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Field Guides Tour Report
PANAMA'S CANOPY TOWER 2019 (with Canopy Lodge Extension)
Feb 3, 2019 to Feb 13, 2019
John Coons, Alexis Sanchez and Danilo Rodriguez

There were a handful of tanagers we saw just about every day of the trip, and one of those was the Golden-hooded Tanager. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

It was wonderful to have a week at the Canopy Tower with all of you and explore the varied nearby habitats and the rich birdlife that central Panama has to offer. Birding was great right out the door of the Tower and each day offered new surprises. Starting on our first morning, we had great looks at Green Shrike-Vireo at eye level from the top of the Tower. We enjoyed walking the road where we picked up several cool birds including a pair of Double-toothed Kites in the road with talons locked and scowling at each other. We never did figure out the motive. At Metropolitan Park in Panama City, we happened upon a troop of Howler Monkeys going through the trees that inadvertently flushed a Great Potoo that landed on an exposed limb for a scope look. We enjoyed a morning at the Discovery Center Tower, where we spotted and scoped many species, with a male Blue Cotinga being a highlight. Our night drive on Semaphore Hill yielded a Black-and-white Owl over the road, a Great Tinamou perched in a tree, an armadillo, two species of sloth, two Gray-bellied Night Monkeys, and a Central American Wooly Possum. Other highlights of our stay at the Canopy Tower included a Common Potoo at Metro Park, nice views of all those hummers at the feeders, the Rufescent Tiger-Heron eating the large fish, Boat-billed Herons at Summit Pond, great views of a soaring Gray-headed Kite at Metro Park, Snail Kite, a close and stationary White-whiskered Puffbird, daily views of toucans, mixed-species flocks along Pipeline Road with several antbirds, a quite uncommon Rufous Piha, seeing four species of manakins showing off, our Rosy-Thrush-Tanager scratching in the leaf litter at Metro Park, and daily doses of tanagers from all angles.

It was also cool to visit the locks at the Panama Canal and see a ship pass. The Canal has been the reason the forest in central Panama has remained intact all of these years as the natural habitat protects the watershed for the single biggest economic boon to Panama.

Those of us that continued on the extension to the Canopy Lodge in El Valle wish the rest of you could have joined us. We enjoyed another three days of birding in this cooler climate. I have included those birds on the list here and have designated as "Lodge Only" the species that we only saw on the extension. Here the highlights were the Crested Bobwhite walking across the bare patch of ground, a White-tipped Sicklebill visiting a heliconia flower, a scope view of a perched Snowcap and Rufous-crested Coquette, the Sunbittern along the river carrying a fish, the fabulous perched Ornate Hawk-Eagle, Spectacled Owl, Orange-bellied Trogon, Tody Motmot, Russet Antshrike, a pair of Dull-mantled Antbirds along the road edge, tanager flocks at Altos del Maria and our second male Painted Bunting of the trip among many others.

At both the Tower and Lodge, the staff was more than hospitable, making sure we had everything we needed. It was great to bird with Alexis at the Canopy Tower and Danilo at the Canopy Lodge. They are awesome in their spotting abilities and excellent at getting us all on the birds. I hope to see you all again soon. John

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – We had a couple or three pretty good views of this skulker, including one we spotlighted at night while perched in a tree.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – There were about four individuals we saw at Ammo Pond, then a few more at the lagoon at Juan Hombron.
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Spatula discors) – Lodge only. We saw about six birds at Juan Hombron.

Painted Bunting is a quite uncommon bird in Panama. We saw a colorful male near Summit Pond, and again near the Canopy Lodge. Photo by guide John Coons.

Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – We saw about eight birds at Ammo Pond on our last full day at the Canopy Tower then these were common sights at the feeder at the Canopy Lodge.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
CRESTED BOBWHITE (Colinus cristatus) – Lodge Only. A calling bird ended up walking across a bare patch of ground and into view.
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – A single bird was seen in the backwater of Lake Gatun at the end of the trail at the Discovery Center.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – We saw several, especially from the Discovery Center Tower where these birds were sitting on exposed perches in the morning.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) [*]
PLAIN-BREASTED GROUND-DOVE (Columbina minuta) – Lodge Only. We saw a pair in the road as we drove through the Juan Hombron area.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-CHESTED DOVE (Leptotila cassinii)
PURPLISH-BACKED QUAIL-DOVE (Zentrygon lawrencii) – Lodge Only. A single bird flew low across the road while we were birding in the foggy stretch of road at Altos del Maria.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – We saw these several times in central Panama.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga sulcirostris) – Lodge Only. We saw a few along the roadsides in the Juan Hombron area.
PHEASANT CUCKOO (Dromococcyx phasianellus) – We heard a couple of distant birds along Pipeline Road but could not get one to respond. [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Always a favorite; we saw a few around the Tower, Metro Park and Pipeline Road.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – It was a big surprise to see one at Metro Park that was flushed off of its perch by a troop of Howler Monkeys. It flew and landed on an exposed perch for a nice scope view. This was the first that both Alexis and I have seen at Metro Park.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – We also saw this smaller species at Metro Park. This was a more typical view of a potoo as it was very well camouflaged at the top of a broken branch.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – A fair number were seen around the Tower.
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – This was the more commonly seen swift in central Panama.

Puffbirds, such as this White-whiskered, are usually quite photogenic, as they stay put for long periods. Photo by guide John Coons.

LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – Alexis spotted two near Ammo Pond that gave us good views.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – This was the common hummingbird visiting the feeders at the Canopy Tower.
WHITE-TIPPED SICKLEBILL (Eutoxeres aquila) – Lodge Only. We watched a few heliconia flowers before getting a nice look at this very unusual hummingbird while we birded at Altos del Maria.
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – Lodge Only.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris) – One or two were irregular visitors to the Canopy Tower feeders.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis) – Lodge Only. Along the Las Minas Trail, Danilo somehow spotted this small hummingbird through the vegetation and got a scope on it.
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – This may have only been seen by Alexis.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Both a male and female were seen along the Chagres River.
VERAGUAN MANGO (Anthracothorax veraguensis) – We saw two at a roadside stop on the way to the Pacific lowlands.
RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – Lodge Only. Just up the road from the Canopy Lodge we had a great scope look at a perched male showing his erect crest and all!
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris) – Lodge Only. One that we saw at Cara Iguana didn't stay long.
GARDEN EMERALD (Chlorostilbon assimilis) – Lodge Only. We saw both a female and a brightly colored male.
SCALY-BREASTED HUMMINGBIRD (Phaeochroa cuvierii) – We saw one perch a few times in a flowering tree along the Chagres River.
CROWNED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania colombica) – Most of those we saw were near the Canopy Lodge.
SNOWCAP (Microchera albocoronata) – Lodge Only. A small but distinctive hummingbird with a white crown, we had a nice look at Altos del Maria.
SNOWY-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia edward edward) – We had nice looks near the village of Pedro Miguel, then again at the flowers at the Canopy Lodge.
SAPPHIRE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Lepidopyga coeruleogularis) – Lodge Only. We saw a female and a male in the Pacific lowlands.
VIOLET-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Juliamyia julie) – We ended up seeing a few here and there.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – One was walking around at the back of Summit Pond.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) – We heard several but could not get one into view. [*]
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus) – Lodge Only. There were four individuals on the beach at Santa Clara.
LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla) – A small group were seen at Ammo Pond.
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata) – Lodge Only. A couple of birds were with the terns on the Santa Clara beach.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla) – Lodge Only.
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus) – Lodge Only. A flock of about 20 were on the beach at Santa Clara.
Eurypygidae (Sunbittern)
SUNBITTERN (Eurypyga helias) – Lodge Only. We had a great view of one along the stream just above the Canopy Lodge. Danilo flushed it from upstream and it landed on the gravel bar in front of us while it was carrying a fish. A quite bizarre looking bird.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

At Ammo Pond, we watched this Rufescent Tiger-Heron catch and manipulate a fish for several minutes before it went down the hatch. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BLUE-FOOTED BOOBY (Sula nebouxii) – Lodge Only. We saw a distant one flying over the Pacific at our lunch spot on the beach.
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exilis) – Some of us saw this species fly across the back of Ammo Pond and land in the tall reeds.
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – We saw a few at Ammo Pond, including one that we watched working on a fish it had just caught.
GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – David spotted one at the back of Ammo Pond.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – Lodge Only.
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
BOAT-BILLED HERON (SOUTHERN) (Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis) – We spotted a couple of these unusual herons as they hid in the vegetation at Summit Pond.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
WHITE IBIS (Eudocimus albus) – We saw one below the spillway at the Miraflores Locks and then a few more in the Juan Hombron area near the coast.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Lodge Only. There were a handful that we saw well in the Juan Hombron area, including one that was on a fence post right next to the road.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus)

On the Canopy Lodge extension, Danilo showed us this roosting Tropical Screech-Owl near the coastal village of Santa Clara, where it was tucked into a large tree. Photo by guide John Coons.

Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – An immaculate individual soared over us at Metro Park for several minutes. It was really a great look.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – We saw one flying over the forest as we walked the road on Semaphore Hill on our first morning.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – Lodge Only. One of the highlights of our visit to El Valle was seeing this great looking raptor perched in a bare tree at Altos del Maria after Danilo whistled to it as it soared overhead.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – Alexis spotted one from the Discovery Center Tower that was flying over the ridge.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – We saw a few but the most memorable were the two that were in the middle of the road on Semaphore Hil with talons locked. We watched them for several minutes before they both flew off, one after the other.
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – We had a nice look at a perched individual just off the road along Semaphore Hill.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Lodge Only. We finally spotted one perched up across a pasture at Juan Hombron.
BARRED HAWK (Morphnarchus princeps) – Lodge Only. One was calling over the forest at Altos del Maria but we could not see it.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – Our only one in central Panama was perched on a post next to the railroad tracks at Summit.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) [*]
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – Some of us saw one from the top of the Canopy Tower on our first afternoon but we had a couple better views near El Valle.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – Lodge Only. We had a great look at a perched individual that Danilo showed us at the edge of Santa Clara.
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) – Lodge Only. A bird perching in the ginger plants at Cara Iguana gave us great views. I'm glad Danilo and Anibel knew where to look for this guy.
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – Lodge Only. It took some looking but we finally found this species that has a quite local range in Panama.
BLACK-AND-WHITE OWL (Ciccaba nigrolineata) – It took a while, but we ended up seeing a young bird that Jorge had seen earlier in the day on Semaphore Hill. Then during our night drive Alexis spotted an adult that was perched over the road.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) – This was the most common of the trogons we saw in central Panama.
WHITE-TAILED TROGON (Trogon chionurus) – We saw a couple in the first part of Pipeline Road and the Discovery Center.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus)
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – This is one of the prettier trogons of Central America.
ORANGE-BELLIED TROGON (Trogon aurantiiventris) – Lodge Only. It took a bit of looking but we ended up with a nice view of a male male along the Las Minas Trail, then a female the next day.
Momotidae (Motmots)
TODY MOTMOT (Hylomanes momotula) – Lodge Only. This is often a tough one to find but it only took a few minutes for Danilo to spot this small motmot above the Canopy Lodge.
WHOOPING MOTMOT (Momotus subrufescens) – Formerly part of the Blue-crowned Motmot complex; we had nice looks at Metro Park.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) – We had a few nice looks at this large motmot.
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) – Our closest views of motmots were of this species.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – Lodge Only. We saw one at the small lake where we had lunch at Altos del Maria.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus)
BLACK-BREASTED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus pectoralis) – A couple of birds seen from the tower at the Discovery Center showed pretty well.
WHITE-WHISKERED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila panamensis) – A really cool looking tropical puffbird. We had a very cooperative individual along the Woodpecker Trail.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
NORTHERN EMERALD-TOUCANET (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) – Lodge Only. A pair showed well for us at Altos del Maria.
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – We saw a handful in the Pipeline Road area but we had our best views at the Canopy Lodge where they were coming to the bananas at the feeders.
YELLOW-THROATED TOUCAN (CHESTNUT-MANDIBLED) (Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii) – A few were scoped from the tower at the Discovery Center.
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus) – Although this is a rather common species you never get tired of looking at this spectacular toucan.

One of the highlights of the visit to the Canopy Lodge was this perched Ornate Hawk-Eagle, which we first heard as it flew over the forest. Photo by guide John Coons.

Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani)
RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus)
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – A couple of birds at Metro Park showed well.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – A great looking species that we first saw from the top of the Canopy Tower.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) [*]
CRESTED CARACARA (Caracara cheriway)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – These were quite common in second growth and cut over areas.
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – Lodge Only. We had a pretty good scope view of one on the way to the Pacific lowlands and it ended up flying to the nest where it seemed to be working on it.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – We saw one from the Discovery Center Tower and another at the edge of El Valle.
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – Lodge Only. One was spotted flying over the tractor in the rice field at Juan Hombron.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis) – We scoped a few in the open country we birded in central Panama.
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) – We had a great study of two birds that we scoped from the top of the Discovery Center tower.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – We had a few views of this widspread species.
RED-LORED PARROT (Amazona autumnalis) – This was the common large parrot we saw in the canal area.
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala) – Lodge Only. A group of three flew by on the way to the coast.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – Only a few were spotted.
BROWN-THROATED PARAKEET (VERAGUAS) (Eupsittula pertinax ocularis) – Lodge Only. We stopped at a spot where Danilo had recently seen them and sure enough we spotted a pair.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus) – We had a nice look at our first two with the mixed-flock along the road at Semaphore Hill.
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – We saw one near the village at Pedro Miguel and a male at Mata Ahogado later in the trip.
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha) – Formerly known as Western Slaty-Antshrike; we enjoyed a few each day we were in the forest.
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – Lodge Only. A rather uncommon species throughout its range; we saw two with a mixed-flock at one of our early stops at Altos del Maria.
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – Lodge Only.
SPOT-CROWNED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus puncticeps) – It took some work, but we all finally got nice looks at this small species along Pipeline Road.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – We saw a few, checker spots and all, with flocks in the canal area.
MOUSTACHED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula ignota) – One of smallest antbirds, and formerly known as Pygmy Antwren. We saw a couple as we birded the further stretches of Pipeline Road.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis) – The female of this species is fancier than the male.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides tyrannina) – We heard these each day but had a pretty good view of a pair along Semaphore Hill during our first morning.
WHITE-BELLIED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza longipes) – One at Metro Park was in the scope briefly.

Of the several woodcreeper species we encountered, Cocoa Woodcreeper was the most commonly seen. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Poliocrania exsul) – We had a nice look at one of a pair that was working along the slope as we walked the Woodpecker Trail.
DULL-MANTLED ANTBIRD (Sipia laemosticta) – Lodge Only. A species with a limited range and particular habitat. We had a nice view of two birds in a creek along the road at Altos del Maria.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CROWNED ANTPITTA (Pittasoma michleri) – Lodge Only. We had a calling bird that would not approach us. [*]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
STREAK-CHESTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus perspicillatus) – Some folks got a view of this skulker along Pipeline Road before it drifted back into the forest.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
SCALY-THROATED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus guatemalensis) [*]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides) – Our only one was at Metro Park.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – We saw one along the trail at the Discovery Center.
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus) – Lodge Only.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – This was the most common woodcreeper we saw.
BLACK-STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) – We had an individual that vocalized once but, I think, Alexis was the only one to see it. [*]
SPOTTED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) – Lodge Only. This is a higher elevation species and we saw it a couple of times at Las Minas and again at Altos del Maria.
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – Lodge Only. A dry country specialist, one showed well in the big trees at Juan Hombron.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – This acrobatic species was seen in flocks a couple of times.
SPOTTED BARBTAIL (Premnoplex brunnescens) – Lodge Only. Another higher elevation species that we got good views of at Altos del Maria.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus) – A canopy species that is heard much more often than seen; we had good looks from the top of the Canopy Tower.
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (NORTHERN) (Phaeomyias murina eremonoma) – Lodge Only. We had a pretty good view of one in the roadside vegetation at Juan Hombron.
YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET (Tyrannulus elatus) – We spotted a nest at Metro Park that was very small, with a parent sitting right on top of a single young bird.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – A very common voice in the forest; we got a few decent looks.

Northern Emerald-Toucanet is a species that is generally confined to higher elevations and we just reach that altitude in the vicinity of the Canopy Lodge. Photo by guide John Coons.

GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) [*]
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Lodge Only.
OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes olivaceus) – Lodge Only. We saw a few in the forested areas around the Lodge.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – We saw one along Semaphore Hill and even got it in the scope as it just perched there, quite unusual for this species.
MISTLETOE TYRANNULET (Zimmerius parvus) – A pair was building a nest right over the road along Semaphore Hill.
NORTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER (Sublegatus arenarum) – Lodge Only. A pair in the dry country near La Laguna de Juan at Juan Hombron showed well.
BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis atricapillus) – This very small flycatcher, essentially tied for the smallest passerine in the world, was seen along Pipeline Road during our second visit there.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – Lodge Only. We had nice views on the Las Minas Trail.
PALE-EYED PYGMY-TYRANT (Atalotriccus pilaris wilcoxi) – A rather uncommon species in central Panama we had a nice look along the Old Gamboa Highway.
SOUTHERN BENTBILL (Oncostoma olivaceum)
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
EYE-RINGED FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus brevirostris) – Lodge Only. We saw one along the road above the Canopy Lodge on our first afternoon there.
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) [*]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-OLIVE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus) – We saw one at Metro Park.
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus) [*]
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) [*]
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus) – We saw a few in the forests along Pipeline Road.
SULPHUR-RUMPED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius sulphureipygius) – Lodge Only. One showing its yellow rump was seen at Altos del Maria.
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius atricaudus) – One was seen at Metro Park soon after our arrival.
TUFTED FLYCATCHER (Mitrephanes phaeocercus) – Lodge Only. This higher elevation species gave us a couple of nice views at Altos del Maria. This bird has the habit of flying out from its perch then returning to the same spot, making it scope friendly.
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) – We heard a handful of these wintering birds and finally spotted one on our last day at the Tower.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – We heard a few and got a view of this angry looking flycatcher along Pipeline Road on our second visit.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
PANAMA FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus panamensis) – We saw this species in second growth areas in both the Tower and Lodge areas.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) [*]
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – We saw several, they were always near water.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – This is one of the flycatchers that eats fruit.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – This species is an austral migrant and they had just returned to breed within the last week or two. We saw a couple and heard a lot more.

At Metropolitan Park in Panama City, we enjoyed close views of this Whooping Motmot. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – Janet saw one at the Miraflores Locks, then we ended up seeing about 20 on the morning we went to Juan Hombron on our last day.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – A quite unusual species; we saw small groups both times we were on Pipeline Road.
BLUE COTINGA (Cotinga nattererii) – We saw a stunningly colored male perched atop a large tree from the Discovery Center Tower that Alexis spotted soon after we arrived.
RUFOUS PIHA (Lipaugus unirufus) – A quite uncommon bird along Pipeline Road. We had nice looks at one of a pair that were out the road a ways.
Pipridae (Manakins)
LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) – At Metro Park we saw a couple of individuals, with one being a sub-adult male that had the red cap but still had some greenish tones in the plumage.
WHITE-RUFFED MANAKIN (Corapipo altera) – Lodge Only. A couple of individuals were seen at Altos del Maria.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (VELVETY) (Lepidothrix coronata minuscula) – We saw a green female near the Canopy Tower and a male along Pipeline Road.
GOLDEN-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus vitellinus) – We saw a few males near leks where they were popping and snapping.
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis) – A couple of nicely colored males were seen on our first morning as they grabbed small fruits from a tree while we watched from the top of the Canopy Tower.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata) – We saw a handful in central Panama and at least one near the Canopy Lodge.
NORTHERN SCHIFFORNIS (NORTHERN) (Schiffornis veraepacis dumicola) – Lodge Only. This forest bird gave us good views while we birded at Altos del Maria. This is a split from the old Thrush-like Schiffornis and a different species from the one we saw in the lower elevations of central Panama.
RUSSET-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis stenorhyncha panamensis) – We had a great view of this odd species along Pipeline Road. This bird and its close relatives have been in and out of a few different families as the taxonomy has progressed.
SPECKLED MOURNER (Laniocera rufescens) – A quite uncommon species throughout its range; we had a nice view along Semaphore Hill on our first morning.
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) – Two individuals were seen along the Chagres River.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – A couple of birds at Metro Park showed pretty well.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (NORTHERN) (Cyclarhis gujanensis perrygoi) – Lodge Only. A rather widespread bird through most of Central America, this species is quite local in Panama. We heard a few, but got a nice view near Santa Clara along the Pacific Coast.
SCRUB GREENLET (Hylophilus flavipes)
GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius pulchellus) – Always a tough one to see in the canopy. We had wonderful views from the top of the Canopy Tower on our first morning there and again the day we transferred to the Canopy Lodge.
LESSER GREENLET (Pachysylvia decurtata)

It was great surprise to see a troop of Howler Monkeys flush this Great Potoo that flew and landed on an exposed branch Photo by guide John Coons.

GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET (Pachysylvia aurantiifrons) – Igua spotted this unassuming species in a flock at Metro Park.
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons) – We only saw one individual.
YELLOW-GREEN VIREO (Vireo flavoviridis) – We had nice looks at the marina at the Gamboa Resort but then had a few more in the Canopy Lodge area.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – We saw these well at Metro Park and again near El Valle.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – Lodge Only.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – This was the most commonly seen swallow we encountered.
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea) – We had nice looks at birds along the Chagres River.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – On our last morning at the Tower we saw a couple of fly-bys then we had more over pastures in the Pacific lowlands.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (WHISTLING) (Microcerculus marginatus luscinia) – Lodge Only. [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
OCHRACEOUS WREN (Troglodytes ochraceus) – Lodge Only. We heard one chattering from a moss-laden tree at Altos del Maria. [*]
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris) – We actually did well in seeing this skulker in a few localities.
RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN (Pheugopedius rutilus)
RUFOUS-AND-WHITE WREN (Thryophilus rufalbus) – After working on a few, we ended up getting one in a scope as it was giving its ratchet call at Metro Park.
ISTHMIAN WREN (Cantorchilus elutus) – Formerly known as Plain Wren, we saw it in the tall grass near Summit Pond and again near the Canopy Lodge.
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – This species was seen briefly along Pipeline Road but the best views were near the Canopy Lodge.
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) [*]
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) – One was seen quite well along the road on Semaphore Hill.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) – Lodge Only. This species replaces the preceding one at higher elevations and we saw it well at Altos del Maria.
SONG WREN (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus) – This wren has a quite unusual song and spends a lot of its time turning over leaves on the forest floor. We saw a small group in the Pipeline Road area.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – One showed pretty well along Semaphore Road but then slipped away before we really nailed it.
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-VENTED THRUSH (Turdus obsoletus) – Lodge Only. We saw a couple at Altos del Maria.
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – These were common in open country in central Panama.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – Lodge Only. We had a good view at Cara Iguana.
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris) – Thus species was quite common at the Canopy Lodge feeders.
FULVOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia fulvicrissa)
TAWNY-CAPPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia anneae) – Lodge Only. A few were spotted right near the Canopy Lodge.

This Common Tody-Flycatcher was working through the shrubs at the edge of Ammo Pond. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

LESSER GOLDFINCH (Spinus psaltria) – Canopy Only. One was seen at Mata Ahogado where we had so many species along the roadside.
Rhodinocichlidae (Thrush-Tanager)
ROSY THRUSH-TANAGER (Rhodinocichla rosea) – A quite unusual species and now the only member of its family. We heard a few and spotted one at Metro Park before it slipped away only to find another that we were nearly looking straight down on from the overlook. This large "tanager" has a breast color that is nearly unique in color in the bird world.
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
COMMON CHLOROSPINGUS (CENTRAL PANAMA) (Chlorospingus flavopectus punctulatus) – Lodge Only. Flocks of these moved through the trees at Altos del Maria.
BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW (Arremonops conirostris) – We had nice looks at one perched in the fence at Ammo Pond.
ORANGE-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon aurantiirostris) – A very sharply marked species.
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BRUSHFINCH (Arremon brunneinucha) – Lodge Only.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
EASTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella magna) – Lodge Only. I don't think we originally checked this species, but we had a couple of fly-bys and heard them in the pastures of the Pacific lowlands.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – Lodge Only. We had nice views of a displaying male near Mata Ahogado.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – These were very common at the feeders at the Canopy Lodge.
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (SCARLET-RUMPED) (Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus) – We saw these almost everyday at the Tower.
ORCHARD ORIOLE (Icterus spurius) – Not at all common; we saw a couple at both locales.
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater) – We saw about four individuals from the Discovery Center Tower.
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – An individual showed nicely at Ammo Pond.
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula) – I wish we had seen more of these wintering birds.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – We saw at least one at Ammo Pond and another at Mata Ahogado.
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – These are usually encountered in the vicinity of oropendola nest trees.
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia motacilla) – Lodge Only. We had a couple of nice views of one working along the creek right at the Canopy Lodge.
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis) – A few were seen at the edges of ponds and creeks near both lodges.
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – Lodge Only.
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – We saw a couple of individuals working the edge of Summit Pond.
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina)
KENTUCKY WARBLER (Geothlypis formosa) – Rather uncommon these days. We ended up with a nice view along Pipeline Road.
AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla) – Lodge Only. Our only sighting was at Cara Iguana.
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – Perhaps Alexis was the only one who saw this bird at Metro Park.
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea) – This was the most common wintering warbler we encountered.
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – Lodge Only. We saw a male and a female of this great looking warbler.
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)

One of the big woodpeckers of Central America is Crimson-crested Woodpecker. We saw a couple of them at Metro Park. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica) – A handful were encountered but I don't think we had more than one a day.
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (Basileuterus rufifrons) – We saw one along Old Gamboa Road and then a few more in the Canopy Lodge area.
BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda) – Lodge Only. A pair showed well as they hopped about from rock to rock in the stream at the Canopy Lodge.
CANADA WARBLER (Cardellina canadensis) – Lodge Only. One was seen along the trails at the Canopy Adventure and another at Altos del Maria.
Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
DUSKY-FACED TANAGER (Mitrospingus cassinii) – Lodge Only. A couple of groups made their noisy way through the roadside vegetation near the Canopy Lodge.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
HEPATIC TANAGER (Piranga flava) – Lodge Only. We saw a calling individual at the top of the Las Minas Trail.
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra)
RED-THROATED ANT-TANAGER (Habia fuscicauda) – A pair were seen working along the trail at the Discovery Center.
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia cyanoides) [*]
INDIGO BUNTING (Passerina cyanea) – Our only sighting was a female plumaged bird near Ammo Pond.
PAINTED BUNTING (Passerina ciris) – A rather rare bird in Panama and especially in central Panama, where we saw a male along the Old Gamboa Highway, where it has been hanging out for the last 2-3 winters. Then we saw another male when we birded the roadside at Mata Ahogado near El Valle.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (GRAY-CRESTED) (Eucometis penicillata cristata) – We had a nicely perched individual that we saw along the Woodpecker Trail.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – We saw these with most mixed-species flocks in the forests in central Panama.
TAWNY-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus delatrii) – Lodge Only. These black birds with orange crown markings were seen well along the road just above the Canopy Lodge.
WHITE-LINED TANAGER (Tachyphonus rufus) – Lodge Only.
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (LEMON-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus)
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus) – These were seen daily in both lodges we visited.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – We also saw these most days; it is a quite colorful tanager.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata) – This is an aptly named tanager.
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola) – Lodge Only. A couple of these were feeding on small fruits along the road above the Canopy Lodge.
EMERALD TANAGER (Tangara florida) – Lodge Only. It was a bit of a surprise to see this handsome tanager along the Las Minas Trail, as it is usually found at higher elevations.
SILVER-THROATED TANAGER (Tangara icterocephala) – Lodge Only.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Several were encountered just about daily during our time at the Canopy Tower.
SHINING HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes lucidus) – We saw a yellow-legged female along the Old Gamboa Road.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Our best views were at the feeder at the Canopy B&B.
BLACK-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Chrysothlypis chrysomelas) – Lodge Only. We had a few that passed through with the mixed-flock at Altos del Maria.
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – Lodge Only. We had a scope view of one perched down in the grass on the windy morning when we left El Valle and headed to the coastal lowlands.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila minuta) – Lodge Only. We saw a few in the Pacific lowlands.
THICK-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila funerea)
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (VARIABLE) (Sporophila corvina hoffmanni) – We saw many in a few different plumages.
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Lodge Only. We saw a few here and there.
YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris olivaceus) – Lodge Only. These were fairly common along the road edges above the Canopy Lodge.

A couple of Red-naped Tamarins came by the upper floors of the Canopy Tower each afternoon. Photo by participant Keith Ohmart.

BLACK-HEADED SALTATOR (Saltator atriceps) – Lodge Only. A specialty of the Atlantic slope. We had nice scope views above the Canopy Lodge.
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus)
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – We had one in the scope briefly before it flew. That never seems to happen!
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) – Lodge Only. [I]

CENTRAL AMERICAN WOOLY OPOSSUM (Caluromys derbianus) – We saw one out the window of the dining room at the Canopy Tower then another during our night drive on Semaphore Hill.
RED-NAPED TAMARIN (Saguinus geoffroyi) – These were seen several times and knew when it was lunch time at the Tower.
GRAY-BELLIED NIGHT MONKEY (Aotus lemurinus) – We saw two peering out of their roost hole along Semaphore Hill then two more during our night drive.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – These were heard daily and seen a few times during our time at the Tower.
WHITE-THROATED CAPUCHIN (Cebus capucinus) – We saw these a couple of times while birding along Pipeline Road.
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – We had good views at both the Tower and the Lodge.
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – Also seen well at both the Lodge and Tower; this species is a bit smaller than his two-toed relative.
NORTHERN TAMANDUA (Tamandua mexicana) – We had a nice look at one tearing into a termite nest along Pipeline Road. This is sometimes called Lesser Anteater.
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – A couple of these odd creatures were seen along the road at Semaphore Hill.
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides) – A few were seen in central Panama.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – Lodge Only. These were frequent visitors to the banana feeder at the Lodge.
WESTERN PYGMY SQUIRREL (Microsciurus mimulus) – Lodge Only. We saw one sitting quietly in a tree along the roadside during our visit to Altos del Maria.
CENTRAL AMERICAN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta punctata) – We saw these each day, mostly along the road at Semaphore Hill.
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – One or two were always quite conspicuous along Semaphore Hill.


Totals for the tour: 316 bird taxa and 14 mammal taxa