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Field Guides Tour Report
Brazil Nutshell: Intervales, Iguazu Falls & the Pantanal 2019
Mar 9, 2019 to Mar 23, 2019
Marcelo Padua

This beautiful Swallow-tailed Manakin was one of the colorful tropical species that we saw at Intervales State Park. What a great introduction to birding in Brazil! Photo by participant Duane Morse.

When going to Brazil for the first time most people don’t really know what to expect, but everyone dreams of exotic and colorful birds, beautiful forests and welcoming people. This tour is aimed at providing a taste of all of the best things that Brazil has to offer and I think we have achieved our goal!

We started things off in the largest city of South America and one of the largest in the world, with more than 13 million people, but soon found ourselves far removed from the madness of it all when we immersed ourselves into the luxuriant forests of Intervales State Park. Walking through the forest and taking in the hundreds of textures and shades of green has a calming effect that is quickly dissipated by bursts of color brought by colorful birds such as Swallow-tailed Manakins, and dizzying flurries of excitement brought by flocks of birds that are often attended by more that 20 species. Three full days here are the best introduction to Brazilian birds, food and culture that one could hope for.

As we peeled away from Intervales the forest gave way to pastures and cities, but in a country with so many birds the clearing of the forest makes way for new birds that colonize the area. As we headed back to the big city, we were delighted to find puffbirds, hawks and the odd looking Red Legged-Seriemas. Our flight was late leaving from Sao Paulo, and in true Brazilian style we turned an inconvenience into a happy hour complete with delicious Caipirinhas and little Brazilian treats (If life gives you limes… make some Caipirinhas!).

We eventually made our way to Iguazu where we were taken by the vastness of of the falls. It is one of those places that simply cannot be translated into a photograph, and we took our time to explore every angle of this natural wonder. Sometimes I think the falls look like a crown, complete with little gems like Toco Toucans, Plush-crested Jays, Red-rumped Caciques and the occasional rainbow to add even more to the extravaganza of it all.

We were all in love with the falls, but there was one final act to this play and we headed to the famous Pantanal, barely containing our excitement with every new bird that zipped by the window of the bus as we made progress towards the famous Transpantaneira. It was then that I launched a Challenge. We would try to find 100 species of birds before reaching our lodge, a tall order at 15:30 in the afternoon but we were certainly going for it. Three hours later, we reached our destination with 103 species in the count, including some unforgettable sightings such as Hyacinth Macaw and Common Potoo. A proper introduction to the Pantanal, indeed, but we slowed things down a bit on the following days. We enjoyed long and productive views of everything from Undulated Tinamous to Grayish Saltators. Cruising by boat or in our comfortable air-conditioned vehicle, we savored all that this great country has to offer, enjoying all of the best features of Brazil in a Nutshell.

I loved sharing it all with each of you and I hope our paths cross again someday!

-Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Hyacinth Macaws are perhaps the most charismatic birds of the Pantanal. We saw these giants every day we were there. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

Rheidae (Rheas)
GREATER RHEA (Rhea americana) – A common sight on the Pantanal section of the tour.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – Always a treat to see any member of this family of secretive birds.
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – A huge beast of the wetlands of the Pantanal that we saw well more than once.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – It was intriguing to me that they were so scarce this year, but we found some individuals mixed in with Black-bellied Whistling-ducks.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – The most common species of duck in the Pantanal.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – Always nice to see this species where it is native.
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – While White-faced Whistling-ducks were in short supply this year, Brazilian Teal were far more abundant than usual.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
CHACO CHACHALACA (Ortalis canicollis) – Abundant and vocal in the Pantanal. You just can't get away from them.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Great looks at Intervales, with a few individuals even visiting the feeding station we set up right outside our lodge.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED GUAN (Penelope ochrogaster) – The Pantanal has no endemic species, but you would be hard pressed to find one of these guys outside of the Pantanal as it is their stronghold.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – Good views in the Pantanal.
BARE-FACED CURASSOW (Crax fasciolata) – Curassows are scarce in most places but they thrive in the Pantanal, where the habitat is relatively untouched and they are not hunted.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – After a few tries at Intervales we managed to get superb views of these birds coming to the feeder. [E]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – We saw this mid-sized pigeon in every place we stopped, but the Pantanal is where they were most common.
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – Common.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – The standard Ground-dove along our route.
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata) – A close relative of the Inca Dove from North America.
LONG-TAILED GROUND-DOVE (Uropelia campestris) – Far less common than other Ground-doves, but we managed to see this handsome species in the Pantanal along the entrance road of Rio Claro lodge.

Although they are generally very difficult to see, this Undulated Tinamou allowed us to have a good look. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – These neat pre-historic looking birds are a common sight in open habitats of Brazil.
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – A seasonal visitor of the Pantanal, with their populations moving north to the Amazon in the winter.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – Often heard but seldom seen. We saw them twice in the Pantanal, including a fledgling.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – A common bird, but always fun to watch hopping along the branches of trees, behaving like a squirrel.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – This species is found along rivers at dawn and dusk as they forage for insects flying over the water. We had good looks on a pre-dawn outing in the Pantanal.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – The last species we saw before we reached our lodge in the Pantanal on the day we arrived.
Apodidae (Swifts)
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Watching these birds flying into the waterfall at Iguazu is one of my favorite experiences anywhere. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Seen several times at Intervales.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis) – We found this small swift at iguazu while visiting the national park on the Argentine side.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – After a couple of brief sightings at Intervales it was nice to see this species well at the feeders in Iguazu [E]
BUFF-BELLIED HERMIT (Phaethornis subochraceus) – A scarce and range restricted species, but we visited a lek in the Pantanal and had great looks at them.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – Common at Intervales. [E]
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus auriculatus) – Seen by just a couple of folks with our local guide at Intervales.
WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus guainumbi) – It was a lot of fun watching this one building a nest.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Common at the feeders in Iguazu.

The Transpantaneira road is one of the most famous birding roads in the world and justifiably so. Our group found 103 species of birds in the first three and a half hours spent on it. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – A nice male seen in the Pantanal. This species is only found here in the Summer.
FESTIVE COQUETTE (FESTIVE) (Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus) – Nice looks at a few individuals feeding on a bottle brush at Intervales.
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris) – An unusual find for this tour, but we had great looks.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
FORK-TAILED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania furcata)
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – An Atlantic Forest Endemic that is common at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis) – We managed to bring one of these shy Crakes out in view along the Transpantaneira Road.
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Formerly known as Gray-necked Wood-Rail.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Nice looks at Intervales. [E]
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica) – Seen along the Transpantaneira Road.
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – After trying hard to see this species at Intervales and Iguazu, we had fabulous views of one in the Pantanal.
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – This is one of the hardest species of crakes to see, but our local guides at Intervales have started feeding them and we had fabulous views.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)

This Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch sat up and posed nicely for participant Duane Morse.

Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – We saw this handsome Lapwing in the Pantanal.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – We had great looks at an adult with tiny chicks.
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – Seen foraging on the rocks above the falls at Iguazu.
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias)
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – The last bird of the tour as we headed to the airport.
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – Common in the Pantanal but always a treat to watch.
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
ZIGZAG HERON (Zebrilus undulatus) – We really had to work hard for this one and even had to do some bush-whacking in order to see it, but our efforts paid off in a big way when we got incredible looks at this rare and shy Heron.
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Multiple individuals seen on the tour sporting both adult plumage and the juvenile plumage for which the bird is named.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)

This Wattled Jacana was seen with a few tiny chicks that are not visible here. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – Usually a very shy bird, but we found a very obliging individual right by the road and it only left when a cow almost ran over it.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
PLUMBEOUS IBIS (Theristicus caerulescens)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Less common than Black and Turkey Vultures, but seen daily in the Pantanal.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) [b]
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – We had close up views of a recently fledged juvenile that our local guide spotted at Intervales.
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis) – Always fun to see these beautiful raptors fetching fish thrown by our boat pilots in the Pantanal.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – This species migrates to the Pantanal in great numbers during the wet season to take advantage of the explosion in the population of snails when the Pantanal floods.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Common in the Pantanal, but we also found one on the way to Intervales, a sign that deforestation is creating new areas of habitat for this species.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)

Another lovely manakin species that we saw was the Pin-tailed Manakin, which is a Brazilian endemic. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – A pair of birds waiting for us by the reception at Intervales. A great welcoming team!
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – A brief fly-by.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – Great scope views of this tiny but fierce predator.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila)
Trogonidae (Trogons)
BLUE-CROWNED TROGON (Trogon curucui)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – Great looks at this Atlantic Forest endemic during our visit to Intervales. [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) – Formerly known as Blue-crowned Motmot. We saw one at Piuval lodge towards the end of our tour.
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – Seen right in the gardens of our lodge on the Argentine side of Iguazu. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – Typically rare and shy, but we had multiple sightings of this minute kingfisher during our visit to the Pantanal.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) – By far the hardest of the kingfishers to see as it lives and fishes in the forest, but we managed to spot one in the Pantanal.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – Great looks at this canopy specialist near our hotel in Iguazu. [E]
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – We had an amazing line up of 6 birds on a power line on our way back to Sao Paulo from Intervales.
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula)

Participant George Gerdts got a very nice portrait of one of the Blue-and-Yellow Macaws that we found in the Pantanal.

BLACK-FRONTED NUNBIRD (Monasa nigrifrons) – Seen every day in the Pantanal.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula ruficauda) – Despite looking a bit like hummingbirds, Jacamars are insectivores that sit on a perch waiting for insects to fly by, and then sally out to capture them, much like a flycatcher.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – We saw these colorful "miniature toucans" both in Iguazu and in the Pantanal, where they apeared regularly at the gardens of our lodge.
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – We had scope views of both the male and female of this species on the Poco Preto trail on the Brazilian side of Iguacu. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco)
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E*]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – This tiny woodpecker can easily go undetected because of its minute size and its high pitched song but we had great looks at them both at Intervales and Iguazu. [E]
WHITE-WEDGED PICULET (Picumnus albosquamatus)
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Dryobates spilogaster) – One of the many Atlantic Forest endemics we saw at Intervales. [E]
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus) – This widespread species has nine different subspecies. We had good views of the agilis subspecies in the Pantanal.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus) – This species is always found close to bodies of water and we had good looks at a pair of birds during a boat trip at Rio Claro Lodge.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – A close relative of the Pale-crested Woodpecker, which we saw in the Pantanal, but this one occurs in the Atlantic Forest. [E]
GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER (Piculus chrysochloros) – Close up views of this species on the entrance road to Rio Claro lodge in the Pantanal.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus)
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (GREEN-BARRED) (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (Colaptes campestris) – Seen or heard on most days of the tour.
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – A great spot by George.

Guira Cuckoos are common in Brazil, but these are such interesting looking birds that we were happy to see them. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) [*]
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – Seen a Forest-Falcon right in the parking lot of of our lodge in Iguazu is a good indication of why we chose to stay there.
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – We found one right at dusk on the side of the Transpantaneira Road.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis)
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – The folks who arrived before the tour saw this species right at the gardens of the hotel in Sao Paulo. We later saw it again at Intervales with the rest of the group. [E]
YELLOW-CHEVRONED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chiriri) – This species replaces the Plain Parakeet in the Pantanal.
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E*]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani) – We saw two subspecies of this bird on the tour. The nominate in the Atlantic Forest and the subspecies syi that occurs in the Pantanal and sports a white eye ring.
TURQUOISE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva) – Common in the Pantanal.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – Less abundant than the similar Turquoise-fronted Parrot but we managed to see them on a couple of ocassions in the Pantanal.
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Usually seen flying by like a rocket but we managed to see some perched birds at Intervales.
HYACINTH MACAW (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – Seeing this giant on our first day in the Pantanal was a pleasure, but it did not deter us from taking full advantage of the great views we had in the following days.
NANDAY PARAKEET (Aratinga nenday) – A regular visitor of the feeders at Rio Claro Lodge.

A White-crested Tyrannulet, one of a number of small flycatchers we found on the tour. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

YELLOW-COLLARED MACAW (Primolius auricollis)
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – Not a resident species in the Pantanal, but a few individuals visit the area during the wet season and we found them in the Pantanal.
BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET (Thectocercus acuticaudatus)
RED-SHOULDERED MACAW (Diopsittaca nobilis) – Another species that is seasonally found in the Pantanal due to the abundance of fruiting trees.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – Common and widespread.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – Always a tough species to see as it lives in the Canopy but we had excellent views in Iguazu. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – Wow! This is an iconic species and we had great looks at this massive bird.
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) [E*]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major)
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – A bamboo specialist that we found at Intervales. [E]
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
PLANALTO SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus pelzelni) – This species inhabits semi-deciduous forest in the Pantanal and is one of several species that were split from a bird formerly known simply as Slaty Antshrike.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – Always fun to see, especially because it lives close to the ground and provides a much needed break from looking at canopy birds. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
LARGE-BILLED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus longirostris) – In the world of birds, males are often more colorful than females, but this is certainly not one of those cases.
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus)

Red-legged Seriemas are open-country birds; we saw these two on our way back to Sao Paulo. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

BLACK-BELLIED ANTWREN (Formicivora melanogaster)
RUSTY-BACKED ANTWREN (Formicivora rufa)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – This striking Antbird was seen in tracts of bamboo during our stay at Intervales. [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura)
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – A tiny species that travels with canopy mixed species flocks, making it a challenge to see in many different ways. We found it with a couple of mixed species flocks. [E]
MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra melanaria)
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
BAND-TAILED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) – This tiny antbird is typical of the Amazon but its range extends into the northern Pantanal.
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus squamosus) – We had great looks at this striking Antbird at Intervales.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – Another gem that we pulled into view at Intervales.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata)
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) [*]
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – The birds found at Intervales actually belong to an undescribed taxon, so keep your eyes open for publications on this bird, as it may very well turn out to be a totally new species. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – Always tricky to see, but we have great experience into tricking them into coming in view for us.
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – Another species that may turn out to be a new taxon. [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – Seen at Intervales. This species specializes in foraging in the leaf litter on the forest floor. [E]

The Pantanal is the best place to find the Chestnut-bellied Guan. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (AMAZONIAN) (Sittasomus griseicapillus griseicapillus)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – There are 15 subspecies of Olivaceous woodcreepers with clear differences in vocalization, plumage and range and they will inevitably be split at some point, so it is always a good idea to keep track of where you see them. [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – Great looks at Intervales. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) [E]
GREAT RUFOUS WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes major) – There are Woodcreepers, and there is the Great Rufous Woodcreeper. We had great looks at this massive species in the Pantanal.
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) – Another species with a lot of subspecies. The bird we saw in the Pantanal belongs to the dorbignyanus subspecies.
RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – Another spectacular species of Woodcreeper. This bird uses its highly specialized bill to probe cracks in the trees to look for invertebrates.
NARROW-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris)
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) [*]
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – A common species in open areas and the national bird of Argentina.
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura)
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – A bamboo specialist that we saw well at Intervales. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) – This canopy dweller forages almost exclusively in Bromeliads in the canopy. [E]

We found the attractive Plush-crested Jay at Iguazu, where they were plentiful. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Always found with mixed species flocks. We saw it at Intervales and Iguazu. [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – This species did not occur around Intervales, but with the introduction of Araucaria trees they started showing up.
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons)
GREATER THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ruber)
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula)
RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina) – Always found along bodies of water in the Pantanal.
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
RUFOUS CACHOLOTE (Pseudoseisura unirufa) – Formerly known as Gray-crested Cacholote.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – Common and widespread.
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – Seeing this bird was easy in the Pantanal, but trying to pronounce its latin name is an entirely different story.
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) [E*]
WHITE-LORED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albilora) – A classic case of ornithologists getting carried away when naming a bird. I am still looking for the white lore.
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
CINEREOUS-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis hypospodia) [*]

Participant Duane Morse got a nice shot of one of the Chestnut-eared Aracaris we saw.

SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
SOOTY-FRONTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis frontalis)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – Tyrannulets are always tricky to identify visually, but this one has a unique behavior that sets it apart from others as it is constantly moving its body from side to side.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – A hard one to see as it lives in the top of the canopy but we brought one down a bit at Iguazu for a quick look.
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – The most common of the Elaenias.
LARGE ELAENIA (Elaenia spectabilis)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura)
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans) – We found these charismatic (and distinctive for a change) Tyrannulets on the edge of a lake at Intervales.
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – This one has a very small distribution and we had to work really hard on finding them this year. Fortunately we found them at the Poco Preto Trail at Iguazu. [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – Another Tyrannulet that has a unique behavior, jiggling its tail all the time.
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – We found this one right by our lodge at Intervales.
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]

The aptly named Roadside Hawk is a common species along the Transpantaneira road. This juvenile was photographed right from our bus window by participant George Gerdts.

PLAIN TYRANNULET (Inezia inornata)
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E*]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – We birders are just like kids, and it shows when the first bird song people learn is the flatulent song of this tiny flycatcher.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (MATO GROSSO) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens) [*]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – I have a soft spot for birds with unique adaptive characteristics, and this little guy is no exception.
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (Onychorhynchus coronatus) – Very hard to find when not nesting but our local guide found one for us at Intervales.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (SWALLOW) (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) [*]
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) [*]
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – A trip to a small village near intervales resulted in great looks at this discreet flycatcher.
BLACK-BACKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola albiventer) – Fairly common in the Pantanal.

A Rufous-capped Antshrike posed well for this photo by participant Duane Morse.

MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – We watched one of these birds carrying nesting material at the hotel grounds in Sao Paulo while we waited for a delayed flight.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – A rather dull looking flycatcher, but fun to watch as it follows anything from cattle to capybara around, waiting for them to flush insects that it captures.
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus)
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – A classic example of how beautiful a brown and gray bird can be. [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni) – A regular presence around our lodge at intervales.
SHORT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus ferox) – Common in the Pantanal.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Seen in the Pantanal where it is always close to water.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Seen every day on the tour.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – This species replaces the Social Flycatcher in the Pantanal.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
CROWNED SLATY FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus) – This austral migrant has the longest latin name of any bird in the world. We found an early arrival in the Pantanal.
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)

Green-headed Tanagers are found in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, where they can be quite common. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Scope views of this bird that is the only member of its family. What a treat!
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Heard every day at Intervales but seen nicely once.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides)
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – This species is silent in the summer, making it extremely hard, to find but we had one female at Intervales.
Pipridae (Manakins)
HELMETED MANAKIN (Antilophia galeata) – One female spotted in the Pantanal.
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – A stunning bird that was formerly known as Blue Manakin. I have to admit I prefer the old name. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – What a gem. We had great looks at an adult male at the Poco Preto trail in Iguazu.
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – One of those birds that sound a lot more impressive than it looks. [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – We had one right outside our lodge at Intervales.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis)
CHIVI VIREO (MIGRATORY) (Vireo chivi chivi) – A recent split from Red-eyed Vireo.

The Pantanal is home to many cattle ranches, and sometimes on tour we run into a herd being moved. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
PURPLISH JAY (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) – Common in the Pantanal.
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – Certainly one of the highlights of Iguazu is seeing these fabulous jays all over the place.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – Commonly seen perched on wires and towers.
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – Great looks at these birds perched on the handrail of the walkway to the Devil's Throat.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – Heard in Iguazu and seen in the Pantanal.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – It is always a treat to watch these handsome birds displaying.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – This species was chosen as the national bird of Brazil thanks to its lovely song.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) [*]
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – A great find by Mary Anne.
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea) – This one was found by Judy.
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala)

Here's our happy group in a boat on Lake Piuval. Photo by participant Bob Kissel.

CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus) – We found these colorful birds on our way to Intervales on the first day of the tour.
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – Great looks at this stunning sparrow on our way back to Sao Paulo from Intervales.
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – Seen regularly in the Pantanal.
SOLITARY BLACK CACIQUE (Cacicus solitarius)
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
VARIABLE ORIOLE (CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED) (Icterus pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus) – These are the birds present at Iguazu.
VARIABLE ORIOLE (CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED) (Icterus pyrrhopterus periporphyrus) – This is the subspecies present in the Pantanal.
ORANGE-BACKED TROUPIAL (Icterus croconotus)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – This species parasitizes Crested Oropendolas.
SCARLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Amblyramphus holosericeus) – An incredibly beautiful species found in Papyrus marshes. We found them in the Pantanal.
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius)
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus)

We were able to watch this Black-collared Hawk as it swooped in to catch a fish. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – They were absent from our usual spot but we managed to find some on our way back to Sao Paulo from Intervales.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – Common around Iguazu.
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – A common species around Intervales and Iguazu.
FLAVESCENT WARBLER (Myiothlypis flaveola)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – Formerly known as White-rimmed Warbler. [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – A nuclear species of the mixed species flocks at Iguazu.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) [E*]
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata) – A typical case of a bird that has been introduced to many areas but occurs naturally in the Pantanal.
YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – We saw this canopy Tanager well in the Pantanal.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – Named after a feature that is almost never visible, but a few of us caught a glimpse of the red crown that gave birth to the bird's name. [E]
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus)
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – Seen at Intervales. [E]
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)

Yellow-chinned Spinetail is a common and widespread bird, but we were happy to get a nice look at this one. Photo by participant Duane Morse.

DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca) – The most abundant of the three Thraupis tanagers that we saw on the tour, occurring in all three areas we visited.
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – It was nice to see this species side by side with the similar Sayaca Tanager to be able to compare the different features of the two.
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – Good looks at this tanager, that is called precious for a good reason, at intervales.
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – Another gem of the Atlantic Forest. [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti)
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum)
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – Common at the feeders in the Pantanal.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – We had a good time watching the interesting display of this species.
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – Several males advertising their presence to the females at Intervales.
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
RUSTY-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila collaris)
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus) – What a stunning bird. It was a lot of fun to watch the males flaring up their magnificent crests in the Pantanal.

The tiny (for a heron) Least Bittern is widespread across the wetlands of the Americas, including those in Brazil. Photo by participant George Gerdts.

BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
BLACK-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltatricula atricollis) – Seen just before we entered the Transpantaneira in the ecotone between the Cerrado and the Pantanal.
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) [E]
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

GREATER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio leporinus)
BLACK-TAILED MARMOSET (Callithrix (Mico) melanura)
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
GUINEA PIG (Cavia aperea)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae)
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
GIANT OTTER (Pteronura brasiliensis)
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana)
BROWN BROCKET DEER (Mazama gouazoubira)
GREEN IGUANA (Iguana iguana)
GIANT AMEIVA (Ameiva ameiva)


Totals for the tour: 408 bird taxa and 13 mammal taxa