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Field Guides Tour Report
Jan 19, 2014 to Jan 25, 2014
John Coons & Lena Senko

A canopy lover, the Green-Shrike Vireo is notoriously difficult to see. We were so fortunate to see one up close where we could admire its beautiful, bright green plumage and serious, hook-tipped bill. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

Since its inception in 1999, the Canopy Tower has gained worldwide fame for its proximity to some of the best birding hotspots in the country. Situated within the 55,000-acre Soberania National Park in central Panama, it is the ideal launching-off point for birders wishing to explore its diverse surroundings, which are home to some 525 species of birds and 105 species of mammals.

On this trip, we sampled a good chunk of this diversity and delighted in the common as well as the unexpected species that came our way. A beautiful Black Hawk-Eagle greeted us on our first day, soaring and calling right over the entrance road to the Canopy Tower -- a wonderful road for spotting White-whiskered and Black-chested puffbirds, Rufous and Broad-billed motmots, and a host of antbirds, antwrens, and woodcreepers. From the scenic upper story of the tower itself, we watched a slow, feeding Brown-throated Three-Toed Sloth while the treetops came alive with tanagers, tityras, warblers, and toucans.

A nearby birding hotspot, Ammo Pond, is a haven for Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Yellow-tailed Oriole, and Barred Antshrike. We admired these striking species while studying differences between the similar-looking Great Kiskadee, Boat-billed, Rusty-margined, and Social flycatchers. What's birding without a healthy flycatcher challenge, huh? We also observed two nests of Black-throated Mangos, one of which contained a couple of cute chicks. A visit to another birdy location, Summit Pond, yielded four species of kingfishers, including the teeny and tough-to-find American Pygmy Kingfisher. Nesting Boat-billed Herons were fun to watch as they clambered about on giant palm fronds, and we were in for quite a treat when we saw the rare and gorgeous Agami Heron and later Spectacled Owl!

A bird no one forgets on this tour is the dazzling male Blue Cotinga. Recently, a new observation tower was built near the start of the famous Pipeline Road, and it is the perfect perch from which to observe the canopy-loving cotinga, Collared Forest-Falcon, White-winged Becard, Yellow-backed Oriole, and Blue Dacnis, to name a few. The Pipeline Road itself is, of course, sensational. Many difficult goodies dwell along its track, including Spot-crowned Antshrike, Gray Elaenia, Great Tinamou, and four trogon species. Great Jacamar, Black-striped Woodcreeper, Speckled Mourner, and Streak-chested Antpitta were nice finds, too.

Other highlights included a Common Potoo on a day roost and a night drive where we saw not one, not two, but five Kinkajous, along with opossums, a Common Pauraque, and even a surprise Crested Owl (that was something!). Aside from the birds, there were many other enjoyments to be had, such as the cool, refreshing breeze up on the Canopy Tower and the sun-ripened sweetness of abundant papayas, melons, and pineapples. A trip to central Panama would not be complete without a visit to the Panama Canal, where we absorbed the history of this monumental human achievement and watched a giant cargo ship pass through the locks.

We owe heaping thanks to the Canopy Tower staff for their fantastic hospitality and to our incredibly keen local guide, Alexis Sanchez. Thanks also to each one of you for your lively energy and enthusiasm…John and I look forward to seeing you again down the road!

In the words of the Whooping Motmot…



One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – Heard nearly every day; some had a quick glimpse of one along Pipeline Road as we drove out.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – What a surprise to see it flying over the canopy from the Discovery Center tower!
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – A couple showed themselves nicely at Gamboa.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

A Common Potoo sits perfectly camouflaged on its day perch. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Comparing a juvenile with a nearby adult was nice at Ammo Pond.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Got it on the way out of Summit Pond... it was standing in the grass on the side of the road.
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
AGAMI HERON (Agamia agami) – WOWEE! John spotted this extraordinary heron at the edge of the water at Summit Pond. A lifer for Lena and certainly a highlight for all, for sure!
BOAT-BILLED HERON (SOUTHERN) (Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis) [N]
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
WHITE IBIS (Eudocimus albus)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – On Sunday evening some of us had two adults and one juvenile from the Canopy Tower parking lot.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) [*]
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – One seen on the first day, circling over Semaphore Hill and whistling.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus)
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – Very briefly at Pipeline Road; it landed in the top of a tree and then promptly slipped out the back.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) [*]
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) [*]
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa)
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) – Fortunately we all got looks at one sitting high up in some dead limbs along Pipeline Road before it flew away. That bill is indeed quite short!
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-CHESTED DOVE (Leptotila cassini) – Alexis found a singing bird in the densest of foliage then put it in the scope for all to admire - otherwise we would have not seen that well-hidden bird.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)

Finding owls by night is fantastic. Spotting an owl during the day is even more special. This Spectacled Owl was discovered on its day roost, peeping at us from behind a leaf. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Three were perching at the Ammo Pond. This species is larger than the other two anis, with a pale iris and glistening plumage of blue, green, and purple.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
CRESTED OWL (Lophostrix cristata) – Amazing! What a terrific bird. Excellent spotting by Alexis on our night drive.
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) – Not every day does one get to see an owl perched so close on its day roost...
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
COMMON NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles minor) – Very uncommon at this time of year, one passage migrant was seen as a flyby from the tower on our first morning.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Great looks on our night drive of one perching right in the road.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – What amazing camouflage. Luckily for us, the Metro Park security guard knew exactly where to find him on his day roost.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
BAND-TAILED BARBTHROAT (Threnetes ruckeri) – An unexpected find as we were about to leave Summit Pond on our last evening.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris)
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis)
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti)
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Two nests at Ammo Pond, one of which had two young Mangos poking their itty bitty bills out of their lichen nest. [N]
SNOWY-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia edward edward) – Our best looks were at the feeder at the Canopy B&B.
RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – A couple at the Discovery Center's feeders.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena)
WHITE-TAILED TROGON (Trogon chionurus) – We encountered three – all sitting near each other – on Pipeline Road. A Slaty-tailed Trogon perched near them, too. It was an all-out trogon party.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) [*]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – Encountered on Pipeline Road. This species looks similar to the Gartered but sports a yellow bill instead of a gray one.
Momotidae (Motmots)
WHOOPING MOTMOT (WHOOPING) (Momotus subrufescens conexus) – This species was split in 2010 from the Blue-crowned Motmot into five separate species: Blue-crowned, Whooping, Andean, Amazonian, and Trinidad Motmot.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii)
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum)
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – What an amazing little bird… he sat low over the water in beautiful view at Summit Pond, long enough for all to admire and for Lena to grab a video
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus)

Sleepy as can be, a Brown-throated Three-Toed Sloth takes a snooze in a Ceiba tree at Metro Park. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

BLACK-BREASTED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus pectoralis)
WHITE-WHISKERED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila panamensis)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – Two perched and sang over our heads on Pipeline Road just as we got there. Not a bad start to our trek.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – A bunch in the fruiting trees at Summit Garden. To me, their call sounds like, "Pizza!"
BLACK-MANDIBLED TOUCAN (CHESTNUT-MANDIBLED) (Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii)
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani) – One briefly on the last morning on the aptly-named Woodpecker Trail (near the start of Pipeline Road).
RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus)
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – Seen exceptionally well on Pipeline road, trying to get at some grub in a tree.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos)
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SLATY-BACKED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mirandollei) [*]
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – Lena called and he answered back. Later we saw him perched up in the canopy from the Discover Center tower.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) [*]
Psittacidae (Parrots)
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis)
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) [*]
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – A couple from the Canopy Tower on the first day. Their large white eye-rings are distinctive even at a distance.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus)
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus)
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha)
SPOT-CROWNED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus puncticeps) – He was flitty at first, but eventually he sat cooperatively and gave us fulfilling scope looks at his pale iris and the tiny speckles on his cap. His whole body shook each time he sang.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris)

Numerous species of butterflies delighted us as well, like this Heliconia. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

MOUSTACHED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula ignota) – A tiny, jumpy ball of energy. Notoriously difficult to see as it darts about in tall vines. Some of us got decent (albeit brief) looks eventually. A yellow belly and black-and-white streaked upperparts make this a sharp-looking little antwren.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis)
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra tyrannina)
WHITE-BELLIED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza longipes) – A tough one to see. At Metro Park, we got lucky because he perched up on a mound and stayed there for some time, singing away.
BICOLORED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys leucaspis bicolor)
SPOTTED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevioides)
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
STREAK-CHESTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus perspicillatus) – The embodiment of the motto, "Persistence pays off." Antpittas always take an investment of time and energy, but these beautiful birds are worth it. Alexis found the singing individual and was able to put in the scope for everyone to enjoy.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) – Like a little chicken, this bird walks on the forest floor with its tail cocked up. We got amazing looks when it crossed the trail.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides)
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa)
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – Only a couple folks saw this flighty individual on the Woodpecker Trail.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans)
BLACK-STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) – A couple of belligerent birds engaged in a brief chase on Pipeline Road.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps absita) – An uncommon and therefore great bird that we all admired in the scope on Pipeline Road. Several commented on how much they liked the pretty, white feather linings on the wings.

A female Spotted Antbird perches in the undergrowth. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) [*]
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) [*]
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – Only briefly on the first day.
PALTRY TYRANNULET (Zimmerius vilissimus)
BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis atricapillus) – This is the world’s second smallest passerine. Its relative, the Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, takes first place.
SOUTHERN BENTBILL (Oncostoma olivaceum)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps)
BROWNISH TWISTWING (Cnipodectes subbrunneus) [*]
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – Nice spotting, Emily! Another first-day only bird.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-OLIVE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus)
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus)
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius atricaudus) – One in the excellent feeding flock we encountered in the morning on our last day.
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) [*]
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus)
RUFOUS MOURNER (Rhytipterna holerythra) – We had it only moments after seeing a Speckled Mourner. This species is now classified with the flycatchers. The Speckled Mourner’s status is yet to be determined. These two birds are not that closely related, in spite of similar appearance.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
PANAMA FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus panamensis)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – This species sports a slimmer bill than the Great Kiskadee and prefers to be around water more so than the Great.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – Unlike the Social Flycatcher, this species has a blackish face and rufous edgings to the secondaries and primaries.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
BLUE COTINGA (Cotinga nattererii) – One very distant male from the Canopy Tower on the first day and another, much closer, male from the Discovery Center tower on day two. Simply dazzling.
Pipridae (Manakins)
LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) – The immature male we had at Metro Park was a nice addition to our list.
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis)
GOLDEN-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus vitellinus) – A real looker. Seen in the vines along the path at the Discovery Center.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix coronata)
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)

This sleek-looking Streaked Flycatcher was a nice find at Ammo Pond. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – A single male at Summit Garden.
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
RUSSET-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis stenorhyncha panamensis) – What a voice! Clearly heard by all, but only a few of us got to see this shrub-hiding species well.
SPECKLED MOURNER (Laniocera rufescens)
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) – Seen building a nest over the road at Gamboa. [N]
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
Vireonidae (Vireos)
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons)
YELLOW-GREEN VIREO (Vireo flavoviridis)
SCRUB GREENLET (Hylophilus flavipes)
GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET (Hylophilus aurantiifrons)
LESSER GREENLET (Hylophilus decurtatus)
GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius pulchellus) – Its incessant, 3-noted whistled song in the canopy is reminiscent of a Tufted Titmouse: "Peter, Peter, Peter!" Gosh were we lucky with the views we got of those two birds on our last morning. It is exceedingly rare for a Green Shrike-Vireo to descend below the tallest canopy and sit so still!
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – We heard them well at Summit Pond, but no coaxing could entice them out of the woods on the far bank. [*]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris)
RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN (Pheugopedius rutilus) – This bird’s song sounds like a car alarm.
RUFOUS-AND-WHITE WREN (Thryophilus rufalbus)
PLAIN WREN (Cantorchilus modestus)
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) [*]
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis)
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta)
SONG WREN (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus) – That family group of 6 birds along Pipeline Road was wonderful.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – The ping-pong ball with a toothpick stuck in it. That’s my visual mnemonic for this little round guy.
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)

A Red-naped Tamarin sits and ponders the meaning of life. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis)
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – Seen fist at Metro Park and again on the last day. A beautiful warbler, even in non-breeding plumage.
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – Several at Summit Pond.
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina)
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia) – Skulking low to the ground in the grasses at Metro Park.
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea)
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica)
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (Basileuterus rufifrons) – A pleasant surprise at Metro Park.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus)
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (Ramphocelus flammigerus) – Only at the feeders in Gamboa.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (Sporophila corvina hoffmannii)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – We had a flock of about 25 in a field on our way to Ammo Pond on the first day.
ROSY THRUSH-TANAGER (Rhodinocichla rosea) – Excellent spotting by Helen of a male as he sat behind a bunch of vines. Only a couple of folks got to see him briefly, though. This species is usually challenging to find, nevermind lay eyes on.
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus) – Satisfying looks on our last morning of a most obliging bird.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) [*]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
ORANGE-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon aurantiirostris) – A shy skulker at Summit Pond… seen only by a few.
BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW (Arremonops conirostris)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)

All loaded up and ready to go in the Birdmobile. (Photo by guide Lena Senko)

SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra)
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
RED-BREASTED BLACKBIRD (Sturnella militaris) – Helen, Linda, and Tom had one in the grasses on our way back from Pipeline Road.
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – In the trees at Summit Garden. These parasites of oropendolas’ nests are huge, with bright red eyes.
ORCHARD ORIOLE (Icterus spurius)
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater)
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – A beauty with a sweet song seen at Ammo Pond on our first day.
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula)
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (SCARLET-RUMPED) (Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus)
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – Obligingly perched low in a tree. Its yellow rump all did see.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – A couple flyby birds.
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – On the grounds at the Gamboa Rainforest Resort. The male of this species sports an all-black throat (unlike the Thick-billed Euphonia, which has a yellow throat).
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris)
FULVOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia fulvicrissa) – A few were in the fruiting fig tree at Summit Garden, alongside a group of Thick-billed Euphonias.

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis)
COMMON TENT-MAKING BAT (Uroderma bilobatum) – At Summit Gardens and later at Metro Park, dangling upside down under palm leaves.
RED-NAPED TAMARIN (Saguinus geoffroyi) – A.k.a. Geoffrey’s Tamarin. Lena and Linda had a group of four approach them closely while they were doing yoga up on top of the tower. The rest had great looks at Metro Park, where one even jumped across the trail for us, right over our heads.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – Woke us up nearly every morning with their roaring. Great looks on the first day. At one point, John had to play the call of a Harpy Eagle to make them stop their incessant, loud hollering, which was seriously interfering with our birding!
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – Two seen on our night drive. This species has an all-dark, pointy face and lacks pale blotching on the back.
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – The best looks by far were of a sleepy individual Helen spotted curled up low in a Cecropia at Metro Park.
NORTHERN TAMANDUA (Tamandua mexicana) – On the first day at Semaphore Hill, crawling up a tree and clawing at it.
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides)
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis)
CENTRAL AMERICAN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta punctata)
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica)
KINKAJOU (Potos flavus) – Heard nearly every day; some had a quick glimpse of one along Pipeline Road as we drove out.



Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina) -- According to Alexis, this is the common bat species seen flitting about in the Canopy Tower. It is also the one we saw hanging from the tip of a branch at Summit Pond.


Canopy Lizard (Polychrus) -- A.k.a. Berthold's Bush Anole. Seen, appropriately, in the canopy on the first day. An exciting find, since this long-tailed species is uncommon and is hardly ever seen due to its height-loving habits.

Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) -- Seen lounging on the limbs at Ammo Pond.

Common Basilisk (Basiliscus basiliscus) -- Colloquially called the Jesus Christ Lizard for its ability to run on the surface of the water. We saw a nice male on the grounds of the Gamboa Rainforest Resort.

Leaf Toad species -- There are numerous species of these small toads (leaf toads) in the Neotropics. They all have in common the superficial resemblance to a dead leaf on the ground, often with a white streak down the back.

BUTTERFLIES: There are hundreds of species in the vicinity of Canopy Tower. Our attention was mainly focused on the birds, hence this short list. Here are a few that were identified with certainty:

Many-banded Daggerwing (Marpesia chiron)

Banded Peacock (Papilio crino) -- Extremely common.

Orion Cecropian (Historis odius) -- A type of Leafwing butterfly.

Cramer’s Scarlet-eye (Nascus broteas) -- Female on the window at the Canopy Tower.

Totals for the tour: 224 bird taxa and 14 mammal taxa