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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil Nutshell: Intervales, Iguazu Falls & the Pantanal I 2017
Mar 4, 2017 to Mar 18, 2017
Marcelo Padua & Marcelo Barreiros

It's always great to see any rail or crake, and we had fabulous views of this Red-and-white Crake at Intervales. Photo by participant David Disher.

Brazil is a vast country with continental dimensions, and it is also the country with the second highest diversity of birds on Earth, many of which are endemic. So it should come as no surprise that Field Guides offers a large number of tours to this great country. If you have never been to Brazil, it can be a challenge to try to choose just one, so we created this introductory Nutshell itinerary. It's a great tour combining some of the best birding areas of the country and allowing participants to get a taste of what birding in Brazil is like. Most people, having acquired a ten-year visa, then come back for more!

Our tour starts with a-four day visit to Intervales State park in Sao Paulo, a place that holds the largest remaining tract of Atlantic Forest, a biome that is incredibly birdy and features the world's highest diversity of bromeliad and orchid species but has been reduced to only about 14 percent of its original area. Here, the abundance of birds combined with the great knowledge of our local guides made for a wonderful beginning to our trip. Our birding was of the highest order, with spectacular sightings of Black-fronted Piping-Guan, Giant Antshrike, Solitary Tinamou, Spot-winged Wood-Quail, Slaty Bristlefront, Red-and-white Crake, and many more, but even better than the birding was benefitting from the kindness and generosity of our local guides and the local people, whose love for this place and what they do is shown in every detail, for example the owner of the restaurant who proudly offered us his freshly baked rolls every morning.

Our tour continued south as we headed to Iguazu Falls, truly one of the most spectacular places on Earth and one that every person should visit at least once in their lifetime and, if at all possible, as we did, with exclusive access to the park in off hours. What a privilege! The birding is not to be ignored either, and there was no shortage of birds to keep us entertained between one breathtaking view of the falls and the next, ranging from the common but beautiful Toco Toucans and Plush-crested Jays to rare species such as Buff-bellied Puffbird, Rusty-breasted Nunlet, Southern Bristle-Tyrant, and many others. All of this while staying at a couple of great lodges and enjoying great meals at fabulous restaurants.

Our last stop is the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland and a birder’s paradise where Jabirus, Hyacinth Macaws, Limpkins, egrets, and Red-legged Seriemas adorn the landscape, cowboys drive the cattle around as they did hundreds of years ago, and the attentive observer can easily see more than a hundred species of birds every day. We explored this great area by land and by boat, enjoying great looks at the rare Zigzag Heron, Frilled Coquette, Undulated Tinamou, Yellow-collared Macaw, and many others.

Marcelo Barreiros and I were honored to introduce you to this great country, and we hope you will come back and experience a little bit more of Brazil with us.

--Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – Seen in the Pantanal a few times during the tour, especially around Piuval Lodge where they are relatively common.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – One of many great birds our local guides at Intervales had staked out for us.
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]

Also fabulous were our views of this Zigzag Heron from a boat trip in the Pantanal! Photo by participant David Disher.

UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – Always a tricky bird to see even though its song is so often heard in the Pantanal. We heard a bird singing close by in the Pantanal and managed to bring it into view, even predicting where it would cross the road.
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – Massive birds which adorn the wetlands of the Pantanal.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – Mostly seen in small groups mixed in with the Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – Seen in large numbers in the Pantanal, where they breed during the wet season.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – This species has been introduced to many parts of the world but is native to South America.
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – This is the most scarce of the ducks seen on this tour, and we have even missed it entirely on some years, so it was nice to see them a few times on this tour, and particularly nice to see some in flight showing their spectacular speculum.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis) – An omnipresent bird in the Pantanal, where its song is a constant reminder of how abundant they are.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Seen regularly around Intervales. Especially around the restaurant building.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster) – This handsome Guan is a common presence in the Pantanal, and they have become particularly tame around Rio Claro Lodge, allowing us to study them closely.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – A close relative of the endangered Black-fronted Piping-Guan, but fortunately this one is quite abundant along the rivers and streams in the Pantanal.
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – It was a thrill to find this rare and endangered species on the second day of our tour while birding around Intervales. [E]
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – Female birds are often duller than the males, but I have to say that in this particular case she puts him to shame.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – Wood-quail are among the most shy and difficult species to see in the forest. Unless of course you have Betinho to stand around feeding them corn while Faustino came to fetch us and get us some unforgettable looks. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – Not a bird we usually see on this tour, but a roadside stop by a pond on our way to intervales produced one individual which we had in the scope for a while.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – The most scarce of the storks of the Pantanal and one that we only saw on our very last day in the Pantanal, just before heading to the airport.
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Iconic and majestic, this is the bird that most Brazilians associate with the Pantanal.
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – A single individual seen on our last morning. This species breeds in the Pantanal and migrates to the Amazon during the wet season. The bird we saw was one of the very first to arrive for the breeding season, and soon thousands will follow.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – Abundant in the Pantanal especially along the many bridges on the Transpantaneira road.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – Although far less abundant than the Neotropic Cormorant, it is still a common sight wherever you have water in the Pantanal.

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker is one of the flashier Atlantic Forest endemics. Photo by participant David Disher.

Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
ZIGZAG HERON (Zebrilus undulatus) – Arguably the rarest and the shyest of the herons in South America, and we spent a considerable amount of time seeking one. But our efforts were duly rewarded when we found one individual that performed beautifully for us during a boat trip in the Pantanal.
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis) – Although this species is quite widespread and makes its way all the way to North America, the birds found in South America are much darker and sound quite different from their northern counterparts, so we spent quite a bit of time trying to see one and had a few frustrating views of them as they flew by briefly, but a boat trip at Piuval resulted in great looks at a close individual.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Common in the Pantanal and we even saw a nest with two recently hatched chicks.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – The South American replacement of the Great Blue Heron.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – Common and widespread.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – It is amazing to me how something as trivial as bright yellow feet can make a bird much more interesting. Unlike many bird species that use bright colors to attract a mate, the Snowy Egret's brightly colored feet are thought to attract fish, which mistake their toes for prey.
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – Found in small numbers, but seen well on a number of occasions throughout the tour.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Cattle Egrets are not native to South America, but unlike many introduced birds in the Americas they are thought to have made the journey on their own from Africa to South America, where they are now well established.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – The South American version of a Green Heron.
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – Some herons are dull, others are pretty, but the Whistling Heron is just outrageously beautiful.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – A single bird flying distantly in the Pantanal. I have to say I was particularly sad not to see this one well as it was high on Sylvia's list. I hope I get to show you this bird some day.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – One of those birds that only shows its color when the light is just right. Even though we saw it several times we never caught it in perfect lighting in order to fully appreciate its beauty
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – Like the whistling-ducks, the Bare-faced Ibis is found in great numbers in the Pantanal during the wet season but practically disappears in the dry season.
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens) – Although this species occurs over a wide range in South America, its distribution is actually really patchy and the Pantanal is certainly one of the best places in the world to see this magnificent Ibis.
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – Although fairly common and widespread, this is certainly one of the most beautiful species of ibis.
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – Yet another species which was only seen on the very last morning; thousands more would soon arrive to breed in the Pantanal during the dry season.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Seen on every day of the tour.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Although a common and widespread species, the Turkey Vulture has three very distinctive groups and four subspecies. The birds we saw on the tour belong to the subspecies ruficollis, which has a distinctive light band on the back of the neck.
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – There are two species of Yellow-headed Vultures in South America, and they used to be considered one single species until they were split into two species in 1964.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – The birds found in Brazil belong to the nominate subspecies while the birds found in the US belong to the subspecies majusculus.

This Red-shouldered Macaw feasting in a fruiting tree provided some fine views for us. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – A boat trip on the Rio Claro presented us with several opportunities to see these birds extremely well as they have become accustomed to being fed by the boat men from the lodges.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – By far the most abundant raptor in the Pantanal, but we also saw them a few times overhead at the falls at Iguazu.
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens flexipes) – Another species that is widespread but has several subspecies (6 to be precise). Our checklist listed the birds on our route as gracilis, but even though the birds in the Pantanal belong in the same group (Banded), they actually belong to a different subspecies, "flexipes."
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Spotted by Karen on our first day as we drove to Intervales.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga) – A single individual figured out that the boat men at Rio Claro were feeding the Black-collared Hawks and decided to join the party.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Common not only along roads but also along rivers and streams on this tour route.
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – A very distant but very distinctive bird seen from the balcony of our lodge at Intervales. [E]
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – A pair of birds seen a couple times on the road that leads to Rio Claro Lodge.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – Unfortunately not everyone got on this one, but a few folks saw it when it made a brief appearance at Intervales.
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – This used to be one of the hardest crakes to see on this tour, but our local guides at Intervales have started feeding them and we are now practically guaranteed to get great looks.
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Formerly know as Gray-necked Wood-Rail.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Seen a few times from the vans at intervales as we drove around the park. [E]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – We managed to pull a couple of birds across an opening at Intervales, allowing the group to get brief but good looks at them.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – We found one bird foraging near the entrance gate of Rio Claro Lodge.
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris) – This is a migrant species, and we don't always see it on the tour, but this year there were quite a few of them around, and we all managed to get good looks at them at one point or another.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Seen in the reeds in the back of the lake near the restaurant at Intervales.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – The Pantanal is probably the best place in the world to see this bird, and we saw great numbers of them every day we were in the Pantanal.
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – The taxonomy of these stilts is confusing and controversial, so it is highly advisable that you keep track of the ones you see. We found them on the first day as we drove to Intervales and Karin saw one in the Pantanal on the day we drove from Rio Claro to Piuval.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A common bird throughout our tour route and one that is specially fond of lawns.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – Seen on several days of the tour but particularly abundant in the Pantanal where we saw them every day.

Jabiru -- quintessential Pantanal! Photo by participant Susan Disher.

Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – Strangely this was the only sandpiper we encountered this year.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex) – Several individuals seen on the tour. One of the many species that will take advantage of the concentrated fish in the Pantanal during the dry season to bring up their young.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) – A common sight in the cities but fortunately not present while we were in the field.
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Abundant in the Pantanal, specially along the rivers and streams.
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – The largest of the native pigeons and one that we saw on most days of the tour.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) – This species is often heard but seldom seen. We found one near the entrance of Intervales State Park and managed to get some nice scope views of it.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – The most common ground-dove in open and modified habitats.
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata) – A close relative of the Inca Dove and a typical occurrence in the Brazilian Cerrado. We saw it in the Pantanal where there is a strong influence of the Cerrado.
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – This tiny and ornate ground-dove is always tricky to find, but our attentive driver in the Pantanal spotted a group for us and we later saw them again.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – Seen a few times in the Pantanal as they took advantage of the corn that fell out of the horse troughs. [*]
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – This is one of the few species that has benefited from the agricultural expansion in the Atlantic Forest, and it has become quite abundant in areas where the forest has been removed.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – If you ever had any doubts that birds and dinosaurs were closely related you just have to take a close look at one of these guys and you will be convinced.
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Seen several times on the tour, but there was one individual caring for young and particularly obliging.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – The most common and widespread cuckoo in Brazil and one that we saw on most days of the trip.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – The Brazilian name for this species is Alma de Gato which translates into "Cat's Soul." I guess cats and squirrels are not that different as they both have long tails and like to jump from one place to another.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – The welcoming committee at Intervales where they sat diligently by the reception welcoming those who cared to look at them.
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – This species was only found around Intervales in recent years, and this was quite the range extension. Unfortunately and despite our great efforts, one bird came close but we never laid eyes on it. [*]
GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus) – A dramatic sighting as we pulled a pair into view and watched as they sang from the top of a tree with a backdrop of fiery red clouds as the sun set in the Pantanal.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We had great looks at this fierce little predator both in the Pantanal and around Iguazu.

Golden-chevroned Tanager is another Atlantic Forest endemic, and we picked this one up at a feeder for great looks. Photo by participant David Disher.

BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – Seen en route to Intervales on the very first day of the tour.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – A great sighting and a fine example of perfect timing as it started raining quite heavily right after we saw it.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – A single bird flew by us in the late afternoon. This species is quite common in the dry season, but we hardly ever see one in the wet season, so we were very lucky.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – A single individual hung around our lodge at Intervales every day, and we saw several of them in the Pantanal.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – Seen both during the night and during the day. A real treat.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Another great bird staked out for us by our local guides at intervales.
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Yet another great experience of the tour was seeing hundreds of these swifts dropping from the sky and flying through the thundering waters of the falls. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – A few birds seen around Intervales.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis) – A few birds seen around Intervales.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – A regular at the Inga tree near the restaurant at Intervales. [E]
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – Seen briefly at Intervales as an individual hovered around our group as if it was checking us out.
BUFF-BELLIED HERMIT (Phaethornis subochraceus) – Seen on the very last morning in the Pantanal where we found a lek.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – Somewhat common around Intervales. [E]
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus) – This is not a bird we usually see on the tour, but a single individual was seen on the Carmo Road at Intervales. The Atlantic Forest subspecies is auriculatus.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Seen on all three of our major stops on this tour but it was really seen well at the feeders in Iguazu.
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – We were all watching for Buff-bellied Hermits on a lek when Marcelo Barreiros spotted a beautiful adult male Frilled Coquette feeding on some tiny white flowers.
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus) – Another bird that is hit or miss on this tour but they were present in good numbers around Intervales this year.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – A single bird seen at Intervales. [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – This minute hummingbird has one of the fastest wingbeats, reaching up to 80 beats per second.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – Another species that was somewhat common around the feeders at Iguazu.

This Crane Hawk shows the banding of the local subspecies very nicely. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – Seen on all major stops of our tour, but seen brilliantly around the feeders at Iguazu.
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata) – The woodnymph of the Pantanal.
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – The geographical replacement of the Fork-tailed Woodnymph in the Atlantic Forest. [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – A monotypic genus.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor) – Common around the feeders at Iguazu.
GLITTERING-THROATED EMERALD (Amazilia fimbriata) – Common around the feeders in Iguazu.
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – Seen twice feeding on the flowers of the garden of our lodge at Intervales.
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – Abundant on the feeders in Iguazu, but otherwise totally absent from our tour.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui) – A strange looking male was sitting on a wire in the Pantanal.
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – We saw this species both at Intervales and in Iguazu. In both places we saw the nominate subspecies, which has a red belly. If you go further north you will find birds with an orange belly that belong to a different subspecies. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – Great looks both at Intervales and Iguazu.
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – This striking Atlantic Forest endemic was seen right on the grounds of our lodge in Argentina. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – The largest of the kingfishers in South America.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – Seen every day in the Pantanal.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – A miniature version of the Amazon Kingfisher which we saw on a couple of occasions in the Pantanal.
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – The smallest of kingfishers in the Americas, and one that is often hard to see as it does not like to sit in the open, but we managed to pull one into view during a boat trip in the Pantanal.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – This Atlantic Forest endemic is a canopy dweller, and is a really hard bird to see, but we found a pair near our hotel on the Argentine side of Iguazu. A lifer for Marcelo Barreiros. [E]
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula) – These cute puffbirds live in the understory and are really hard to detect, but we knew just where to look for them in Iguazu and managed to locate a pair of birds and enjoy great scope views.
BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – An Amazonian species that has the Pantanal as the southern limit of its distribution.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – One of those birds that can be defined as eye candy.

Birding by boat in the Pantanal -- always a fun and productive outing. Photo by participant David Disher.

Ramphastidae (Toucans)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – Seen in the Pantanal and in Iguazu.
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – We had nice looks at this spectacular toucan on the Carmo Road in Intervales. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – Abundant in Iguazu.
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) – An Atlantic Forest endemic which we saw well near the entrance gate of Intervales. [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – These charismatic miniature woodpeckers are endemic to the Atlantic Forest and we saw them on several occasions on the tour. [E]
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus) – This species replaces the previous species in the Pantanal.
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – A striking black and white woodpecker that was seen well in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) – This handsome little woodpecker was seen on a couple of occasions at the feeders near the restaurant at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) – An Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Veniliornis passerinus) – Great looks in the Pantanal where it is one of the most common woodpecker species.
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros) – This chartreuse-green woodpecker is always a treat to see and we had good looks at it in the Pantanal.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) – Seen right from the balcony of our lodge at Intervales.
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros) – This species is more closely related to flickers than other woodpeckers.
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris) – Seen at Intervales, where the clearing of forest has allowed them to move in, and in the Pantanal where they are far more common.
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus) – This is an Amazonian species that has the Pantanal as the southern limit of its distribution.
PALE-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus lugubris) – The Pantanal version of the Blond-crested Woodpecker.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – We had great looks at this striking woodpecker at Intervales. [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – Seen near Intervales.
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – A close relative of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. [E]
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – The largest woodpecker in the Pantanal.

Campo Flicker, photographed by participant Susan Disher.

Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – Susan got us on this unique bird that is one of only two birds in this family.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) [*]
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – Seen every day on the tour.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – Seen in the open areas near the reception at Intervales.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – Sitting on the power lines on our way to Intervales.
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – It is always nice to see a species that has been introduced to so many places in its natural habitat.
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – Common around Intervales. [E]
YELLOW-CHEVRONED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chiriri) – Replaces the Plain Parakeet in the Pantanal.
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E*]
TURQUOISE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva) – The standard Amazona parrot in the Pantanal.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – Less abundant than the Blue-fronted Parrot in the Pantanal.
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – Seen several times near the restaurant at Intervales, and also seen in the gardens of the hotel in Iguazu.
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis) – We had great looks at this Atlantic Forest endemic near the restaurant at Intervales.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – This iconic species was declining rapidly a few years ago, but aggressive conservation efforts have turned the situation around and their population is on the rise.
NANDAY PARAKEET (Aratinga nenday) – A common sight on the feeders at Rio Claro lodge, but otherwise scarce in the northern Pantanal.
YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis) – We had great looks at these small macaws during a boat trip at Rio Claro Lodge.
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – This is not a species we usually see on this tour, but a group of them was seen during a boat trip in the Pantanal.
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Thectocercus acuticaudatus) – Very similar to the White-eyed Parakeet and common in the Pantanal.

Hyacinth Macaws, the world's largest macaw, are a highlight of every visit to the Pantanal. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

RED-SHOULDERED MACAW (Diopsittaca nobilis) – Several individuals feeding on a fruiting tree along the Bento Gomes River in the Pantanal.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – A distant individual scoped from the walkway to the Devil's Throat in Argentina.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – Always a hard bird to see as it is a canopy specialist but we lucked out at Intervales. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – We saw this spectacular bird twice on the tour. What a treat! [E]
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – We really had to work for this one and it never showed itself really well, but most people had a pretty good look at it at one point or another. [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – Another one of the large antshrikes that we saw remarkably well on this tour. [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – Great looks at this one in the Pantanal.
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – A bamboo specialist that we saw extremely well in the Pantanal. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – This is the most widespread species of Antshrike, occurring from Mexico all the way to Argentina.
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) – Great looks at this handsome antshrike near the entrance gate of Intervales.
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni) – A good example of why you should keep track of where you see birds. This species was simply called Slaty Antshrike a few years ago, until a paper came out splitting it into five different species.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens) – The name refers to the many variations in plumage of its many subspecies. The birds we saw at Intervales are the nominate form of the species but there are another seven subspecies.
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – This cute antwren is one of very few antwrens that like to forage close to the forest floor. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – An endemic seen well on the Carmo Road at Intervales. [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – Far more common and widespread than the endemic Spot-breasted. We saw it on several occasions at Intervales and connected with it once again at Iguazu.
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – A canopy antwren that is more often heard than seen. We worked on several individuals before we got good looks at one.
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa) – The formicivora genus has birds that prefer more open habitats and are often easier to see. We had multiple good looks at this species in the Pantanal.
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – One of several Drymophila antbirds we saw very well on the trails of Intervales. [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – Not as striking as the other birds of the genus but always rewarding to see as it is quite a shy bird.
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – A minute antwren that travels around the forest with canopy flocks and is consequently a hard one to see, but after some work we managed to get great looks at them. [E]
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria) – Always found near water so it comes as no surprise that we had great looks at it on a boat trip in the Pantanal.
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – Always neat to see this ruby-red-eyed bird pumping its tail vigorously. [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) – Another Amazonian species that barely makes it to the northern Pantanal.
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus squamosus) – This species lives close to the ground and forages in the leaf litter. We had great looks at one on the Lajeado Trail at Intervales.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata) – A great bird, seen right from the balcony of our lodge at Intervales.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]

Thundering Iguazu Falls -- here we are looking from the Brazilian side up toward the Devil's Throat. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – The birds found around Intervales sound quite different from other populations, and are currently being studied with great potential to become a separate species. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – We found this bird singing from a tree cavity and managed to get great scope views of it.
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – Another bird that is currently being studied and will likely be split in the near future. [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona) – We managed to see one of these while we were working on seeing the Solitary Tinamou.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – Two birds seen while we visited a property near Intervales. Unfortunately, the weather was quite overcast and the understory was a bit dark, making it hard to appreciate the details, but it was fun to watch them foraging and tossing leaves up in the air. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus griseicapillus) – The Olivaceous Woodcreeper has 15 subspecies and will likely be split into several taxa. This bird is the one we saw in the Pantanal.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – The birds we saw at Intervales and Iguazu. [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – Also known as Thrush-like Woodcreeper. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – A single bird traveling with a mixed species flock at the Lajeado Trail at Intervales.
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) [E*]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – Seen twice at Intervales and once in Iguazu. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) [*]
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – Great looks on a boat trip at Piuval Lodge in the Pantanal.
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – What a fascinating bird. That long thin bill is used to probe cracks and holes in trees in search of prey.
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) [E*]
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) – Beautiful, common and quite conspicuous in the Pantanal.
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – A single bird seen on the Lajeado Trail at Intervales. [E]
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – The name Xenops means "strange billed", and it is quite appropriate for this bird that has an upturned bill.
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – Abundant along the rivers of the Pantanal.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – The national bird of Argentina.

The elegant Red-legged Seriema, photographed by participant Susan Disher.

SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – We kept hearing this bird singing from the bank below the road. So I finally decided to do some bushwhacking and get around the bird to call it in, resulting in great looks at this neatly patterned furnariid.
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – One of the most distinctive foliage-gleaners. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) – This species specializes on foraging in bromeliads. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) – Seen nicely on the Lajeado Trail at Intervales. [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Always found with understory mixed species flocks, and we saw them on two occasions. One at Intervales and the other at Iguazu. [E]
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – The most common and widespread foliage-gleaner on our tour route.
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E*]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) – Very common around Iguazu. [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) – Nice looks at Intervales.
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – Another very distinctive foliage-gleaner that we saw twice but particularly well on the start of the Poco Preto trail in Iguazu. [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – Also known as Common Thornbird.
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber) – Abundant in the Pantanal.
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – Great looks at this one in the wet areas near the entrance of Intervales.
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina) – A riverside specialist that we saw well on a boat trip at Rio Claro Lodge.
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – An arboreal spinetail that was seen nicely at Intervales. [E]
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa) – A pair of them nesting right over the boat dock at Rio Claro Lodge.
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – This distinctive spinetail is the only member of its genus, and we had great looks at one on the access road of Rio Claro Lodge.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – A common sight in the wetlands of the Pantanal.
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – Seen and heard several times at Intervales.
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – Always a scarce and tricky one to see, but we managed to pull one into view at Intervales. [E]

Rufous Hornero at its characteristic mud nest, which is the source of its name -- "horno" is an oven in Spanish. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis) – A pair of birds seen in the dry forest around Piuval Lodge.
CINEREOUS-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis hypospodia) – A hard one to find, but when you know the habitat you can bring it out into view.
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora) – A Pantanal specialty.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – This species' habit of rocking its body from side to side makes it one of the easiest birds to identify in this complicated group of birds.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – Found in good numbers in the Pantanal and in Iguazu.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – Good looks in Iguazu.
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) – Found in forested areas in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – This is one of the most common and urban elaenias so it comes as no surprise that we found it in the surroundings of the reception of Intervales.
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis) – Only seen on the very last morning of the tour.
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – Great looks at Intervales.
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) [*]
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – A scarce endemic that we saw very well on the Poco Preto trail at Iguazu. [E]
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – Its Portuguese name translates into "it can't stop", so it is no surprise that it was hard to get a good look at one; we eventually got it to stop so that we could have a good look at one on the Lajeado Trail at Intervales. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – Easily distinguishable by its habit of jiggling the tail.
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – Unfortunately, this one was far away and did not stick around for us to get a long look at it as it was moving through the canopy with a mixed species flock. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – Its short, stubby bill and melodious calls are the best distinguishing features of this Tyrannulet.
SOUTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER (Sublegatus modestus) – Great looks at one on the access road to Piuval Lodge.
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – Iguazu is the best place in the world to see this bird, and even though it took a bit of work, we were not disappointed as we eventually managed to get great scope views of this handsome species.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – The birds in this genus are amongst the smallest passerines in the world and by nature of their size are quite cute, but this one is particularly nice as it is beautifully marked as well as tiny. [E]

A fine portrait of a Rufous-capped Antshrike by participant David Disher.

BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus) – A bamboo specialist that is far more often heard than seen, but we managed to pull one out into view on a trail near our lodge at Intervales. [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Despite the fact that the bird is named after its hanging nest, this is not a unique feature for this bird as many species of flycatchers build similar nests. [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer) – Good looks in the Pantanal.
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – A very ornate tody-flycatcher, but its flatulent little song is not as attractive.
RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus latirostris) – Great looks at this little guy on the road to the lake at Piuval.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens) – There are several subspecies of this bird and they vary in plumage and song, so it is a good idea to keep track of where you seen them. This form is the one we saw in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – The subspecies present in the Atlantic Forest.
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – The goal keeper at Intervales.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri) – Very distinctive, thanks largely to the two wing bars it sports on each wing.
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – A common bird in the Pantanal, where it is quite conspicuous as it tends to perch on top of termite nests and fence wires.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – Always fun to watch these striking flycatchers perform their flamboyant displays.
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer) – Seen nicely on the boat trip at Piuval.
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – Another fancy flycatcher with an amusing display.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Seen briefly in the Pantanal.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – Nice scope views at Intervales.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – A common sight in the Pantanal.
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) [*]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – This species is one of the most commonly heard species of the in the Atlantic Forest during the winter, and then they become quiet and disperse during the summer. Very little is know about where the majority of them migrate.

Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper is difficult to see as well as this individual allowed us to do! Photo by participant David Disher.

GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Great looks at this one at Intervales. [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – Up until recently it was known simply as the Sirystes, but the species has recently been split.
RUFOUS CASIORNIS (Casiornis rufus) – This species resembles a Myiarchus flycatcher but it is entirely brown. We had good looks at one in the Pantanal.
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
SHORT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus ferox) – More common and more heavily built than the Swainson's.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Great looks in the Pantanal.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Seen every day during our tour.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – Seen a few times, allowing us to appreciate the differences between this species and the similar Great Kiskadee.
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – Replaces the Social Flycatcher in the Pantanal.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – Always difficult to get a good look at as they sit in the highest branches of trees, but we managed to call one in and get it in the scope at Intervales.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Seen on a daily basis around Intervales.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius) – A great spot by Casey when we were birding near our lodge in Iguazu.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Another common flycatcher that was seen almost every day on the tour.
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – A few birds seen sporting their long tails and performing their display flights.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – A bird so unique that it is the only member of its family.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – A beautiful cotinga that was seen nicely around Intervales.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – Not as pretty as the Berryeater but a a scarce Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
Pipridae (Manakins)
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – Formerly known as Blue Manakin. [E]

Immense Southern Screamer are also very loud! Photo by participant David Disher.

BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – A highlight of the tour was seeing a colorful male displaying vigorously on a lek.
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) – Usually a hard bird to see but we got great looks at it twice on our tour.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – Heard many times but seen only once on the tour. [E]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus nigriventris) – We saw this species twice on the tour. Once in the Atlantic Forest and once in the Pantanal where we saw this subspecies.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus spixii) – The subspecies found in the Atlantic Forest.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus) – Nice looks at Intervales.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) – Seen almost every day during our stay at Intervales. [E]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis) – The Greenlet found in the Pantanal.
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) – Common in the Pantanal where they were a common presence at the feeders at Rio Claro Lodge.
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – This handsome jay is a common sight inside the National Park at Iguazu.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – Very abundant in the Atlantic Forest.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – Common in cities and urban areas, often perching on cell phone towers and wires.
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera) – Found in good numbers in the Pantanal.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – Nicely seen on the walk out to the Devil's Throat as they tend to sit on the hand rails of the walkway.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Seen regularly around our lodges in Iguazu and Intervales.

Another lovely Pantanal sunset, photographed by participant Susan Disher.

THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – The birds found in the Pantanal belong to the subspecies "unicolor", which is quite different from birds found in the Amazon.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – Good views from the boat at Rio Claro.
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – Its odd shape always makes me think of stick figures drawn by kids.
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola) – Often the first responders to the owl tape in the Pantanal.
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – Donacobius used to be considered a species of wren until it was finally put in its own family.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – A shy forest thrush that we saw a couple of times around Intervales.
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) – Seen often in response to the pygmy-owl tape.
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – The national bird of Brazil.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis) – Seen in the wetlands around the entrance of Intervales State Park.
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – A common sight in Iguazu.
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – One of the most common birds in the understory of the Atlantic Forest.
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola) – Good looks at one individual in the dry forest of Piuval Lodge.
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – An Atlantic Forest endemic with a nice song that was seen very well around Intervales. [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) [*]
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – This odd looking tanager is the only member of its genus. [E]
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata) – Fortunately for us, this beautiful bird is a common sight in the Pantanal.
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – Nice views right by our lodge on the Argentine side of Iguazu.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – Seen a couple of time with understory flocks around Intervales.

Tropical Screech-Owl, photographed by participant David Disher.

GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata) – Showed up in response to the pygmy-owl tape in the Pantanal.
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – A regular visitor of the feeders at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – A single female seen briefly in the Pantanal.
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – A couple of young males showed up at the feeder by the restaurant at Intervales.
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Seen right around our lodge at Intervales. [E]
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Pipraeidea bonariensis) – It was a bit of a surprise for me when this species showed up at the feeders at Intervales, but the local guides told me that there were a few previous records. Nevertheless it is a rare bird in Intervales.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca) – The washed out and wide spread version of the Azure-Shouldered Tanager.
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – Seen on the feeders of our lodge in Intervales.
GOLDEN-CHEVRONED TANAGER (Thraupis ornata) – Another endemic that showed up nicely at the feeders in Intervales. [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – Good views in the Pantanal.
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – The Latin name of this tanager is "Preciosa". Do I need to say anything else?
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (Tangara cayana) – A few individuals showing up at the feeders by our lodge in Intervales.
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – One of the prettiest tanagers, and one that we saw many times on the feeders. [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – A small group of them made an appearance with a flock in Intervales. [E]
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – This species is hard to locate and distinguish from the common and widespread Blue Dacnis, but our local guides from Intervales got us on a pair of birds and we were able to enjoy great looks at them.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Common and widespread.
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – Great looks at this striking tanager in Iguazu.
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – A very responsive individual showed itself nicely in Intervales. [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – We had nice looks at this species in the Pantanal, even seeing the diagnostic chestnut colored vent of the male.

Cocoi Heron, the southern replacement of Great Blue Heron. Photo by participant Susan Disher.

UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E*]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – A common visitor of the feeders in the Pantanal.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – A common bird in the open grassland.
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – Several males seen nicely in the open areas of Intervales.
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera) – Seen a few times in the Pantanal.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – This species is a popular cage bird, so it is nice to see a healthy population in the wild.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – Seen every day in Intervales.
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris) – Nice views of this striking seedeater in the Pantanal.
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus) – Great views in the Pantanal, where we even saw a nice male with its brilliant red crest erected.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Almost as common as the hummingbirds on the feeders in Iguazu.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens) – Common in the Pantanal.
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis) – Seen a few times around Intervales.
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – Great looks at this on on the Carmo Road in Intervales. [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris) – Great looks at this handsome sparrow near our hotel in Iguazu.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Common around Intervales and Iguazu.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – One of the nuclear species of the mixed species flocks in Iguazu.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella superciliaris) – Seen a couple of times from the airplane window in the running strip of the Sao Paulo airport.
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus) – A single individual seen far away.
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus) – A common species in the wetlands of the Pantanal.

We had fabulous looks at Spot-winged Wood-Quail, too! Photo by participant David Disher.

GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius) – Known until recently as Baywing Cowbird, but it was recently split into two species and it is not a cowbird.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – Seen on several days of the tour.
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
VARIABLE ORIOLE (CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED) (Icterus pyrrhopterus periporphyrus)
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus) – A close relative of the North American orioles.
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius) – It was a lot of fun watching one of these birds building a nest near the boat dock at Rio Claro Lodge.
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – Formerly known as Green-chinned Euphonia.
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) [*]
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

BLACK HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta caraya)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)

Wing-barred Piprites is most often just a voice in the trees, but we got lucky! Photo by participant David Disher.

GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
GUINEA PIG (Cavia aperea)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
MARSH DEER (Blastocerus dichotomus)
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana)
GOLDEN TEGU (Tupinambis teguixin)


Totals for the tour: 388 bird taxa and 11 mammal taxa