecker."
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – A last minute save, we had a great views of three individuals along the Poco Preto Trail. [E]
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – We had a calling and perched bird at Intervales. [E]
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – One of the three birds we were following ended up sitting out quite nicely for us while on the boat trip at Piuval.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – These birds and their nests were seen everyday of the trip.
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – It was a surprise to see a pair of these in the clearing at Intervales where we learned they have just become established due to the planting of the araucaria pines.
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – This Atlantic forest endemic showed well for us at Intervales. [E]
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora)
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina) – Good close views of a pair on our boat trip at Piuval.
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) [E]

The Celeus woodpeckers are all pretty spectacular, but I do believe that gentlemen prefer Blonde-crested Woodpecker over its congeners. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons)
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula)
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa) – We encountered a few pairs of these in the Pantanal, especially near Rio Claro.
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) [*]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor lichtensteini) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – A very sharply marked species we enjoyed good views of one along the Poco Preto Trail. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – Always a great bird to see well, we had nice looks at a calling bird at Intervales.
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) – We saw our first just outside the dining room at Intervales. [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (PLAIN-WINGED) (Dendrocincla fuliginosa turdina) – Our only seen individual was along one of the trails on the Argentina side of the Falls. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus griseicapillus) – This form was found in the Pantanal region.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – These were the forms that we saw in the forested areas at Intervales and Iguazu. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus)
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris)
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) [E]
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – We saw these incredibly-billed birds at both lodges in the Pantanal.
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) [E]
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – We just could not get it into view. [E*]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – We enjoyed a brilliant view at Intervales , this is a much bigger bird than one expects.
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – We had a scope view of one that was fairly close to the ground. [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – Another specialty of the area. Intervales is one of the best places to see this species. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni)
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E*]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – Several were seen and many more were heard, especially at Intervales.
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula gularis) – This is a beautiful little antbird. [E]
LARGE-BILLED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus longirostris) – We had good views of a male after first spying a quite orange female along the edge of the lagoon in the Pantanal.
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) – We heard a number of these at Iguazu and finally got a pretty good view of this canopy dweller.
BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster) – This gallery forest species showed well for us in the Pantanal.

It was a nice surprise to find a pair of delightful Araucaria Tit-Spinetails in the newly-established araucaria plantations at Intervales, where we'd never seen this species previously. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga)
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura)
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata)
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria)
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – After hearing quite a few we ended up seeing this species a few times at Intervales. [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) – We had great close views of this species while on the boats at Piuval Lodge.
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa)
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona) – We worked quite a while trying to see this skulker but only a couple of us managed to get on to it.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – We did better with this species as most had a nice view of one walking on the florest floor at Intervales. [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata) – A great group of birds, we saw this species well at Intervales.
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – Great views of this one as well at Intervales.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – This took some effort but we managed to see this very shy species working along a cut bank then cross the road twice. This form is going to be split so stay tuned. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) [*]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) [E]
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – A couple were seen in the bamboo at Intervales.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – This was one of our earliest birds at Intervales.
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – We managed to get one of these specialties in the scope while we birded along the Poco Preto Trail at Iguazu. [E]
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – You knew this had to be an endemic. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti)
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – Nice views of one from the veranda of the lodge at Intervales. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – This fine bird took some work but we ended up seeing it perched on a branch through the scopes.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E]
STRIPE-NECKED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus striaticollis) – A great looking little flycatcher, we had nice views from our boats on the lagoon at Piuval Lodge.
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
RUSSET-WINGED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus leucoryphus) – We had great looks at this very local specialty. Marcelo heard one calling off the trail and we had to walk into the forest to find it. [E]
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) – We had nice views of a couple of these at Intervales. This subspecies is restricted to the Atlantic forest of Brazil and is split by some taxonomists.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) [*]
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – After some searching we found a cooperative individual near Intervales.
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) [E]
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – We saw one individual doing a display and showing the red crown patch.

For every difficult to identify Phylloscartes tyrannulet (and there are a bunch!), there is, fortunately, a distinctive, easy to identify flycatcher. This is one of the latter, a Streamer-tailed Tyrant. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) [*]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) [*]
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E*]
SIRYSTES (EASTERN) (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
RUFOUS CASIORNIS (Casiornis rufus)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) [*]
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius) – Several were seen but our first one was at the hotel in Sao Paulo.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Many of us had good but brief views of this sole member of its family.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Great close looks at this unusual bird on our first afternoon walk at Intervales.
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – Great views of one we found along the Poco Preto Trail at Iguazu.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides)
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – Not one of the most colorful manakins but the name lets you know it is a specialty. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) [E]
HELMETED MANAKIN (Antilophia galeata)
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – Great views of a few colorful males at Iguazu.
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
Vireonidae (Vireos)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis) – This is one of the more distinctively colored greenlets.
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – This bird was a long time coming for Jane.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas)
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – These were common and bold near the public areas at Iguazu Falls. One snatched Meredith's last bite right out of her hand.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus)
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – We had surprisingly good views of this skulker at Piuval.
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola) – It seemed like every flock we encountered in the Pantanal had a pair of these.
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – The national bird of Brazil and another species we saw daily.

This stunning male Guira Tanager was a favorite of many in the group. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveolus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblepharus) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) – Nice views on our first afternoon of one walking about, waterthrush like, in the road at Intervales.
Coerebidae (Bananaquit)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) [E]
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – These seemed to join all the Masked Gnatcatchers in the flocks in the Pantanal.
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – This turned out to be a group favorite.
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota)
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – The adults were a big hit along the trail at Iguazu. They do have dynamite colors. [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – We found this uncommon species in a couple of flocks at Intervales.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) [*]
Emberizidae (Buntings, Sparrows and Allies)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
TEMMINCK'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila falcirostris)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – These were quite conspicuous around the lodge clearing at Intervales.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Oryzoborus angolensis)
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata) – These were quite common in the Pantanal.

A very cooperative Crab-eating Fox in the Pantanal. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus)
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus) – Great views of this beauty in a marsh along the Trans-Pantanal Road.
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus)
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
BAY-WINGED COWBIRD (Agelaioides badius)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – We even saw one hanging out at a cacique colony.
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis)
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus)
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous) [*]
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – Bill saw one of these along the drive to Sao Paulo.
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) – Jane saw one out of her hotel window in Sao Paulo on our first morning. [I]

LESSER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio albiventris) – A number of these fishing bats were flying about just after dusk while we were on the boats in the Pantanal.
SILVERY MARMOSET (Callithrix argentata) – These cute little primates were scurrying through the trees at Piuval.
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – This was the species we heard at Intervales. [*]
BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya) – This is the widespread species that we heard in the distance while we were in the Pantanal. [*]
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)
GUINEA PIG (Cavia aperea)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
NEOTROPICAL OTTER (Lontra longicaudis) – Upon further investigation this was the species of otter that some of us saw along the boardwalk above Iguazu Falls.
COLLARED PECCARY (Tayassu tajacu)
MARSH DEER (Blastocerus dichotomus)
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana) – Meredith spotted a pair of these along the roadside. The hunting ban in the area certainly helps in seeing these shy deer.


Totals for the tour: 406 bird taxa and 15 mammal taxa