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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil Nutshell: Intervales, Iguazu Falls & the Pantanal 2014
Mar 8, 2014 to Mar 22, 2014
Marcelo Padua & Pepe Rojas

The walkway on the Brazilian side of Iguazu: our group enjoyed great looks at Great Dusky Swifts as they came in to roost behind the spectacular falls here. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

This is always a great tour, birding three of the most spectacular venues in Brazil, and this year was no different. We started off at Intervales, a state park that together with two others is responsible for the conservation of the largest remaining tracts of Atlantic forest. The birding was great even before we got to the park, with Streamer-tailed Tyrants, Black Hawk-Eagle, and Red-legged Seriemas seen on our way there. But once we reached the park the birding was simply incredible. Staked out Tropical Screech-Owl, Red-and-white Crake, Common Potoo, and Red-ruffed Fruitcrow were some of goodies our local guides had reserved for us, and as the days went by we came across a soon-to-be-split taxon of bristlefront as well as White-breasted Tapaculo, Black-fronted Piping-Guans, and myriad spinetails, foliage-gleaners, and tanagers that had our heads spinning for a few days.

We then headed to Iguazu Falls, where we found another Black-fronted Piping-Guan but this time with chicks. We also saw the beautiful Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher, the range-restricted Southern Bristle-Tyrant, and the endemic Uniform Finch along with many other goodies. But the true star of our visit was undoubtedly the falls in all of their splendor, with thousands of Great Dusky Swifts coming in to roost and a rare phenomenon that only occurs in clear, full-moon nights -- the silvery rainbows in the mist of the falls. I think we can all agree that this alone was worth the trip there.

Last but certainly not least we finished the tour in the Pantanal, where we woke up the first morning to hundreds of birds that ranged from whistling-ducks and Bare-faced Ibises to Jabirus, Greater Rheas, and Bare-faced Curassows. The birding was so good right at the lodge that we had a hard time getting away from the buildings on the first morning, but once we did we found such other great species as Band-tailed Antbirds, and Black-collared Hawks on a pleasant boat trip. Our remaining time in the Pantanal seemed to go by just a bit too quickly as we enjoyed good looks at Ruby Topaz Hummingbird, Zigzag and Boat-billed herons, and more woodpeckers than we could count. And as we sat there on the last night of the tour, I looked across the table and knew Pepe and I had ourselves become members of "Team Emerald!"

Thank you all for joining me and Pepe on this adventure. We look forward to birding with you again!


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – We had great looks at this bird, especially so on the first morning in the Pantanal when when had a nice adult male foraging just in front of our lodge.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – Great looks at these odd birds in the Pantanal
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – There were quite a few of them in the Pantanal
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – Abundant in the Pantanal at this time of the year. It was specially nice to see a pair of birds with hatchlings.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis) – This species is incredibly abundant in the Pantanal where its song is one of the most characteristic sounds in the air.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Seen Briefly at Intervales.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster) – This Pantanal specialty is quite common along the transpantaneira and we had repeated looks at it during our tour, but the ones at Piuval were particularly nice as the light was just perfect on them.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – A couple of individuals seen in the Pantanal

Black-fronted Piping-Guans are endangered and seeing one of them is always great, but this sighting was particuarly nice as this bird had chicks with it! (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – We could not have asked for better looks at these endangered Guans, first we saw them at Intervales foraging really close to us, then we had one of them with Chicks on the walkway to Devil's throat in Argentina. What a treat! [E]
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – Spectacular looks at these cracids in the Pantanal where they are quit habituated to the human presence. A nice sign of the preservation of the area as Curassows are among the first groups of birds to disappear from any area where there is poaching.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [E*]
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – A single bird seen on the day that we reached the Transpantaneira. These birds migrate to the pantanal during the dry season and this was probably one of the first ones to arrive.
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Perhaps the second most iconic bird of the Pantanal right after the Hyacinth Macaw.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – It is hard to describe just how abundant these birds are in the pantanal.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – They always look odd to me when they are waaay up there soaring with vultures and raptors.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
ZIGZAG HERON (Zebrilus undulatus) – One of the rarest herons in South America and perhaps the most secretive of them, but we had great looks at one in the Pantanal.
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis) – Several good looks in the Pantanal, where the birds sound and look different from north american ones and may very well be a separate species.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Seen several times in the Pantanal where we even saw a few juveniles with their distinctive plumage.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)

The Whistling Heron is usually found in areas drier than most herons prefer and is a common sight in pastures. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – Seen several times in the pantanal.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – It is always amazing to me that these birds have migrated from Africa and colonized so many different areas of South America.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – Your common small heron in the pantanal and one that may look dull at first, but is quite striking in good light.
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – How many colors does a Heron need anyway?
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) – Mostly juveniles, but we did manage to see one adult bird.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – A single bird seen foraging at night on our way to Piuval Lodge.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) [*]
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – The most common species of Ibis in the Pantanal during the wet season.
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens) – Restricted to the pantanal on this tour route, but common in the area.
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – A really common Ibis that is very neatly patterned.
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – The single individual we saw was one of the first arrivals of the season in the pantanal. Later on there will be thousands of them nesting in the pantanal.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – The Osprey is a Northern visitor that will return to North America to breed later in the season.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – These birds have become habituated to fetch fish thrown by the boatmen. Always fun to watch.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – The Snail Kite is a regional migrant as the birds move to the Amazon during the dry season, but during the wet season they are present in huge numbers.
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon) – One of the many excellent birds found by our great local guides at Intervales. Those guys are incredible.

Black Hawk-Eagles are not particularly rare, but seeing one so close on our first day was one of the highlights of the tour. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
TINY HAWK (Accipiter superciliosus) – This is always a hard bird to come by and it is especially rare in the Atlantic Forest where we had scope views of one.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK-HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – A couple of birds seen on our drive back to Sao Paulo from Intervales.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) [*]
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus)
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura)
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – A pair of birds seen extremely well right by the restaurant at Intervales.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris)
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) [*]
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)

Red-and-white Crakes are regarded as some of the hardest crakes to see in Southeast Brazil. Or at least they were until our local guides found out that they have a soft spot for corn meal! (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – Seen by the road on our way to Intervales. I have to admit that was an unusual place to see it.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) [*]
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – A bird of open areas, the Eared Dove has been extremely successful at colonizing areas where the Atlantic Forest has been cleared, therefore they are abundant in the state of Sao Paulo.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Another case of a local migrant that will be moving to the Amazon when the water levels are lower.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – Seen on a day roost at Intervales.
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) [E*]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum)

This Short-eared Owl was a welcome surprise on our way back to Sao Paulo. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) [*]
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila)
SHORT-EARED OWL (Asio flammeus) – This was a bit of a surprise for me, but we found a pair of birds on our way back to Sao Paulo from intervales.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Seeing this bird on a day roost so low that we could almost touch it was certainly one of the most memorable things on the tour.
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Great Dusky Swifts are the symbol of Iguazu National Park and the reason why is clear the moment you come close to the falls. They are amazingly abundant. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
CINNAMON-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis nattereri) – This rare little Hermit was seen extremely well on one of the last days of the tour.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – We found a bird feeding young on a nest near one of the many waterfalls that compose Iguazu. [E]
RUBY-TOPAZ HUMMINGBIRD (Chrysolampis mosquitus) – A migrant in the Pantanal that shows up at this time of year to cash in on the many flowering water plants during the "wet" season.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Abundant at the feeders in Iguazu.
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – We saw a female.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Another Hummer that we only saw the female. [E]
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
PLOVERCREST (VIOLET-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi loddigesii) – The Plovercrest has two very distinctive subspecies. The birds just a way north of Intervales all have a green crest.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)

Our group enjoyed some wonderful looks at this Cinnamon-throated Hermit. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – This was a bit of a surprise, but we found more than one individual at the Lek of the Plovercrests.
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura)
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – Seeing birds is alway fun, but when you get to watch behaviour it is simply fascinating. Our group had the good fortune to watch a Black-throated Trogon catch and eat an enormous stick bug. Absolutely fascinating!
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) – Probably the hardest Kingfisher to see in all of South America, but we managed to get some nice looks at it.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – One of the highlights of the tour for me was finding a pair of these rarely seen Puffbirds right by our new lodge at Iguazu.
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru)
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula) – Nunlets are always hard to come by, but this time we had excellent scope views of this one.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) [E*]

This Yellow-fronted Woodpecker chose to build its nest on a light post, making it a lot easier to see all the colors of this beautiful bird. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – They really seem to grow on trees in Iguazu.
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) [E]
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus)
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) – I really love woodpeckers, but this one takes beauty to a different level. Lucky for us it is common and easy to see around Intervales. [E]
WHITE-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cactorum) – This species is very scarce an local in the pantanal, but we knew just where to find it.
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus)
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros)
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris)
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) [E*]
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – The last of the 8 species of woodpecker we found in one sight in the pantanal, and for that reason we call that spot woodpecker alley.
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – This one was on several people's most wanted list and we found it on the first day of the tour. What a treat!
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) [*]
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – Watching over the Iguazu falls. I bet it gives the Great Dusky Swifts nightmares!
Psittacidae (Parrots)

This Rufous-capped Antshrike was very cooperative, much to our delight. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

NANDAY PARAKEET (Nandayus nenday)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus)
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Aratinga acuticaudata)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – Always fun to see huge flocks flying over the falls.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – No doubt about it. This is THE bird of the Pantanal and we enjoyed great looks.
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E*]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) [*]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) [*]
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – The large antshrikes gave us a hard time this year, but we quite a bit of work we managed to get great looks at this one. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) [*]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – We tried really hard, but only a few people got on it. [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – This one was pretty cooperative and what a nice looking bird it is. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni)
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]

The Red-billed Scythebill uses its long bill to probe cracks and holes in treetrunks in search of insects. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula gularis) [E]
LARGE-BILLED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus longirostris) [*]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus)
BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster) – This species barely makes it into the pantanal, but with a little bit of work we got to see it extremely well.
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E*]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E*]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E*]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – Seen right from our lodge, which was greatly aprecciated as all the other Drymophila Antbirds were playing hard to get.
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria)
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides maculicauda)
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa)
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata) – Seeing a gnateater is always rewarding, but seeing one displaying its "ear tufts" is just awesome.
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – A female seen after quite a bit of work. This is a bird that is very scarce in the areas we visited, so seeing one was a huge bonus.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus)
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)

The bird we saw so well at Intervales is currently treated as Slaty Bristlefront. However, work is under way to describe this taxon as a new species to science. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona)
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus griseicapillus) – A great spot by Erin.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – Keep track of which Olivaceous Woodcreepers you have seen as there is work being done on them and they are likely to get split into five or more species. [E]
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (PLAIN-WINGED) (Dendrocincla fuliginosa turdina) [E]
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus)
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – One of those birds that are simply fascinating. That long bill is used to probe cracks and holes in trees as it searches for food.
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris)
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – The name Hornero means oven maker and it comes from the distinctive nest made by a few members of the genus Furnarius that resemble a Dutch oven, the birds is also responsible for the name of the family of birds called ovenbirds even though only a handful of birds make such nests.
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura)
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor lichtensteini) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – In my opinion this is one of the most striking Foliage-gleaners and we were lucky to have some really nice looks at one during our tour. [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)

Yellow Tyrannulet is a bamboo specialist and common around the Argentine side of the falls. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons)
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – This species typically lives in dense scrub on the edges of marshes and can be quite hard to see well sometimes but this time we had one sitting in the open for quite some time for our group allowing some excellent views.
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina)
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa)
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – Most spinetails are dull and quite similar to each other but this one is certainly not one of them. What a beautiful little bird.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura)
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – One of the greatest specialties at Iguazu and one that we saw particularly well. [E]
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – The name of this bird in Portuguese translates into "can't stop". Fortunately for Us it stoped long enough for our group to get great looks at it. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti)
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – Seen right around the lodge at Intervales. [E]
PLAIN TYRANNULET (Inezia inornata)
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – Despite its name this striking little bird is not a pipit nor an antbird. It is in fact a flycatcher and one of my favorite ones.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]

This Red-ruffed Fruitcrow was coming early in the morning to catch moths attracted to a light. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E*]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus) [E]
STRIPE-NECKED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus striaticollis) [*]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Compared with the other birds in this genus this species is actually quite attractive with its light colored iris and chartreuse green color. [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Excellent looks at Intervales, where a bird perched really close to us and allowed us to have some incredible looks at it.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – Another bird we saw on the way to Intervales, no wonder it seemed like we would never get there!
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – Seen on the first day of the tour. This one is always a crowd pleaser.
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus)
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
SIRYSTES (EASTERN) (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
RUFOUS CASIORNIS (Casiornis rufus)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
SHORT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus ferox) – The most common Myarchus in the pantanal and one that was seen daily on the last portion of the tour.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)

These White-winged Swallows sit on the handrails on the way to the Devil's Throat section of Iguazu Falls in Argentina. They are so used to people that they let you come to within just a few feet. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Unlike nest parasites, the Piratic Flycatcher steals the nest of other birds and uses it to incubate its eggs and raise its young, a behaviour that gave birth to its name.
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – A migrant from Argentina. The few birds we saw were the first arrivals but they will become a lot more abundant later in the year.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Scope views of this species that is a family on its own.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – I have seen all kinds of birds staked out, but a Red-ruffed Fruitcrow was a first for me.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides)
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda)
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – One of many birds spotted by Mildred.
Vireonidae (Vireos)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)

The endemic Azure-shouldered Tanager is a common visitor of the feeders at Intervales. (Photo by participant Max Rodel)

RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – I still owe Joe a good look at one of these.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas)
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – These guys are incredibly common around Iguazu. Lucky for us, because they are simply amazing.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
CLIFF SWALLOW (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) – Several birds seen on our way to Intervales.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – The subspecies we saw is Unicolor and it is quite distinctive from the birds found in Amazonia.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) [*]
CREAMY-BELLIED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila lactea) – Another important bird from the Iguazu area which we saw extremely well. [E]
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – Believe it or not this is the national bird of Brazil.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)

Plovercrest? Always a fantastic bird to see! (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens) – We made a stop on our way to Intervales and called one so close that you could see details on the insects it was eating.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – Placed in its own genus, this is perhaps one of the most distinctive tanagers there is. [E]
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – Another Tanager placed in its own genus. [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – Unfortunately not everyone got on this bird, but it was interesting to see it at Intervales as this bird is more abundant in lower altitudes. This was the first time I saw it at Intervales.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – Certainly one of the prettiest tanagers in my opinion. [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti)
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)

Parrot-watching in the Pantanal is fabulous, as this portrait of a Peach-fronted Parakeet shows. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – We had excellent looks at a singing male on the Brazilian side of Iguazu. [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Oryzoborus angolensis)
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator atricollis) – Seen on our last day on the way to the airport.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris) – For people who have never seen a bird in the genus Arremon it is always a chock to see something that is called Sparrow and looks like this.
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus)
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus)
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
BAY-WINGED COWBIRD (Agelaioides badius) – Bay-winged Cowbirds are not true Cowbirds and they do not parasitize other birds nests. In fact the Bay-winged Cowbird is parasitized by Screaming Cowbirds which are so adapted to being parasites of this species that they look just like Bay-winged Cowbirds when they are young.
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
VARIABLE ORIOLE (Icterus pyrrhopterus)
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus)
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius)
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – Several displaying birds or as someone put it. They were mooning us!
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)

Rusty-backed Antwren gave us some great looks. (Photo by guide Marcelo Padua)

CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)

[SILVERY] MARMOSET (Callithrix [argentata] sp.) – The Silvery Marmoset of the Pantanal is Callithrix argentata melanura and it is quite different from the ones in the amazon, being treated sometimes as a species which is called Black-tailed Marmoset.
BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans) – Squirrels are actually quite rare in South America and seeing one of them is always a treat.
GUINEA PIG (Cavia aperea)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
CRAB-EATING RACCOON (Procyon cancrivorus)
SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (Nasua nasua) – Very common at Iguazu.
MARSH DEER (Blastocerus dichotomus) – This species is actually an endangered species of Deer due to habitat loss.
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana)


Other significant sightings:

Jararaca - Bothrops jararaca

Argentine Snake-necked Turtle - Hydromedusa tectifera

Caiman Lizzard - Dracaena paraguayensis

Paraguayan Caiman - Caiman yacare

Totals for the tour: 394 bird taxa and 13 mammal taxa