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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil Nutshell: Intervales, Iguazu Falls & the Pantanal 2016
Mar 5, 2016 to Mar 19, 2016
Marcelo Padua & Megan Edwards Crewe

The endangered Black-fronted Piping-Guan is one of the signature birds of the Atlantic Forest. Photo by participants David and Sue Wright.

When we came up with the name "Nutshell" for this tour a few years ago, it had a double meaning: a play on the name of the well-known (and mighty tasty) Brazil nut as well as a harkening to the phrase "that's it in a nutshell", because, well, it IS Brazil in a nutshell -- a relatively short, but very productive, introduction to some of the amazing habitats found in this huge country.

We started our tour at Intervales State Park, a lovely natural area only a few hours outside of Cuiabá. Although mostly cloaked in Atlantic Forest -- a fast-dwindling biome, fragments of which now contain some of the world's rarest birds -- the hilly park also contains some attractive wet spots and a few open areas. We had so many highlights here that it's hard to know where to start! Furtive Red-and-white Crakes darted out from surrounding reeds to gobble quick mouthfuls of corn. A tiny, confiding Spotted Bamboowren crept through a bamboo stand nearly at arm's length. A pair of Blue-bellied Parrots peered down at us, whistling their surprisingly musical song. Black-fronted Piping-Guans rummaged in treetops. A Diademed Tanager graced the top of a tree near our lodge. A female Giant Antshrike (and there's an appropriate name, if ever there was one), flicked through scrub near our lodgings, and another did the same along the entrance road. Brazilian Rubies sipped daintily from flowers near the park's research headquarters, and a handsome Black Jacobin did the same near the dining room.

A Slaty Bristlefront bounced back and forth across the trail. A tiny White-breasted Tapaculo crept out onto a mossy log. A Tropical Screech-Owl snoozed mere yards from the park office. A handful of Spot-winged Wood-Quail scuttled through forest undergrowth, drawn by strategically sprinkled corn. Campo Flickers posed on fence posts. Swarms of Maroon-bellied Parakeets descended on fruiting trees. A pair of Large-tailed Antshrikes (which we decided should really be called Starry-night Antshrikes!) slunk through a dense roadside vegetation, occasionally popping into the open. A Saffron Toucanet sat quietly on a sunlit branch. Tiny Ochre-collared Piculets hitched up viny tangles. A White-bearded Antshrike battered a hapless caterpillar to death on a branch. A pair of Rusty-breasted Nunlets chased each other, noisily, through the mid-story of the tall, lush forest. A Hooded Berryeater dazzled us as it moved through a fruiting tree. The mixed species flocks we found here were very nearly overwhelming, as tanagers, foliage-gleaners, flycatchers, woodcreepers, and more swarmed past.

From there, we moved on to the very western edge of Brazil, to mighty Iguazu Falls, surely one of the wonders of the natural world. An early morning visit to the Devil's Throat -- with the newly risen sun sparkling on the vast wateriness of the myriad falls, and the spume of the massive falls rising into the air -- was made even more special by the fact that we were the only ones there, admitted more than 90 minutes earlier than any other visitor. Here too, the birds provided great entertainment. A handful of Great Dusky Swifts zoomed past to disappear among the fall's mist, and hundreds fluttered overhead as dusk approached. Inquisitive Plush-crested Jays followed us down paths. Flocks of Toco Toucans flapped heavily out over the water, headed for night roosts. A pair of Swallow Tanagers glowed in early morning sunshine. At a hummingbird garden in one Argentinian town (with comfortable seating!), we ogled dozens of sparkling visitors, including the tour's only Planalto Hermits, Black-throated Mangoes, and Gilded Hummingbirds, plus a gorgeous Swallow-tailed Hummingbird. An aptly-named Robust Woodpecker hammered challenges from a roadside tree. We spent an entire day on a (silent!) electric tram, traversing a narrow path through the forest on the Brazilian side of the falls, finding plenty of specialty birds en-route: a pair of Spot-billed Toucans jumped through fruiting trees; Southern Bristle-Tyrants and a tiny Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher twitched overhead; a Sharpbill interrupted our mid-point snack; A male Band-tailed Manakin flicked through the canopy, as did a showy male Swallow-tailed Manakin; with much patience and considerable effort, we ventured off the trail to track down a singing Short-tailed Antthrush; a pair of Southern Antpipits circled around us; and many more species entertained us as we worked our way down to the river.

We finished our adventure in the vast, watery Pantanal -- flat, largely unpopulated and pocked with countless ponds, lakes, puddles, streams, and rivers. We spent much of our time here in boats, skimming over lakes and along rivers. An Azure Gallinule tiptoed through the water hyacinth. Whistling Herons demonstrated how they earned their names, whistling loudly from treetops. A fuzzy young Rufescent Tiger-Heron swayed on its nest, staring down its nose at us. A Blue-throated Piping-Guan perched on a treetop, its indigo throat wattle glowing in the sun. A Sungrebe paddled quickly under the protection of overhanging branches. A Black-backed Water-Tyrant flicked through stream-side bushes. Amazon and Ringed kingfishers abounded -- and a point-blank Green-and-rufous Kingfisher sat on its eye-level perch while we drifted past. A Black-collared Hawk snatched thrown piranhas from the air. Black-fronted Nunbirds made repeated sallies out over the water. Trickles of Band-tailed Nighthawks flowed past as dusk fell, while a pod (pack? herd?) of Capybaras -- including some rather small ones -- paddled along beside our boats.

Our land-based outings were equally productive. A pair of stately Jabirus panted on their huge stick nest. Chunky Southern Screamers made their presence known in the marshy meadow near our lodge. Plumbeous Ibis poked and prodded in wet roadside fields. A White Woodpecker paused in the open in an eye-level bush. A pair of Hyacinth Macaws huddled in a shady patch near their nest box, looking sleepy. Chaco Chachalacas haggled over feeder provisions, sparring with each other and dozens of Yellow-billed Cardinals. A Little Woodpecker excavated a nest hole right over the boat launch. Two Great Rufous Woodcreepers chased each other through the trees. Guira Cuckoos rummaged in the grass, with one catching (and bashing to death) a small snake as we watched. A male Blue-crowned Trogon scanned the surrounding vegetation for tasty morsels. And who will soon forget that massive cattle drive, with four fully-covered cowboys (in that heat!) pushing a mooing mob of gray-white Brahman cattle down dusty Transpantaneira in front of our bus?

Thanks so much for joining Marcelo and me for the ride; it was such fun sharing all the birds and meals and stories and more with you all. We hope to see you again on another adventure soon!

-- Megan

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Southern Screamers made themselves known in the marshy fields near the Posada Piuval. Video by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.
Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – Regular in the Pantanal, including a couple of birds wandering through the brush just outside the fence around Rio Claro lodge and a quintet sharing a pasture with some cows along the Transpantaneiro highway.
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – Wonderful studies of a pair that had apparently claimed a bit of the swampy field near the Rio Claro lobby as their own; they were there, feeding, preening or just hanging out, pretty much every time we looked.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – Definitely less common than the next species (at least this year), but found on a few days in the Pantanal.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – Common around Posada Piuval, including several family groups snoozing in the shade along the entrance road one day.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – A single bird along the Transpantaneira was the only one we could muster.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis)

We found the huge nest of a massive pair of Jabiru in the Pantanal. Photo by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.

DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Small numbers along some of the tracks in Intervales were reasonably accommodating -- though the first few definitely played hide-and-seek, ducking into and out of the bushes.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster)
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – One perched up along the Rio Claro showed its distinctive blue throat wattle very nicely. This species occasionally hybridizes with the next, and some taxonomists consider them to be conspecific.
RED-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cujubi) – One sparred with a gang of Chaco Chachalacas in a livestock feeder at Pousada Piuval; we saw it thanks to Dave R. and Sue, who spotted it as we gathered for one of our river trips there.
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – Not one, not two, but FIVE of these endangered guans gamboled through the fruiting Cecropia trees over the Carmo road, giving us wonderfully good views -- and we saw them on two different days there! We also found another confiding pair along the boardwalk trail out to the Devil's Throat in Argentina. [E]
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – A trio (one male and two females) stalked through the forest along the road to Lake Piuval one afternoon, occasionally stopping to peer nervously at us.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – A little local knowledge, some strategically sprinkled corn, and we all had long, leisurely studies of a nearby covey of five, foraging and preening in the forest at Intervales. [E]
Ciconiidae (Storks)
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Scattered birds in the Pantanal, including a photogenic pair on their gigantic stick nest beside the Transpantaneiro highway, panting in the mid-afternoon heat, and a few stalking across marshy fields. [N]
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
ZIGZAG HERON (Zebrilus undulatus) [*]
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Daily on the Pantanal, including a fluffy chick peering wide-eyed at us, frozen in its best defensive posture on a stick nest low over the water. [N]
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – Daily in the Pantanal. This is the replacement species for the Great Blue Heron, which is only a vagrant to Brazil.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – Daily in the Pantanal, typically hunched along in the edge of some wet spot, peering into the water. This is the southern replacement for the Green Heron; it has been split from that species, then lumped, then split again.
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – Our first were feeding in open areas around the Sao Paolo airport, seen by some as we headed to the meet-up point on the tour's first morning. Our best views, though, came around Pousada Piuval, where we saw many -- including one whistling from a treetop with his mate (in the lovely light of a setting sun) as we cruised past in our boats.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – A few of these handsome herons were seen along the Rio Claro. It is among the least-studied of the herons, with much about its life history and taxonomic relationship to the other herons still unknown.

The constant, throaty roar of Iguazu Falls -- which was running well above its average volume during our tour -- was astonishing. Photo by participant Bonnie Schwartz.

BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – A few lurked along the edges of the Rio Claro.
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – Regular in the Pantanal, including some seen along the entrance roads to both of our lodges.
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens) – Daily in the Pantanal, with especially nice views of a pair foraging in the flooded field along the Rio Clara lodge's entrance road.
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – Our first were a group of 10 feeding in a roadside field, found not long before Marcelo spotted our Red-legged Seriemas. We saw others on most of our days in the Pantanal.
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – Seen in the marshy pasture near Posada Piuval -- nice spotting Dave R!
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Seen in big numbers most days (including the gang standing spread-eagled in the yard near the Rio Claro lodge's dining room), though missing completely from the forest at Intervales.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Common over the Pantanal, with some close enough to clearly see the many colors on their primarily yellow heads.

We had a wonderful look at Rufous-and-green Kingfisher along the Rio Claro. This is probably the scarcest of the New World kingfishers. Photo by participant Liz Rohde.

Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – Super views in the Pantanal -- particularly along the Rio Claro, where the local boatmen have trained the birds to come in for piranha handouts.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – Almost ridiculously common on the Pantanal, particularly around Posada Piuval, where there were almost always several in view at any time.
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis)
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – Those in Megan's van had several good looks at these handsome hawks: one perched atop a pine tree and at least two in flight -- including the bird from the pine tree.
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – A few of those who lagged behind at lunch one day at Intervales were rewarded with views of one circling over the Pico-Pau guesthouse. Unfortunately, it disappeared behind a nearby hill before everybody else could scramble out for a look. [E]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)

A Saffron Toucanet, lit by a sunbeam, glows against the greenery. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-BREASTED CRAKE (Laterallus exilis)
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – A bit more strategically placed corn, and we had fabulous views of one (the first visit) or two (the second) of these little rails near the Intervales entrance gate.
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (GRAY-COWLED) (Aramides cajaneus cajaneus) – This is the southern form of the former "Gray-necked Wood-Rail", which has now been split.
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – A couple of these larger rails -- one green-billed adult and one black-billed youngster -- chased the Red-and-white Crake away from the corn pile at Intervales on our first visit.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris) – Some fine spotting by Marcelo netted us views of this small gallinule at the end of one of our outings on Lake Piuval. Initially, we saw little more than its dusty blue head and yellow beak poking up from the Water Hyacinth, but eventually, it climbed higher in the vegetation -- and then flew back to another perch, showing even more of itself.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – One along the edge of the Rio Claro played hard to get, quickly ducking under the vegetation as we rounded a corner in the river, and never again showing very well.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – Our first was one seen in the same general area as our Swallow Tanagers. We had many more in the wet fields of the Pantanal.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – One pattered along the edge of a little channel parallel to the RIo Claro lodge's entrance road -- good spotting, Sue! Some taxonomists feel this small species should be in different genus than the larger lapwings.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – Dave R spotted one along Posada Piuval's entrance road, right about the time Sue spotted the Pied Lapwing -- which led to some initial confusion as to just what sort of shorebird we should be looking for!
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca) [b]
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – Common and widespread, with especially good studies of one sitting in a tree near the Pico-Pau guesthouse, seen as we waited out a passing shower one afternoon. The scalloped look to the plumage of the back and wing feathers is quite striking.

Southern Lapwings are common in Brazil; we saw them every day of the tour. Photo by participant Charm Peterman.

RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
PICUI GROUND-DOVE (Columbina picui) – The bright white wing patches on this little dove made them easy to pick out -- when we could get them out of the bushes, that is!
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – Two scuttled around in the weedy grass near the entrance gate at Rio Claro, nibbling seeds.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – Common through much of the trip, with especially nice views at the hummingbird garden we visited on the Argentina side of Iguazu Falls.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – Two rummaged in the grass outside the lobby of the Pousada Piuval one morning, looking disheveled. We saw a group of five further down the entrance drive there -- including one whacking a small snake to death on the ground.
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)

We had great looks at Plumbeous Ibis feeding along the Rio Claro entrance road. Video by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – One snoozing in a palm tree near the Intervales visitor's center was supremely confident of its camouflage, barely opening its eyes to inspect us when we clustered underneath its hiding place.
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – Wow! An after-dark stakeout at a spot known by our Intervales guides proved spectacularly successful, yielding wonderful views of a wide-eyed bird. Although this species is widespread in Brazil and Argentina
GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus) – Two roosting near the start of the "New" trail at Posada Piuval gave us great views -- particularly the female, as she panted in the afternoon heat; we could hear her mate calling nearby. We had another along the Transpantaneira as dusk fell late on our first afternoon in the Pantanal.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum)
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – This was definitely a case of persistence paying off! After striking out our first attempt (in the evening), we tried again our very last morning at Intervales -- and after nearly an hour with no sounds of any owl at all, we found a wide-awake bird when we'd walked nearly all the way back to the guesthouse. It peered down, wide-eyed, from its perch high over our heads.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – Scores coursed past us over the waters of Lake Piuval as we motored back to the boat dock towards dusk, some silhouetted nicely against the magnificent sunsets.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis)

This little Common Potoo chick was doing its very best "don't mind me, I'm just a tree stump" imitation. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Gratifyingly common around Intervales, with at least one snoozing bird seen every day, including a fluffy chick doing its best to imitate a dead snag -- quite ineffectively, we thought! Several of the birds we saw were close enough that we could clearly see the little notches in their eyelids which let them see out without opening their eyes (the better to preserve their camouflage).
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – A few flashed past us into the mist swirling over Iguazu Falls as we enjoyed our morning at the Devil's Throat, but the biggest numbers came later in the day -- when the roaming birds passed over our hotel in great clouds, heading for their roosting spots behind the waterfalls. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Some big flocks swarmed over the forests at Intervales on several days.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – One handsome male owned (or thought he did) the flowering tree near the Intervales restaurant, aggressively driving away any other hummingbird that ventured too close. [E]
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – This one was a surprise -- it's the first one Marcelo has ever seen in the Pantanal! We spotted it sitting quietly in the forest along the road to Lake Piuval one morning, one of several birds that responded to our pygmy-owl whistles.
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – Regular at Intervales, where their "dirty" throats quickly identified them. They're smaller, shorter-tailed and shorter-billed than the similar Scale-throated Hermit.
BUFF-BELLIED HERMIT (Phaethornis subochraceus)
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) [E]
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus)
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus) – We had a scattering of these tiny hummingbirds at Intervales -- which was a surprise, as they're usually not present at this time of year. Shifting weather patterns (probably due to the influence of the current big El Nino) may have played a role.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – Especially nice views of several at the feeders in the hummingbird garden, including one that perched a few times on one of the dead sticks right in the center of the action.
PURPLE-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis loddigesii) – Arg! Only some of the group -- those who happened to be standing in the right place, looking in the right direction -- saw a male when he perched in a nearby tree for a few all-too-brief seconds.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – This was the common hummingbird at Intervales, with both males and females seen well daily there. [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – We spotted one of these large, dark hummingbirds along the Carmo road, which was definitely a surprise, as Marcelo has never seen one there before!
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – One near our lodge at Intervales was the only one we saw.

Toco Toucans were particularly common around Iguazu Falls, where we saw dozens flapping across the water to their roost trees in the evening. Photo by participant Pete Peterman.

GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – This was another of the species that we saw only at the hummingbird garden in Argentina.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – A handsome male sitting high in a tree over the new trail cut near Lake Piuval was one of the highlights of our toasty afternoon walk there.
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – Easily the most common trogon of the tour, recorded on half a dozen days. [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – A pair called near our rooms at La Cantera, and -- with a bit of scuttling back and forth along the walkways -- we eventually had nice scope views of one when it perched on some vines hanging from one of the big trees. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – Most common on the Pantanal, where we saw them daily, with another on the boardwalk out to the Devil's Throat.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – A single bird along the Rio Claro, perched low over the water, gave us fits to start, but eventually showed itself nicely.

The Sooty Tyrannulet certainly lives up to its name. Photo by participant Pete Peterman.

Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula) – Two of these small puffbirds chased through the trees over the Carmo road at Intervales one morning.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – Reasonably common along the waterways in the Pantanal, flashing out after prey then returning to their perches. Those coral red bills are certainly eye-catching!
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – We heard the distinctive rising whistle of this widespread tropical species along the Rio Claro, and with a bit of patience, finally managed to spot a pair hunting from inconspicuous branches the riverside vegetation. We found others near the "New" trail by Lake Piuval.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – One sat quietly in the canopy of one of the big trees along Carmo Road at Intervales, its distinctively colored plumage catching the light so that it glowed against the darker leaves. [E]
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – Probably the most widespread of the tour's toucans, seen at all three locations. Particularly entertaining were the clown car's worth of birds we saw flapping across the face of Iguazu Falls' face one afternoon; they just kept coming, and coming, and coming.

A male Black-throated Trogon showed nicely along the Poco Preto trail, seen from our tram car. Photo by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.

RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) [E]
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus)
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus) – One excavating a nest hole right over the boat dock at Rio Claro gave us great opportunity for study. We saw another along the new trail down by Lake Piuval, not far from the Great Horned Owls.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus)
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris)
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) [E]
HELMETED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus galeatus) – Darn! We heard one calling from the forest along the quiet track we birded in Iguazu NP, but we just couldn't find it -- even though it came so, so close! This species is disappearing from many of its former haunts. [E*]
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – A trio -- two adults and a fully-grown youngster -- stalked an overgrown field not far from Itapetininga, seen as we drove from the airport to Intervales our first afternoon.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – One dried its wings along the Rio Claro entrance road after a rainy early morning -- and later launched into a spirited duet with its mate. We saw another, more distant, bird along the Pousada Piuval entrance drive.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – Our best views came along the Transpantaneira highway, where we found many huge stick nests, some of which were being actively constructed (or added to) by busy birds. We saw others at Bento Gomes, en route to Pousada Piuval.
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea)
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Especially nice looks at a group munching fruits in a tree between the Intervales entrance gate and our lodge, seen on the first afternoon of the tour. We had others (mostly in flight) daily around the park.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – A couple of birds snoozed in the shade of a big tree along the Transpantaneira highway, not far from a nest box erected for their use. We saw others in flight near Pousada Piuval. This is the world's largest parrot -- more than a meter from beak to tail!

The Devil's Throat is surely one of the most amazing of waterfalls -- a narrow cleft where the water vanishes literally beneath your feet! Photo by participant Bonnie Schwartz.

NANDAY PARAKEET (Aratinga nenday) – A gang of them raided the feeders scattered around the Rio Claro lodge, showing well their flashy red thighs.
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis)
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Thectocercus acuticaudatus)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea)
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – Our best view came along the new trail near Lake Piuval, where we found a pair foraging among some downed branches right beside the path.
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – One along the Carmo Road at Intervales played hard to get for a while -- until it caught a big, juicy caterpillar. Then we got great looks as it bashed its tasty morsel to death on a branch. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni)

Hyacinth Macaw, the largest parrot species in the world, is among the Pantanal's most iconic species. Photo by participant Charm Peterman.

VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
LARGE-BILLED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus longirostris)
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus)
BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster)
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura)
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria)
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa)
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata)
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – Wow! Getting ANY kind of look at this skulking species is a challenge, so to get the entire group on one -- for multiple minutes -- as it crept through a bamboo clump right in front of us was just extraordinary!
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus)
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona) – As usual, we heard far more of these than we saw, but we did finally catch up with one (or, more precisely, bits and pieces of one) seen singing from its perch on a log in forest along the track we birded at Iguazu NP.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) [E*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
GREAT RUFOUS WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes major) – A couple of these huge, rusty woodcreepers flashed in to land in nearby trees as we worked our way out of the Rio Claro lodge's entrance road.
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus)
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris)
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) [E]
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) – Our first investigated the rotting top of a fence post in a pasture near the town of Ribeirao Grande on the tour's first afternoon. We had others in the Pantanal -- including a few checking out the feeders at Rio Claro.
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) [E]
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)

The Rufous-bellied Thrush has been recorded eating 28 species of fruit -- including bananas, obviously! Photo by guide Megan Crewe.

PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – Spectacular views of this little charmer as he belted out his song from a bush along the Carmo Road at Intervales.
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – A trio scolded from a bush along the Rio Claro entrance road (seen as we headed towards Pousada Piuval), showing well those distinctively rusty foreheads.
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula)
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina)

A White Woodpecker right beside the Transpantaneira was among the highlights of one morning's outing on the Pantanal. Photo by participants David and Sue Wright.

PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa)
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – A couple of these distinctive (and attractive) spinetails flitted into a nearby tree while we birded along the Pousada Piuval entrance road our last morning. They preened and poked around for quite a while, giving us great opportunity to study them at length.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SUIRIRI FLYCATCHER (Suiriri suiriri affinis) – A couple of these rather nondescript flycatchers came in to Marcelo's magic pygmy-owl tape along the Pousada Piuval entrance road on our final morning; they spent most of their time checking things out from the very top (or very near the top) of the tallest trees.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura)
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans)
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) – One hit the window of our lodge at Intervales, briefly knocking itself silly -- but giving those who were outside at the time a chance to study it up close. [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) [E]
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti)
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
PLAIN TYRANNULET (Inezia inornata)
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – A singing bird (and, briefly, its mate) circled around us along a quiet track in Iguazu NP, eventually perching up on a branch and allowing us nice scope views.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris)
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens)

Guira Cuckoos were common around the Posada Piuval, hunting snakes and lizards. Photo by participants David and Sue Wright.

YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
RUSSET-WINGED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus leucoryphus) [E]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – A pair hunted from wires (and a building) near the football field at Intervales.
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius atricaudus)
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – Some fine spotting by Marcelo (while hurtling along at 60 mph, no less!) led to scope views of a trio of somewhat distant birds perched up on telephone wires over an agricultural field beside a marsh along the road back to Sao Paolo. They patrolled the edges of their territory when they heard Marcelo's playback, then sat on the wires, waving their wings in an aggressive display.
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer)
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – A pair scurried along the edges of the road near the Intervales visitor's center each time we visited the nearby marsh.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – Seen well at both Igauzu Falls and the Pantanal, including a noisy trio near the pool on the Brazilian side of the falls, and a loudly begging, fledged youngster following one its parents back and forth across the lawn at Pousada Piuval.

Short-crested Flycatcher was just one of the many, MANY flycatchers we found on this tour. Photo by participant Pete Peterman.

LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) – Good thing this bamboo specialist isn't called Large-TAILED Flatbill, given that the one we saw had no tail at all!
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
RUFOUS CASIORNIS (Casiornis rufus)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – A couple along the Pousada Piuval entrance road on our final morning's walk there, first noticed due to their slightly mournful, whistling song. In the scopes, their distinctively rusty feather edges were pretty apparent.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – A trio of these small kiskadee lookalikes called and hunted from the top of some trees along the Lajeado track at Intervales.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata)
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides)
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis)
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – One flicked through the clearing near the Esquilo guesthouse, giving us good scope views; it basically looked small and gray and dumpy! [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – An adult male, showing well his distinctively pointy tail, flicked back and forth across the Campo road one morning, posing repeatedly for good scope studies. We also saw a young male; he still had an olive green body, but was already sporting a bright red cap. [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda)
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – Liz and I saw a male that she first spotted atop a pole near the lodge at Intervales on one soggy afternoon while we waited for the rain to stop.
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)

This Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper was a feisty little thing, belting out his song along the Carmo Road. Video by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – One with a mixed flock along the Rio Claro entrance road showed wonderfully well in the scopes, sitting long enough for everyone to get a look.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas)
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – Many fine views of these handsome jays around Iguazu Falls, including the gang that followed us for some ways down the waterfall path near our Brazilian hotel.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)

Plush-crested Jays proved extraordinarily confiding as they followed us hopefully down the paths at Iguazu Falls. Photo by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.

Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – A little mobile gang of them swarmed through the trees along the new trail at Lake Piuval, investigating the bromeliads and poking and prying at the mosses and epiphytes. The subspecies found in the Pantanal is "unicolor".
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – Common at Intervales (with especially nice looks at those visiting the fruit feeders outside our rooms) and the Pantanal. This is Brazil's national bird.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola) – Several seen well along the road out to Lake Piuval, members of the mixed flocks we encountered there. They were always among the first to respond to the pygmy-owl tape -- and the ones that dared to come the closest!
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata)
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – Regular in the forests of Intervales and Iguazu.
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – Scattered birds at Intervales and Iguazu, including one hanging around the feeders outside our Intervales lodge that was missing most of his head feathers. [E]
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo) – Reasonably common in the Pantanal.
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]

Birding along the Carmo road, where the lifers came thick and fast. Photo by participants David and Sue Wright.

RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti)
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – A pair of birds positively glowed in the early morning sunshine as they perched atop trees on one of the islands we passed on our walk out to the Devil's Throat at Iguazu.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – Our best looks came along the Rio Claro, where we found a male singing from a big tree (and eventually a much closer smaller tree) near the river. This bird's attractive plumage and beautiful song make it a big target for the caged bird trade.

A Long-tufted Screech-Owl was an unexpected treat, thanks to our local guides at Intervales. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Quite common at Intervales, particularly around the feeders outside the lodge.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus)
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus)
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) – An active colony in a marsh along the road into Intervales SP was a highlight of our first afternoon's birding.

Lake Piuval towards sunset -- time for crakes, rails, gallinules and bitterns! Photo by participant Bonnie Schwartz.

GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius) – Seen particularly well outside the dining room at Rio Claro, where they swarmed over the feeders. We had others along the Pousada Piuval entrance road.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
VARIABLE ORIOLE (CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED) (Icterus pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus)
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus) – A bright pair along the Rio Claro bounced from treetop to treetop, completely outshining the nearby Pale-vented Pigeons.
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius)
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus) – One in a leafless tree at the little marsh near Ribeirao Grande our first afternoon was the only one we saw.
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

What do you call a group of Capybaras? A flock? A herd? Whatever it is, we intercepted one swimming across Lake Piuval at dusk one evening. Video by guide Megan Edwards Crewe.

SILVERY MARMOSET (Callithrix argentata) – Unfortunately, these little primates (a pair) weren't very cooperative, scampering into hiding nearly as soon as they spotted us. A few got a quick glimpse before they vanished into the forest.
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus)
BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – Very common in the Pantanal, with dozens seen along the Transpantaneira, and a little group swimming -- and squeaking -- on Lake Piuval, silhouetted against that spectacular sunset.
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
CRAB-EATING RACCOON (Procyon cancrivorus)
SOUTHERN RIVER OTTER (Lontra provocax)
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana) – One foraged along the roadside in Iguazu NP early one morning, seen as we made our way to the track where we took the electric train.


We only identified a few "herps" (all reptiles) during the tour:

Paraguayan Caiman (Caiman yacare)

Giant Ameiva (Ameiva ameiva)

Gold Tegu (Tupinambis teguixin)

Totals for the tour: 389 bird taxa and 11 mammal taxa