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Field Guides Tour Report
Panama's Canopy Tower I 2016
Feb 7, 2016 to Feb 13, 2016
John Coons, Doug Gochfeld & Alexis Sanchez

Getting a view like this of the canopy-dwelling Green Shrike-Vireo means you are on a tower and lucky --as we were! (Photo by guide Doug Gochfeld)

We had a very enjoyable week of birding at the Canopy Tower. The weather was good, the Tower was comfortable, and the birds were wonderful. The lowlands of central Panama have a great diversity of birds and mammals though they are quite close to Panama City. Thanks to the Panama Canal, the rich forests have been preserved and accessibility is relatively easy. It was great to stay in a place where we could hear Howler Monkeys from our rooms and have so many birds just out the door!

Highlights of our trip were many and included that Rufescent Tiger-Heron perched just below us, a rarely encountered Agami Heron, Panama's first White-faced Ibis, those two perched Gray-headed Kites from the tower followed soon after by two soaring Swallow-tailed Kites, a family of White-throated Crakes, the Common Potoo on a day roost, all those hummingbirds including scope views of a tiny male Rufous-crested Coquette, five species of trogons, great looks at American Pygmy-Kingfisher, several studies of White-whiskered Puffbird, the Collared Forest-Falcon that perched in front of us, a Streak-chested Antpitta, the baby Brown-capped Tyrannulet in the leaf litter in full song, a wonderfully bright male Blue Cotinga, males of four species of manakins, all those tanagers and euphonias, and a colorful male Painted Bunting, among others. We also did very well with rare or seldom seen mammals, including Central American Wooly Opossum, Gray-bellied Night-Monkey, several sloths of both species, a lifer-for-all Rufous Tree-Rat poking its head out of a hole in a tree, a Northern Tamandua, many Coatis, and a nice look at a Kinkajou.

The staff at the Canopy Tower looked after us so well, and it was great to have Alexis with his sharp ears and eyes as our local guide. Doug and I really enjoyed birding with all of you, and we look forward to the next time.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – We heard these every evening but we were never knowingly close to one. [*]
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – Surprisingly, our only one was a fly-by from the vehicle.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – These were regularly seen soaring above the Canal.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)

We saw several Rufescent Tiger-Herons, including this immature in the marshes of Ammo Pond. (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – Often a bird that needs to be searched for, we saw a handful at Ammo Pond including one perched close to us on a dead limb.
GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – We probably saw the same one each time we passed Ammo Pond with a few others here and there.
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – There was one seen below the spillway at the Miraflores Locks.
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens) – It seemed we saw a few more of these than Striated Herons.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
AGAMI HERON (Agamia agami) – We had nice looks at an immature in a small pool right next to Pipeline Road, showing its long dagger bill and dark plumage. This is a difficult and rarely seen, but magnificent bird here. A great bird!
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – We saw an adult standing on a large boulder below the spillway near the Miraflores Locks.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (SOUTHERN) (Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis) – There were a few of these odd herons in the vegetation at the back of Summit Pond.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
WHITE IBIS (Eudocimus albus) – A few were on the rocks and mud below the spillway at the Canal.
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi) – Quite a surprise, we had great looks at this first record for Panama! Doug photographed it as we passed by on the bridge over the Chagres River and quickly realized it was a White-faced Ibis. Back at the Canopy Tower we determined it was a new country record. The next day there were a handful of local birders to see it. Yip! Yip! Yip!
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)

This stunning male Red-capped Manakin showed very nicely for us on our visit to Pipeline Road. (Photo by guide Doug Gochfeld)

TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – Our only one was an adult soaring high above Pipeline Road.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – We saw a few including one flying overhead carrying a fish.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – We had great looks at two individuals that flew in and perched nearby while we birded from the tower at the Discovery Center.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – Two individuals flew over us while we birded from the Discovery Center tower.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – We saw one at Ammo Pond, another from the Discovery Center tower and another perched close to us along the Chagres River where we saw the White-faced Ibis.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – We enjoyed three individuals, two adults and an "old" young bird that all flew in to the same dead-topped tree near the Discovery Center tower. We then had another along Pipeline Road that gave us great views in the scope.
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – We had scope views of this unique raptor as it perched in a large tree along Pipeline Road.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – A perched one was seen through the fence at Ammo Pond on our first afternoon.
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) – We enjoyed great looks at five individuals in the marshy vegetation at Ammo Pond. There were four adults and a young bird that was all gray-brown with a short bill.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – We saw a few around the edges of the marsh at Ammo Pond.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – We had good views of about four birds in the spillway below the Miraflores Locks.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)

While we were atop the Discovery Center tower, this Gray-headed Kite flew right past us for a spectacular view. (Photo by participant Len Sander)

WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – We saw a number of these at Ammo Pond. There were quite a few immatures as well as adults.
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata)
WHIMBREL (AMERICAN) (Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus) – A couple were seen on the mud below the spillway at the Miraflores Locks.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla) – We only saw these flying around the Miraflores Locks.
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis) – A few of us saw one at the locks on the Panama Canal.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – These are fairly common in open country habitats.
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – Our best views were from the Discovery Center tower.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) – We had great looks at two or three individuals that perched in the open on exposed branches that we saw from the Discovery Center tower.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-CHESTED DOVE (Leptotila cassinii)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – We saw a handful of these large cuckoos in the forest.
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – There were a handful of these large anis at Summit Pond. We watched two of them chasing a moth around over the pond before one finally snatched it up.

An inconspicuous bird of the forest understory, the White-whiskered Puffbird is a sit-and-wait predator. (Photo by guide Doug Gochfeld)

SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
VERMICULATED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops guatemalae) – Also known as Choco Screech-Owl we had one calling up the slope on Semaphore Hill but we could not get it to move. [*]
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) – Another owl that we only heard calling in the distance at Semaphore Hill. [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – Doug photographed a flying bird from the top of the Canopy Tower.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – We had great close views of one on our night drive.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Alexis found one on a day roost at Metro Park. This unusual bird really redefines camouflage.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – A handful were flying about on several days of the trip.
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – These outnumbered the other swifts and were quite common on a few mornings.
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – We had about four sightings of this interesting swift from the Discovery Center tower.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – There were a several visiting the feeders at the Canopy Tower as well as the Discovery Center feeders.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris) – One or two were visiting the feeders we watched at the Canopy Tower and the Discovery Center.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis)
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – We saw a couple that were flying about snatching small insects high off the ground while we were in the forest.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – We saw a male and a female in the area around Summit Pond.
RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – This uncommonly seen tiny hummingbird gave us great perched views near the feeders at the Discovery Center. This was a male with a nicely coifed red crest.

One of the larger Central American antbirds, the Fasciated Antshrike is rather inconspicuous in the forests near the Canopy Tower. (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

CROWNED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania colombica) – This colorful hummingbird showed well at the Discovery Center feeders.
SNOWY-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia edward edward)
RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – Our best views were at the feeders at the Canopy B&B.
VIOLET-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Damophila julie) – Another smallish hummingbird we saw a few here and there.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) – The most numerous trogon we encountered, we saw both males and females. There were at least seven seen at one locale that would all be feeding in the same fruiting tree.
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – We found one female along Pipeline Road. This is the least common of the trogons in the area.
WHITE-TAILED TROGON (Trogon chionurus) – Our first had no tail then we had a nicely perched individual at the back end of the Gamboa Resort.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) – We saw a few of these yellow-bellied trogons.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – One of the prettiest of the trogons we had a nicely perched male along Pipeline Road.
Momotidae (Motmots)
WHOOPING MOTMOT (WHOOPING) (Momotus subrufescens conexus) – A fairly recent split from Blue-crowned Motmot, we saw one at Metro Park after a bit of confusion.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) – We saw a few of these large motmots along Pipeline Road.
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) – We saw and heard many of these during our week.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – We saw a few with one perched at Ammo Pond.

Pipeline Road, one of the famous birding spots in Panama, is known for its large diversity of species and is always one of the highlights of the Canopy Tower tour. (Photo by guide Doug Gochfeld)

AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – A female was at Summit Pond where we heard its rattle.
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – This small kingfisher gave us great scope views at Summit Pond. There were two individuals present but we only saw one at a time.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus) – Doug spotted a distant bird that we saw well in the scopes from the top of the Discovery Center tower.
BLACK-BREASTED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus pectoralis) – One of our first birds as we walked down Semaphore Hill on our initial morning, we ended up seeing a handful during the week.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – The smallest of the puffbirds we saw, there were two perched in open branches of a large tree along Pipeline Road.
WHITE-WHISKERED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila panamensis) – This nicely colored forest puffbird was seen a few times. These sit quietly while watching for prey items then dart out to grab them.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – It was quite fortunate that we were in the right place when this quite uncommon species flew in and landed right next to the track while we walked along Pipeline Road. This large bird was very cooperative.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – A few of these small toucans were seen on Semaphore Hill and at Metro Park.
YELLOW-THROATED TOUCAN (CHESTNUT-MANDIBLED) (Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii) – Formerly known as Chestnut-mandibled Toucan we heard several in the forest along Pipeline Road but the only ones we saw were from the Discovery Center tower.
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus) – Many of these large and colorful toucans were seen perched in tree tops, especially in the morning hours.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani)
RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus) – This is a fairly common second growth species.
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – We had great looks along Semaphore Hill then we saw a very close, and low, individual along Pipeline Road.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – Petra spotted the first one along the road on Semaphore Hill then we ended up seeing a few pairs of these large woodpeckers along Pipeline Road.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SLATY-BACKED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mirandollei) [*]

A few Long-billed Hermits were visiting the feeders at both the Canopy Tower and the Discovery Center near Pipeline Road. (Photo by participants Len and Mae Sander)

COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – One of the trip highlights was first hearing one calling up a slope in the area behind the Gamboa Resort then seeing it fly in and land quite close to us in a large tree. This species is quite impressive and is far more often seen than heard.
CRESTED CARACARA (Caracara cheriway) – Our only one was in the Metro Park area.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – A male was perched on a wire along one of our drives.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – A few of us saw this handsome species, twice, as it soared near the Canopy Tower. We speculated that it was perching on the top of the tower where we could not see it from any angle.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis) – We saw this common small parrot several times.
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) – Our only sighting was a small group flying at the Discovery Center tower.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – We had good views from the Discovery Center tower.
RED-LORED PARROT (Amazona autumnalis) – Nice looks at a few, especially perched early in the morning.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – There were several pairs of these loud and large parrots flying about and perching that we saw on several occasions.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus) – This large and cool looking antbird gave us a few good views in the forests.
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) [*]
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha) – We saw a handful on Semaphore Hill and along Pipeline Road where they were occasionally in mixed-species flocks.
SPOT-CROWNED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus puncticeps) – This local species afforded great looks, even in the scope, of a female plumaged bird that was singing.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – A few were with mixed species flocks, mostly along Pipeline Road.

The colorful Yellow-tailed Oriole is usually found near water, as we noted at Ammo Pond. (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

MOUSTACHED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula ignota) – This tiny antbird was seen high in a tree. A very tough one to see we had about as good a look as you can hope for.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis) – The females are quite colorful.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides tyrannina)
JET ANTBIRD (Cercomacra nigricans) [*]
WHITE-BELLIED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza longipes) – We had good views of this drier country habitat specialist.
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza exsul) – The dark bird with the bare blue skin around the eye showed a couple of times.
BICOLORED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys bicolor bicolor) – We had very nice looks at a singing bird along Pipeline Road. It seemed to be hanging around looking for an army ant swarm, possibly from the previous day.
SPOTTED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevioides) – This small army ant follower is a handsome species.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
STREAK-CHESTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus perspicillatus) – Nice looks at a member of a great family that we saw just off the edge of the track along Pipeline Road. We never heard it sing but it seemed to be hanging around with a feeding group of birds on the ground.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) – We also saw this bird patrolling the forest floor along Pipeline Road. It resembles a small rail as it walks along.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides) – We saw a couple of these small woodcreepers at Metro Park.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – An army ant follower, we saw a couple of these but the ants were not swarming when we encountered them.
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – A couple of us saw this large woodcreeper near a flock along Pipeline Road.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – This was the most widespread woodcreeper we encountered.

We were very surprised and elated to have this Great Jacamar fly in and land right next to Pipeline Road. Some of our group commented that it resembles a huge hummingbird. (Photo by participants Len and Mae Sander)

STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) – We had nice looks at this more open-country species at the site where we saw the White-faced Ibis.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – A quite interesting forest bird, we saw a handful acrobatically working on twigs and vines.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus) – We heard several and saw one overhead but the memorable one was the pre-fledgling we found on the ground along the Old Gamboa Highway that was hidden in the leaf litter but singing a full song.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii)
GRAY ELAENIA (CHOCO) (Myiopagis caniceps absita) – This quite uncommonly seen bird was seen pretty well. There were a male and female in a mixed-flock along Pipeline Road.
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata)
PALTRY TYRANNULET (Zimmerius vilissimus)
SOUTHERN BENTBILL (Oncostoma olivaceum) – We had a few encounters with this species including one that sat still long enough for us to get it in the scope.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
BROWNISH TWISTWING (Cnipodectes subbrunneus) – Good views of an unusual flycatcher that we saw along Pipeline Road.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-OLIVE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus)
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus)
GOLDEN-CROWNED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus coronatus) – We had good views of this forest dweller on our first morning as we walked down the road on Semaphore Hill.

The Double-toothed Kite often follows troops of monkeys through the trees to snatch up large insects and lizards which are disturbed by the traveling primates. (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus)
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) – This is the most likely wintering Empidonax flycatcher in the central Panama area. We heard a few along Pipeline Road and saw one on our second visit there.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus)
RUFOUS MOURNER (Rhytipterna holerythra) – Alexis had one in the scope briefly before it slipped away.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
PANAMA FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus panamensis) – This fairly local species gave us the best views along the road in to Summit Road.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) [*]
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – We had a few good views of this species that is nearly always found near water.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – A rather common species but we only saw it along the track leading to Summit Pond.
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – This bird is pretty common in a variety of habitats.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – These were common in a lot of the open country.

An odd flycatcher of the tropics, this Southern Bentbill performed nicely at Metropolitan Park in Panama City. (Photo by guide Doug Gochfeld)

FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – We saw a couple of these striking flycatchers perched on a wire in Gamboa.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – A quite unusual member of an unusual family we saw a group of 3-4 individuals near the Discovery Center visitor's center.
BLUE COTINGA (Cotinga nattererii) – A stunning male showed well for us from the tower at the Discovery Center. We first saw it perched in a distant tree where it still stuck out well, but later in the morning we saw it much closer as it lit up the canopy with its electric blue color.
Pipridae (Manakins)
LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) – We had a couple of males calling and sitting still fairly high in a large tree along the Old Gamboa Highway.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (VELVETY) (Lepidothrix coronata minuscula) – After seeing a few females we found a couple of nicely colored males along Pipeline Road on our last day in the field.
GOLDEN-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus vitellinus) – A brightly colored male showed pretty well near the entrance to Pipeline Road.
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis) – Petra spotted our first male from the window of the Canopy Tower then we had a couple more along Pipeline Road later in the week.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – We saw a couple of individuals in the drier forest at Metro Park.
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
RUSSET-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis stenorhyncha panamensis) [*]
SPECKLED MOURNER (Laniocera rufescens)
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) – Our first was visiting a nest at the edge of the lake along the trail near the Discovery Center, then we had another individual on our final afternoon.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – We enjoyed nice looks at a singing male at Metro Park.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons) – We saw one at Metro Park than some of us saw it again from the Canopy Tower on our last morning before we flew out.
YELLOW-GREEN VIREO (Vireo flavoviridis) – A nicely plumaged individual was in a large tree along the walk to Summit Pond.

Seen rather commonly on this trip, but usually not this close, the Keel-billed Toucan is one of the more colorful members of this tropical family. (Photo by participants Len and Mae Sander)

GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET (Pachysylvia aurantiifrons)
LESSER GREENLET (Pachysylvia decurtata)
GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius pulchellus) – This was a common voice of the forest that we heard regularly and we had a great look at this often difficult to see species from the top of the Discovery Center tower where we watched it singing in the scopes for a few minutes.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – A small group of these large tropical jays showed up at Metro Park soon after we arrived.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
NORTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) – We saw a few migrant birds around the Ammo Pond area.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Except for the Gray-breasted Martins, these were the most numerous swallows we encountered.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – There were a good number of these on power lines that we saw going to and from the Gamboa area.
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea) – We had our best views at those flying around the back water of Lake Gatun and again at the White-faced Ibis site.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
CLIFF SWALLOW (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) – A few were seen flying about the observation level of the Canopy Tower one evening.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (WHISTLING) (Microcerculus marginatus luscinia) [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris) – This was the wren we saw along the Semaphore Hill road that worked its way up a tree while carrying food and into a dense cluster of vines where it probably had a nest.
RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN (Pheugopedius rutilus) – We saw these a couple of times with the best view along the road on Semaphore Hill.
RUFOUS-AND-WHITE WREN (Thryophilus rufalbus) – A pair of these nice singers was seen on the slope at Metro Park.

A Crimson-crested Woodpecker always lights up the forest birding. (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

PLAIN WREN (Cantorchilus modestus) [*]
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – We had very nice looks at this dark colored wren at one of our first stops along Pipeline Road. It hopped out on a log over a small creek for a good view.
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) [*]
SONG WREN (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus) – There was a group of these unusual forest floor wrens working along the ground with some other species on Pipeline Road. We hoped there would be a swarm of army ants but it did not develop.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – These were seen regularly around Gamboa and other slightly developed areas. There were a fair number at the feeder in Gamboa.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus gilvus) – This widespread tropical bird was actually introduced to Panama from Colombia about 80 years ago. [I]
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis)
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – We had a male with a mixed species flock at Metro Park. This species will be showing up in Texas in mid-April.
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – A nicely plumaged male flew in to an ornamental tree behind the Gamboa Resort on our final afternoon.
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina)
KENTUCKY WARBLER (Geothlypis formosa) – There was one loudly chipping along the roadside that we could not get to appear. [*]
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea) – This was the most frequently encountered North American warbler that we observed. A few had fair amounts of the bay color starting to come in on the flanks.

A female Slaty-tailed Trogon (Photo by participant Herb Lindsay)

YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica) – I believe all that we saw were still in winter plumage.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (GRAY-CRESTED) (Eucometis penicillata cristata)
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – These were seen regularly with flocks on Semaphore Hill, at Metro Park and along Pipeline Road.
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (LEMON-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus) – We only saw one or two at the Gamboa Resort on our last afternoon.
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus) – Another fancily colored tanager we saw a fair number in second growth areas throughout the trip.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – This is a very nicely colored tanager that we saw a handful of times.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata) – Aptly named.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Our first ones were seen at the top of the Canopy Tower.
SHINING HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes lucidus)
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Another dazzler, we saw several including a couple feeding on bananas at the feeder in Gamboa.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – A quite common bird in overgrown fields in the tropics, we just don't spend a lot of time in its habitat. We saw them in the tall grass along the roadside.
RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila minuta) – We saw a male in the grass along the side of the road near Ammo Pond.
THICK-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila funerea) – On the way to Summit Pond we spotted two or three in the grass at the edge of the road.
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (VARIABLE) (Sporophila corvina hoffmannii) – These were common in weedy areas of Metro Park and Gamboa.
BLACK-HEADED SALTATOR (Saltator atriceps) – A pair was calling in the open area behind the Gamboa Resort but we got distracted by the Collared Forest-Falcon. I'm not sure if anyone saw these or not.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – We had nice looks at this black bird with the red bill along our walk on Semaphore Hill.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – A few males and females were seen, these will be headed back north in a a few weeks.
RED-THROATED ANT-TANAGER (Habia fuscicauda) – We encountered a small group as we walked the trail near the Discovery Center tower.
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) – A male, colored dark blue, flew in above us and perched at Metro Park.
PAINTED BUNTING (Passerina ciris) – We had nice looks at a male near Summit Pond. A very rare bird in Panama, this individual had been in the area for several days. It is always a stunner.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus)
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater) – We saw one or two of these from the top of the Discovery Center tower. This is more of a forest species than the following.
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – Great looks at three birds along the edge of Ammo Pond that we were looking down on from the vehicle. One individual, a young bird(?), had none of the black feathers in its tail.
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula)
YELLOW-BILLED CACIQUE (Amblycercus holosericeus) – Petra saw one cross the trail near Ammo Pond on our first full day.
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (SCARLET-RUMPED) (Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus) – These sharply colored birds made a few appearances including right out the window of the Canopy Tower during lunch one day.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – This large member of the blackbird family was seen a few times at Metro Park.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla)
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris)
FULVOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia fulvicrissa) – A few showed up in the forest and second growth areas.

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis) – We had one at night and one in the morning darkness along the side of the road.
CENTRAL AMERICAN WOOLY OPOSSUM (Caluromys derbianus) – We had nice looks at this cute guy during our night drive on Semaphore Hill.

During our night drive at the Canopy Tower, we found this Kinkajou scurrying through the limbs of a large tree before it settled down for a look at us. (Photo by participants Len and Mae Sander)

MILLER'S MASTIFF BAT (Molossus pretiosus) – These were the bats that were flying about at night and grabbing insects near the Canopy Tower.
RED-NAPED TAMARIN (Saguinus geoffroyi) – A very cute and colorful monkey, we saw these a few times. They really resemble squirrels as they quickly run through trees with their long tails helping them balance themselves.
GRAY-BELLIED NIGHT MONKEY (Aotus lemurinus) – Alexis took us to a hollow in a tree that he knew about and we had nice looks at a cute face peering out of the hole. While not rare, these are rarely encountered in the wild.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – We heard these on a daily basis and saw several including a large male or two. Their roar is one of the iconic sounds of the New World tropics.
WHITE-THROATED CAPUCHIN (Cebus capucinus) – We finally encountered a troop of these along Plantation Road on our final afternoon. We started to get a bit nervous when they moved directly overhead.
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – We came across a few of these slow moving creatures with two seen on our night drive down the Hill.
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – This smaller species of sloth was seen daily in a variety of habitats. The Canal Zone area of Panama is one of the best places in the world to encounter sloths.
NORTHERN TAMANDUA (Tamandua mexicana) – It was a real treat and a bonus to see this odd mammal. Alexis somehow spotted one climbing through a tree well off the trail along Plantation Road.
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus)
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides) – This is the grayer squirrel that came to the feeder at Gamboa.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – We enjoyed nice looks at the world's largest rodent as it was content to lie in the marsh at Ammo Pond.
CENTRAL AMERICAN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta punctata) – We saw several during our stay as they wandered around in the open in several places. These are quite shy, usually, but get used to people at sites like Metro Park and along Semaphore Hill where they are not hunted by large forest predators or dogs.
RUFOUS TREE RAT (Diplomys labilis) – We had nice looks at this unusual rodent that was sticking its head out of a hole in a tree along Pipeline Road. A poorly known species, they are most often seen at night or when poking their heads out of holes giving them the local name of "gato bruja" or "witch cat."
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – There was a group of about 8-10 that crossed the road on Semaphore Hill on our first morning, then we saw a few more here and there during the week.
KINKAJOU (Potos flavus) – We had nice looks at this nocturnal species during our night drive. We saw a rather large individual scampering about in a large tree. Another uncommonly encountered species.


Totals for the tour: 236 bird taxa and 18 mammal taxa