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Field Guides Tour Report
Panama's Canopy Tower & Lodge 2019
Mar 10, 2019 to Mar 17, 2019
John Coons, Alexis Sanchez & Danilo Rodriguez Jr.

One of the prettiest of all the antbirds, this Spotted Antbird was one of two that really put on a show for us by hopping about in the open. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

We enjoyed a wonderful week of birding at both the Canopy Tower and Canopy Lodge in Panama. Both places provided easy access to all the birding sites as well as great birds right out the doors or windows of our rooms. We had great weather throughout the trip, not too hot and a few light rain showers at night or a few drops during the day that kept bird activity going. Each day was varied so we added new birds at a rapid pace. There were a number of memorable experiences, one of them being our morning along Pipeline Road where we birded nearly 2 1/2 hours and never got more than about 200 meters from the vehicle because there was so much to see. Four species of trogons were seen there, as well as a pair of Brown-hooded Parrots at a nest home, a cooperative pair of Spotted Antbirds, American Pygmy-Kingfisher, three species of puffbirds, a lek of Golden-collared Manakins, Purple-throated Fruitcrows, a Great Potoo, and a couple of mixed-species flocks that gave us good views of three canopy dwelling species that are often very hard to see: Moustached Antwren, Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant, and Gray Elaenia. Another was our morning at Metro Park. When watching a Common Potoo on a perch, Alexis spotted a Tiny Hawk perched quietly rather close to us. When it flew into the forest we heard ant-tanagers giving alarm calls. A bit later as we were scanning the forest, Alexis noticed two feathers wafting by and followed them back and spied the Tiny Hawk perched and just beginning to feed on a female Dusky Antbird it had nabbed. It was remarkable how fast the antbird disappeared.

Some of the other highlights of our trip included the male Rufous-crested Coquette perched in the scope, the tiny male Snowcap at Altos del Maria, our encounter with the Yellow-breasted Crake, the great looks at Gray-headed Kite and Crane Hawk from the Discovery Center Tower, the perched Semiplumbeous Hawk along the road on Semaphore Hill, the family of Black-and-white Owls, the Crimson-bellied Woodpecker, Dull-mantled Antbird, the scoped Streak-chested Antpitta, a bright male Blue Cotinga, the close Green Shrike-Vireo on our first morning from the Tower top, Crested Oropendolas at their hanging nests, and all those tanagers. Our daily encounters with some cool mammals including both species of sloths, loud Howler Monkeys, entertaining Red-naped Tamarins, an Olingo, Wooly Opossum, and those Agoutis and Coatis were also fun.

It was great being with both Alexis and Danilo Jr., who were remarkable in their ability to spot birds in the forest and so much fun to be with. The staff at the Tower and Lodge were so good to us and willing to do almost anything. I had a lot of fun on the trip and hope to see all of you again one of these days. John

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

One of the trip highlights was getting great views of this rather uncommonly seen Tiny Hawk at Metro Park. A bit later, we saw it eating a female Dusky Antbird. Photo by guide John Coons.

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – We heard these on several of our days but they were never close.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – We saw a handful along the Chagres River.
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – On our first afternoon there were three individuals at Ammo Pond and then two at Summit Pond a couple of days later.
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Spatula discors) – Paul spotted about 10 individuals at the lake at Juan Hombron that we scoped.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – These were seen daily at the feeder at the Canopy Lodge, after a few at Ammo Pond.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – We saw several sitting in tree tops from the two towers from where we birded.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) [*]
PLAIN-BREASTED GROUND-DOVE (Columbina minuta) – There were a couple in the roads at Juan Hombron.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-CHESTED DOVE (Leptotila cassinii) – We had good views of two individuals that walked across Pipeline Road. These are usually quite shy and hard to get a good view of.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – A few were seen at Ammo Pond.
GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga sulcirostris) – There were a handful in a couple of localities in the Juan Hombron area.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – We had nice looks at the Discovery Center.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
COMMON NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles minor) – A calling individual was flying about the Canopy Tower on our first morning there.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – We enjoyed scope views of an individual perched on a large limb of a tree in the early part of Pipeline Road.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – This is a great one to see so well. We had wonderful views of a perched bird at Metro Park.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – These were the most prevalent swifts we encountered.
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – We saw them in a few places, with the best views at the small lake at Altos del Maria.
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – Alexis may have been the only one to have seen this species.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – This was the most common species visiting the feeders at the Canopy Tower and at the Discovery Center.
WHITE-TIPPED SICKLEBILL (Eutoxeres aquila) – Unfortunately, we only had a few fly-bys and they would not come into the heliconia flowers we were watching.
GREEN HERMIT (Phaethornis guy) – We had a couple of fly-bys here and there.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris) – This species was seen several times, including at a display lek, but mostly at the Canopy Tower feeder.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis)
PURPLE-CROWNED FAIRY (Heliothryx barroti) – We had a nice view of a perched individual at Metro Park.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – We saw a couple of males together near Ammo Pond.

A fair number of Fork-tailed Flycatchers were seen in the Pacific lowlands and, yes, many flycatchers do eat fruit. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

VERAGUAN MANGO (Anthracothorax veraguensis) – We had great views of a male showing his purplish tail at a flowering tree along the road at Juan Hombron.
RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – One of the trip highlights was seeing this tiny hummingbird so well in the scope as it perched along the road above the Canopy Lodge.
GREEN-CROWNED BRILLIANT (Heliodoxa jacula) – We had a pretty fair look at this hummingbird at Altos del Maria. This bird slipped through our checklist session and we did not initially include it.
LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT (Heliomaster longirostris) – At Cara Iguana we found a perched individual in an open tree right next to the road.
GARDEN EMERALD (Chlorostilbon assimilis) – A couple of males were seen in the Pacific lowlands on our last day.
WHITE-VENTED PLUMELETEER (Chalybura buffonii) – This was another species that we saw at the feeder a few times.
CROWNED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania colombica) – Our first was a female at the Discovery Center feeders.
SNOWCAP (Microchera albocoronata) – This wonderful little hummingbird was scoped for a few minutes in the forest at Altos del Maria. This male is one of the most distinctive hummingbirds with its small size, short bill, and white cap.
BLUE-CHESTED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia amabilis) – Usually one of the most common hummingbirds around, we didn't see many but we heard more calling in the trees.
SNOWY-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia edward edward) – This was a regular visitor to the feeders at the Canopy Lodge.
RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – This was also seen around the flowers at the Lodge.
SAPPHIRE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Lepidopyga coeruleogularis) – We had a female and a male in the dry Pacific lowlands.
VIOLET-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Juliamyia julie) – Another small hummingbird; we saw a few here and there.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – Our first two were crossing the paved road above the Canopy Lodge, then we saw one around and on the feeder at the Lodge.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – One or two were along the Rio Chagres.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)

One of the ten or so species endemic to Panama, this Veraguan Mango showed well as it fed at a roadside tree in the Pacific lowlands. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

YELLOW-BREASTED CRAKE (Hapalocrex flaviventer) – This rarely seen small crake put on a good show for us at Ammo Pond. While looking and listening for it at one end of the pond, Alexis called to us that he had seen a crake cross a ditch. We watched and ended up seeing it three times as it made its way along the edge of the ditch. Once, it walked right into the open. Yip! Yip! Yip!
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) [*]
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus) – There were four individuals at a pond at Juan Hombron.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – We saw these each time we passed Ammo Pond.
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus) – Two were on the beach at Santa Clara.
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
WILLET (Tringa semipalmata) – One was spotted a ways down the Santa Clara Beach.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla)
Ciconiidae (Storks)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – We had a few fly past us along the road at Juan Hombron.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – A couple of individuals were seen along the Rio Chagres near the marina.
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – We had nice views of this nice looking heron at Ammo Pond, where we even saw one sitting on a nest.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – One was spotted at the back of La Laguna de Juan at Juan Hombron.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens) – These far outnumbered the similar looking next species.
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) – An adult was perched in a tree at Juan Hombron.

We saw six species of trogons, including this male Black-throated that showed well along Pipeline Road. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

BOAT-BILLED HERON (SOUTHERN) (Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis) – There were about four seen at Summit Pond, including one on a nest on the side of the pond.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GLOSSY IBIS (Plegadis falcinellus) – Alexis spotted one on the muddy patch of ground along the Rio Chagres.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – We saw a few in the expected places at Juan Hombron, but our first was soaring about at Ammo Pond, where it is quite unusual.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – We saw a couple or three along the Panama Canal.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – We had great views of a flying and perched individual from the top of the Discovery Center Tower.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – A few were seen on the day we went to the higher elevations at Altos del Maria.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – We had a pretty good view of a flying bird at Altos del Maria.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – At the small lagoon at the end of the trail at the Discovery Center, we saw one hunting the edge of the marsh.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – A flying bird got away before we could get a nice view.
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – Beto spotted a migrating individual as we walked near Summit Pond.
TINY HAWK (Accipiter superciliosus) – This was another great experience of the trip. Some of us happened to be looking in the right direction at the Discovery Center when this small raptor rocketed through and grabbed a White-necked Jacobin from near one of the feeders. Then, the next day, Alexis spotted one perched quite close to us at Metro Park where it posed for photos. Then a bit later, Alexis spotted it again, eating a freshly caught female Dusky Antbird for another wonderful view.
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – Two different individuals were seen quite well from the Discovery Center Tower.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – We scoped one that was perched in a leafless tree at Juan Hombron.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga)
BARRED HAWK (Morphnarchus princeps) – We had a soaring and calling individual at Altos del Maria.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis)
SEMIPLUMBEOUS HAWK (Leucopternis semiplumbeus) – We had a great look at a perched bird along the road as we drove down Semaphore Hill.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – One few over near Summit Pond.
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – After seeing one or two along the edges of the forest where they probably wintered, we saw a flock of about 1000 birds soaring just above the road as we were going to the Pacific lowlands. It is always great to see this many raptors on the move.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – We saw about three or four during the week.
SWAINSON'S HAWK (Buteo swainsoni) – About 100 individuals were mixed in with the Broad-winged Hawks that were right above our heads.
Strigidae (Owls)
SPECTACLED OWL (Pulsatrix perspicillata) – We had scope views of this handsome owl on a day perch at Cara Iguana.

A species that is often found at swarms of army ants, this Plain-brown Woodcreeper was found with a few other antswarm indicator species, but there was no sign of ants. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We enjoyed great views of this small owl in the yard of Raul's beach house at Santa Clara.
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) – Danilo Jr. took us to a roost of this pretty cool looking owl at the Canopy Lodge.
BLACK-AND-WHITE OWL (Ciccaba nigrolineata) – Another great looking owl. We saw a pair of adults and the young near the bottom of Semaphore Hill on our first morning.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) – The most common of the area's trogons; we saw at least ten individuals in one place along Semaphore Hill.
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – Near the entrance to Pipeline Road we had nice views of one while two others called nearby.
WHITE-TAILED TROGON (Trogon chionurus) – This yellow breasted species showed well along Pipeline Road.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) – We saw a couple or three.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – One of the prettiest of the trogons. We had a male and female together at the beginning of Pipeline Road.
ORANGE-BELLIED TROGON (Trogon aurantiiventris) – We looked for this species a lot at Altos del Maria before getting nice views of a female.
Momotidae (Motmots)
LESSON'S MOTMOT (Momotus lessonii lessonii) [*]
WHOOPING MOTMOT (Momotus subrufescens) – We saw a few in the areas we visited near the Canopy Tower.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) – On our last morning at the Lodge, we had a pretty good view of a calling individual in the early dawn light.
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) – We had nice looks at a couple of different birds along Semaphore Hill.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – One was seen at Summit Pond.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – We scoped one at Summit Pond.
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – Thus tiny kingfisher was seen quite well along the Quebrada Juan Grande and again the next day at Summit Pond.

Prothonotary Warbler is a species that always brightens up the edge of a stream or pond, as well as the spirits of birders who see this great bird. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – Most of us saw one along the stream at the Canopy Lodge.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BLACK-BREASTED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus pectoralis) – A sharply marked species. We scoped a couple of them.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – We had one with the good number of birds we encountered along Pipeline Road, then another near the lagoon at the Discovery Center.
WHITE-WHISKERED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila panamensis) – This forest species was seen a couple of times, where it perched well for us.
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
SPOT-CROWNED BARBET (Capito maculicoronatus) – A pair were seen quite well and scoped along the road just above the Canopy Lodge.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
NORTHERN EMERALD-TOUCANET (BLUE-THROATED) (Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis) – On our return to the lower site at Altos del Maria we heard one calling but could not lure it in. [*]
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – Our best views were the ones at the feeder.
YELLOW-THROATED TOUCAN (CHESTNUT-MANDIBLED) (Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii) – There were seven individuals in one tree that we scoped from the top of the Discovery Center tower.
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus) – We saw these each day except for the last when we went to the dry country. This is a quite colorful species, even for a toucan.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes pucherani) – Our first was seen from the top of the tower.
RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus)
CRIMSON-BELLIED WOODPECKER (Campephilus haematogaster) – A quite rare woodpecker. Danilo glimpsed one along the road at Altos del Maria and we worked on it for quite awhile before getting a scope view of it.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) [*]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – We saw a couple, including one in a nest hole at the Canopy Lodge.
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – A very handsome woodpecker. We saw our first along the road at Semaphore Road then we had about three in sight at the Discovery Center Tower.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – We had a nice scope look at one along the road on the way to the Pacific lowlands.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis) – We saw these daily and had nice scope looks in Gamboa.
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) – Along Pipeline Road, we had good views of two individuals, then saw one of them go into a tree cavity where we could hear young birds calling.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
RED-LORED PARROT (Amazona autumnalis) – This was the most common parrot that we had flying over near the Canopy Tower but we didn't see many perched.
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala) – A couple flew by us at Juan Hombron.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa)

A forest species that is often seen hovering over streams, this Purple-crowned Fairy seems to be sharpening its bill. Photo by guide John Coons.

BROWN-THROATED PARAKEET (VERAGUAS) (Eupsittula pertinax ocularis) – We had great looks at a few birds that were feeding in tall trees at Juan Hombron.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus) – A couple of individuals showed well along Pipeline. This is one of the larger antbirds in Panama.
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – We had nice views of a male and female along the roadside at Juan Hombron.
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha) – We saw a few males and females in the forest along Pipeline Road.
RUSSET ANTSHRIKE (Thamnistes anabatinus) – A pair of calling birds came in high above us at Altos del Maria and Danilo got one of them in the scope for a few folks.
SPOT-CROWNED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus puncticeps) – A cool little antbird. We saw a singing male along Pipeline Road.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – A few were seen in mixed flocks in the forests in central Panama.
MOUSTACHED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula ignota) – This tiny antbird, one of the smallest, showed quite well along Pipeline Road. Typically a bird of the canopy, and we were lucky to find one in the mid-story.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis) – We saw both the black bellied males and the rufous bellied females.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides tyrannina) – We had a few nice looks including one in the talons of the Tiny Hawk.
WHITE-BELLIED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza longipes) [*]
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Poliocrania exsul) – Along Pipeline Road, one worked along the slope of a hill.
DULL-MANTLED ANTBIRD (Sipia laemosticta) – A very local bird throughout its range; we ended up with a nice view of one of a pair near the road at Altos del Maria.
BICOLORED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys bicolor bicolor) – Two individuals were seen along Pipeline Road where there was probably an antswarm forming well off the road.
SPOTTED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevioides) – We had good views of a male and female amongst the logs on Pipeline Road, then another male the next day hopping about in the road at the Discovery Center.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CROWNED ANTPITTA (Pittasoma michleri) – We worked on a calling bird at Altos del Maria for some time but it would not budge. [*]

Isthmian Wren is rarely seen in the open for more than a few seconds, but Jody really nailed it as it popped out of a thicket in the Pacific lowlands. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

Grallariidae (Antpittas)
STREAK-CHESTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus perspicillatus) – After a lot of whistling from Alexis, we spotted this great bird singing from behind a log. We had it in the scope for a spell.
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
BLACK-FACED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius analis) – A single bird was walking about on the ground in the muddy patch along Pipeline Road.
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides) – Our only sighting was at Metro Park.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – A species that is often seen at army ant swarms; we saw one with a Northern Barred-Woodcreeper, another army ant follower.
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus) – This small woodcreeper was seen at Altos del Maria.
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – We had good views of one where an antswarm seemed to be forming.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – This was the most common woodcreeper we encountered.
BLACK-STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) – One of the more sharply marked woodcreepers; we had a nice view along Pipeline Road.
SPOTTED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) – This higher elevation species showed well at Altos del Maria.
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus) – This large woodcreeper showed well in the Pacific lowlands. This is a dry country species and not found in the more humid forests where we birded in central Panama.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – This odd little species gave us a very close view with a mixed-species flock.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus) – A bird of the canopy. We had quite nice looks from the top of the Canopy Tower.
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – Our only sighting was one at the Canopy B&B in Gamboa.
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (NORTHERN) (Phaeomyias murina eremonoma) – We had a couple of good views of another dry country species at Juan Hombron.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – We saw one of a pair along the Old Gamboa Road after it came out of the tall grass where we parked.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – We saw a couple or three of this species, whose voice is quite common in the forest.
GRAY ELAENIA (CHOCO) (Myiopagis caniceps absita) – We had great views of a male, even in the scope, of a rather uncommon forest species. It is a difficult bird to detect in the tall forest.
GREENISH ELAENIA (GREENISH) (Myiopagis viridicata accola) – We had our only one at Metro Park.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis) – We saw one in a fruiting gumbo limbo tree near Summit Pond and had another at Juan Hombron.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
MISTLETOE TYRANNULET (Zimmerius parvus) – Formerly known as Paltry Tyrannulet. We had good views of a bird at a nest over the road along Semaphore Hill. The adult would perch on an exposed branch for a spell each time it entered or left the nest.

Alexis spotted this beautiful Black-and-white Owl during the day along the road going up Semaphore Hill. Nearby was another adult and a youngster. Photo by guide John Coons.

NORTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER (Sublegatus arenarum) – This species resembles a small Myiarchus flycatcher and we saw it well near the lagoon at Juan Hombron.
BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis atricapillus) – Another canopy dweller that can be hard to see well; we even got a perched bird in the scope. This species is essentially tied for being the smallest passerine in the world.
SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus pileatus) – This small flycatcher gave us nice views right next to the edge of the road at Altos del Maria.
PALE-EYED PYGMY-TYRANT (Atalotriccus pilaris wilcoxi) [*]
SOUTHERN BENTBILL (Oncostoma olivaceum) – We saw a couple of these odd flycatchers in the forest of central Panama.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps) – We had two calling birds that we got nice views of on our first morning from the top of the Canopy Tower.
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-OLIVE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus)
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) [*]
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus) – We saw a few in the forest, with our first on Semaphore Hill.
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius atricaudus) – This snazzy looking flycatcher with the bright yellow rump was working about with the mixed-species flock near the entrance to Pipeline Road.
ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) – Mostly a heard only species, until we saw one in the fruiting gumbo limbo trees.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – This bird has a very loud and distinctive call. We heard it most days and had a pretty good view on our first morning along Semaphore Hill.
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
PANAMA FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus panamensis) – A rather washed out version of an Ash-throated Flycatcher. We saw a pair at Ammo Pond.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) – We saw two of these familiar North American birds from the top of the Discovery Center Tower.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – We saw a few, mostly over water, but one was seen in a tree top from the Discovery Center Tower.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – There were a couple of birds that we scoped at Cara Iguana.
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Our first was in Gamboa, but we saw a few more, including one feeding on fruits in a gumbo limbo at Metro Park.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Our best view was one that perched atop an oropendola nest.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – We saw a handful of these distinctive birds in the Pacific lowlands.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – We saw a group of three along Pipeline Road including a nice male we had in the scope.
BLUE COTINGA (Cotinga nattererii) – We had a scope view of a brilliant male from the top of the Discovery Center Tower not long after we arrived.

The tower at the Discovery Center near Pipeline Road is a great place to see raptors. This Crane Hawk perched quite close for wonderful studies. Photo by guide John Coons.

RUFOUS PIHA (Lipaugus unirufus) – A quite uncommon bird in central Panama. We found a calling bird at the furthest end of Pipeline Road.
Pipridae (Manakins)
LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) – We saw about three, but our best view was the mostly adult male we saw at Metro Park feeding in the fruiting tree.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix coronata) – Our only solid look was of a female or young male on Semaphore Hill.
GOLDEN-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus vitellinus) – At one of our first stops on Pipeline Road we walked off the trail and had nice views of a few males snapping and popping on a display lek.
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis) – This very sharp looking species showed well at the Canopy Tower on our first morning.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata)
SPECKLED MOURNER (Laniocera rufescens) – We saw this uncommonly encountered species along Pipeline Road. It is a bird that is easily overlooked if it is not calling.
CINNAMON BECARD (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – We had nice looks at Metro Park where an individual was singing in the large tree just in front of us.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (NORTHERN) (Cyclarhis gujanensis perrygoi) – Although widespread in a lot of Central America, this species is quite local in Panama. We had good views and heard a few more in the Pacific lowlands on our final day of birding.
SCRUB GREENLET (Hylophilus flavipes) – Good views were obtained at Ammo Pond on our afternoon there.
GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius pulchellus) – A familiar voice in the canopy, and often a tough one to see well, but we had marvelous views of one from the top of the Canopy Tower on our first morning. We happened to see another as we walked Semaphore Hill.
LESSER GREENLET (Pachysylvia decurtata)
GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET (Pachysylvia aurantiifrons)
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons) – We found one of these wintering birds at Metro Park.
YELLOW-GREEN VIREO (Vireo flavoviridis) – At our first stop on the way to the Pacific lowlands, we coaxed one of the few that were singing nearby into view.

Orange-bellied Trogon is a rather uncommon bird in the highlands near the Canopy Lodge, but we enjoyed wonderful looks at this female at Altos del Maria. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – This large jay was seen at Metro Park, Canopy Lodge, and at Cara Iguana.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
NORTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) – There were a few flying around Ammo Pond with the following species.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – This was the most widespread swallow we saw in central Panama.
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea) – A few gave us good views at the marina at Gamboa.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – A few were seen moving in central Panama, but we saw about 100 individuals that were gathering to migrate when we were birding the Pacific lowlands.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
SCALY-BREASTED WREN (WHISTLING) (Microcerculus marginatus luscinia) [*]
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris) – We had nice looks at this large wren with a white throat along Pipeline Road.
RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN (Pheugopedius rutilus) [*]
RUFOUS-AND-WHITE WREN (Thryophilus rufalbus) – Often a skulker; we saw a pair at Metro Park that showed pretty well for most of us.
ISTHMIAN WREN (Cantorchilus elutus) – Formerly known as Plain Wren; we had nice looks at one that had been singing in the Juan Hombron area.
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus)
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) – We had one hopping about near the railroad tracks at Ammo Pond.
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) – One along Semaphore Hill popped up in the open for a few of us.
GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucophrys) [*]
SONG WREN (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus) – We heard the odd song of this mostly ground-dwelling species along Pipeline Road, and had a few views as they moved through the forest floor.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – The one on Semaphore Hill showed pretty well.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – Most were seen in the Canopy Lodge area.
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris) – This was the common small bird coming to eat bananas at the feeder at the Canopy Lodge.
FULVOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia fulvicrissa) – We had one with the orange undertail along Pipeline Road.
LESSER GOLDFINCH (Spinus psaltria) – A single bird flew down for a drink at a pool where we stopped to see the Crested Oropendola colony on our way to the Pacific lowlands.
Rhodinocichlidae (Thrush-Tanager)
ROSY THRUSH-TANAGER (Rhodinocichla rosea) – A calling bird could not be lured into view. [*]
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW (Arremonops conirostris) – Our only sighting was at Ammo Pond where we saw it hopping on the ground then up on the fence.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
EASTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella magna) – Several were seen and a few heard in the Juan Hombron area.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – A few were building and coming to nests in a set of pine trees along the road we took to the Pacific lowlands.

Long-billed Hermit, tongue and all, was a regular visitor to the feeders at the Canopy Tower and the Discovery Center. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – This was another species that visited the banana feeders at the Lodge regularly.
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (SCARLET-RUMPED) (Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus) – We had scope views of these black birds with yellow-white bills and blue eyes along the road at Semaphore Hill.
ORCHARD ORIOLE (Icterus spurius)
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater)
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – We saw one perched atop the barbed wire fence at Ammo Pond.
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula) – A few males and females were seen at both locales. They will be turning up in the U.S. soon.
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis)
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER (Mniotilta varia) – Only a few were encountered.
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – We saw one at Summit Pond then, oddly, in the dry country at Juan Hombron as well.
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina) – A single bird came to investigate the feeder at the Canopy Lodge.
MOURNING WARBLER (Geothlypis philadelphia) – We always think of this bird as a skulker, but it showed pretty well as it moved along the hedge and under the feeder at the Canopy Lodge.
MAGNOLIA WARBLER (Setophaga magnolia) – I may have been the only one to see this species.
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea) – This was the most common of the North American breeding warblers that we encountered.
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Setophaga fusca) – Barbara spotted one in a mixed flock at Altos del Maria.
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia)
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica) – We saw a few, with only one being close to breeding plumage.
RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER (CHESTNUT-CAPPED) (Basileuterus rufifrons mesochrysus) – We had good looks at a few of these tropical warblers in the Canopy Lodge area.
BUFF-RUMPED WARBLER (Myiothlypis fulvicauda) – We had good views of this always busy species as it hopped about on rocks in the stream above the Canopy Lodge.
Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)
DUSKY-FACED TANAGER (Mitrospingus cassinii) – This was another species that moved around in small flocks in the Canopy Lodge area. They even came to the feeder to pick at the bananas.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – We saw all red adult males, younger red-and-yellow blotched males, and yellowish females.
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – A few were seen at Metro Park and they made a lot of scolding sounds when we saw the Tiny Hawk fly into the forest.
RED-THROATED ANT-TANAGER (Habia fuscicauda) – There was a pair off the edge of Pipeline Road where we also saw the Black-faced Antthrush.
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia cyanoides) – We saw a calling female at Metro Park.
INDIGO BUNTING (Passerina cyanea) – A couple of drab looking female types were in the grass near Ammo Pond.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (Eucometis penicillata) – A couple of birds that we heard calling in the forest showed well. This is another species that often follows army ants.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus)
TAWNY-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus delatrii) – We had a few flocks of these in the areas around the Canopy Lodge, which is the best place I have been to see this species.

While driving down the road on Semaphore Hill, Alexis spied this Semiplumbeous Hawk perched back in the forest and it ended up being very accommodating. Photo by participant Jody Gillespie.

FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (LEMON-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus) – These were regular visitors to the banana feeders at the Lodge.
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – A quite colorful species; we saw several during our time in central Panama.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata)
BAY-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara gyrola) – This is a species of higher elevations, so we only encountered them above the Canopy Lodge.
SILVER-THROATED TANAGER (Tangara icterocephala) – At Altos del Maria we found several of these beauties in flocks moving through the moss-laden trees.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – Always a dazzler! We had our best looks at the Canopy B&B feeder.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – At least one popped up with a flock along Pipeline Road.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – We saw a few picking around in the grass at Ammo Pond where a couple jumped up on the rails.
THICK-BILLED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila funerea) – This mostly black bird with a white spot on the wing gave us pretty good views near Summit Pond.
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (VARIABLE) (Sporophila corvina hoffmanni)
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – We saw a few of the dark headed males.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) [*]
STREAKED SALTATOR (Saltator striatipectus) – We saw a few, with our best views at Juan Hombron.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) [*]
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) [I]

CENTRAL AMERICAN WOOLY OPOSSUM (Caluromys derbianus) – We had a nice view of one in the light during our night drive.
LITTLE MASTIFF BAT (Molossus molossus) – This was the small bat that was flying around the Tower and the one Alexis saved in the corner.
RED-NAPED TAMARIN (Saguinus geoffroyi) – We saw these small and colorful monkeys a few times.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – We had nice views and also heard them daily at the Canopy Tower.
WHITE-THROATED CAPUCHIN (Cebus capucinus) – We saw a few from the Discovery Center Tower.
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – Our only one was a female with a baby that we saw during our night drive.
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – We saw a couple along Semaphore Hill then had about three more, including one in the parking area of the Canopy Lodge.
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – Those of us that got in early the first day saw one rooting around off the edge of the road on Semaphore Hill.
VARIEGATED SQUIRREL (Sciurus variegatoides)
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – Several of these were stealing bananas from the feeder at the Canopy Lodge.
ROTHSCHILD'S PORCUPINE (Coendou rothschildi) – On our arrival day, four of us were driving up Semaphore Hill when we came upon Jorge and a small group of birders who were seeing this quite rare mammal in a hole in a tree. We got out and saw the head of it peeking out at us. We tried for it again the next morning, but it was not home.
CENTRAL AMERICAN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta punctata) – We saw a lot of these.
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – There were about six individuals mucking around the log pile along Pipeline Road. We also saw them a couple of other places.
ALLEN'S OLINGO (Bassaricyon alleni) – This relative of the Raccoon gave us a look during our night drive on Semaphore Hill.
COLLARED PECCARY (Tayassu tajacu) – One was seen briefly by a few folks along Pipeline Road.
WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoileus virginianus) – On our way to Pipeline Road, the first vehicle saw one run off the roadside.


Totals for the tour: 292 bird taxa and 16 mammal taxa