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Field Guides Tour Report
Oct 23, 2019 to Nov 3, 2019
Micah Riegner & Tom Johnson

Virua National Park is perhaps the best place in the world to see Crestless Curassow. This one walked right out in front of us while we were birding on the Estrada Perdida. Photo by Micah Riegner.

Three of the ingredients that make for a good tour are good birds, good landscapes, and good food, and Roraima has them all! A few years ago, while studying specimens at the bird collection at INPA (Institute for Amazonian Research) in Manaus, I noticed that many neat birds came from the state of Roraima. I talked to Bret Whitney, aka Kite, we did some research and consequently dreamed up a new itinerary to this part of Brazil. Bret drummed up a group of participants and we ran an invitational scouting tour last year, which was a heck of a lot of fun. This year was also a blast; we had a great group, great weather, and great birds all around. There were numerous highlights including the Orange-breasted Falcons at Tepequem and Caracarai, the majestic mother Harpy incubating her egg—icon of tropical America—the Hoary-throated Spinetails on the Rio Uraricoera and the Crestless Curassow (better known as careless curassow) walking right toward us on the Estrada Perdida. It was a great tour for antbirds; we had range-restricted Rio Branco Antbird, the strikingly gorgeous Ferruginous-backed Antbird, the somewhat less striking Willis’s Antbird and the enigmatic Yapacana Antbird at Virua National Park. Oh, and we mustn’t leave out Capuchinbirds near Boa Vista with their unearthly vocalizations and unearthly appearance, certainly contenders for the strangest birds of the tour. We also did well for mammals, thanks to Tom and his thermal scope. For many of us the Giant Anteater in the savanna below Tepequem was a lifer, as were the Guianan Sakis outside Boa Vista, Crab-eating Fox, Neotropic River Otters and Bare-tailed Woolly Opossums at Virua. That Ferreira’s Spiny Tree-rat sitting on the termite mound while chewing a piece of fruit is worth a mention, too!

As soon as we landed in Boa Vista we were met by Maxswel, our driver, and Helio, our local tour operator. We loaded up into the Sprinter, had a great buffet lunch, checked into the hotel and went out birding. We walked a dirt road that winds through some riverine scrub along the Rio Branco where we had our first encounters with White-bellied Piculet, Pale-tipped Tyrannulet, and the handsome Rio Branco Antbird. A Black Hawk-Eagle stood out for us on a low tree, somewhat of a surprise, given the low stature of the forest. We reached the river and saw a troop of Red Howlers clambering about—also surprising, given our proximity to Boa Vista, the largest city in Roraima!

The next morning, we were off to Serra do Tepequem. From Boa Vista we drove north on the BR174, stopping at some Jabiru-filled puddles before reaching the Rio Uraricoera where we saw the range-restricted Hoary-throated Spinetail! Not only that, we saw it at a nest: a globular twiggy structure nestled within a vine tangle. Another confiding pair of Rio Branco Antbirds came in, as did Brown-crested Flycatcher and Slate-headed Tody-flycatcher. It was getting quite hot, so we continued to our lunch spot before the final stretch to Tepeqeum, stopping briefly to see Crested Bobwhite singing from the top of a mound.

Our time at Tepequem was fruitful. The first afternoon we birded at Mirante da Paiva—an overlook where we had a cooperative Sooty-capped Hermit. This hummer occurs in Venezuela and has recently been found on the mountaintops of Roraima. In fact, it’s such a recent discovery that it’s not even in Birds of Brazil! The next morning we birded trails at Sesc Tepequem. Last year the place was under renovation, and they wouldn’t let us in, so I was excited to check it out for the first time. We piled out of the van and Tom spotted a falcon sitting on a snag. We studied it for several minutes and realized it had all the right features to make it Orange-breasted Falcon: the heavy bill, white throat surrounded by rufous, the coarse white bands on the breast, large feet and Peregrine-esque proportions. Fantastic! While we were watching it, a Collared Forest-falcon blasted past and a flock of Tepui Swifts circled overhead. A few White-collared Swifts were mixed in. The birding trail at the Sesc was superb. We saw both Green-bellied Hummingbird and White-chested Emerald, two other Venezuelan hummers with southern outposts here at Tepequem, the localized Finsch’s Euphonia eating Mistletoe, as euphonias do, and several Blackpoll Warblers in the treetops. These champion migrants must have just arrived from their trans-Atlantic crossing and integrated into the local feeding flocks. Farther down the trail we saw Blue-crowned Manakin and some cooperative Gilded Barbets, two species that occur west of the Rio Branco.

In the afternoon we birded the low scrubby habitat at the top of the plateau. A bit of Pygmy-owl tooting brought in a mob with American Redstarts, both Yellow-bellied and Plain-crested Elaenias, White-fringed Antwrens, Black-faced and Red-shouldered Tanagers. While we were focused on the birds, I felt a critter go up my pant leg… was it a spider, a tarantula wasp, a bullet ant? Thankfully it was just an Amazon Lava Lizard, and thankfully it fell out of my pant-leg without me having to pull my pants down.

After a delicious dinner buffet at Sesc, some of us did a night walk along the main trail. Tom immediately spotted a Crab-eating fox with the heat scope and we were able to get quite close to it without it running away. One of the most surprising finds that night was a Fiery-capped Manakin, also thanks to the heat scope. It looked like a little pink cotton ball sitting on a branch. Amazingly that was a bird we missed during the day. Without the heat scope we would not have seen it at all!

On the way down the mountain the next day, we made several stops before reaching Boa Vista. Our first stop was for a pair of dark morph White-tailed Hawks, one of which was soaring among the vultures. The dark morph of these hawks is a specialty of South America that doesn’t reach the US. We continued to the Rio Amajari and saw Azure Gallinules in the wetland past the river. These opalescent marsh skulkers have a tendency to wander great distances in search of suitable wetlands; however, there remains much to be learned about these movements. A Giant Anteater was another worthwhile stop before lunch. We watched it as it lumbered slowly across the savannah, pausing every 20 yards or so to probe its snout into the ground. After reaching Boa Vista, we spent the afternoon birding around town. We walked another side road that leads down to the Rio Branco and saw a Tropical Screech-Owl roosting in a vine tangle. We then cruised the streets and found two Sun Parakeets just glowing in the afternoon light! These gorgeous birds are now well established here in Boa Vista and can often be seen along the river.

A few months before the tour I received a message from J Pavani, a local guide in Boa Vista, that a pair of Harpy Eagles were copulating and building a nest not far from the city. Of course, it was something we should include in the tour, so I made the arrangements. Things worked out great. We met Pavani at 4:30 in the morning and headed to the Harpy site. We reached the nest, just as it was getting light enough to see, and saw the mother on the nest, certainly a highlight of the tour. We had a picnic breakfast while we watched her incubating her egg. I'm looking forward to seeing her again in April. By then there should be a well-developed chick in or not far from the nest!

As if a Harpy Eagle wasn’t enough for that morning, Pavani took us down a side road for Capuchinbird. We reached the spot, an unassuming piece of forest, and we played the recording. Sure enough, the birds responded, and after a bit more playback they came roaring in right above us. They shifted from branch to branch, searching for the intruder. After satisfying views, we made our way back to Boa Vista and down to Caracarai, gateway to Virua National Park.

Virua is an extensive park that was established in 1998 to protect a number of important ecosystems, notably the campinas in northern Amazonia. It straddles Estrada Perdida, also known as the Lost Road, which was the original path of the BR174. After an attempt to construct the road through the flooded campina, and losing tractor equipment along the way, the project was abandoned. They left a perfectly good dirt road, which has since become popular for birding, much like the Transpantaneira in the Pantanal.

Our first morning on the Estrada Perdida we were stopped by a Crestless Curassow walking across the road. We all got out of the van and the bird came toward us nervously flicking its tail (see my video). When curassows actually walk toward you, you know you’re in a well-protected area. We then followed Paulo, our local guide, to a patch of white-sand forest within the campina to look for Yapacana Antbird—a bird few birders have seen. In order to get there, we had to cross a couple flooded areas, but we came prepared with boots, so it was not a problem. We grouped up within the stunted white sands forest; the visibility was horrendous. Nonetheless, I played the recording via Bluetooth and within a minute the bird was in front of us, pirouetting on a thin diagonal branch, while giving its harsh, raspy song. Miraculously everyone in the group saw it, and some folks managed some fabulous photos. Woohoo! We returned to Caracarai buzzing with joy.

The Rio Branco is the great river that divides Roraima down the middle, separating numerous sister species on its way to join the mighty Rio Negro. In order to fully appreciate the Branco, one must take a boat trip, and that’s exactly what we did. We boarded the Dom Alfredon and met captain Claudio and the crew who generally take fishing groups out on the Rio Branco. We were their first birders and they were both excited and intrigued by what we do. After a delightful breakfast, we loaded up onto the voadeiras (metal boats with outboard motors) and cruised along an exposed sandbar. Tom spotted some White-rumped Sandpipers at the water’s edge, certainly a great record for this part of South America! We also saw numerous Roseate Spoonbills and Black Skimmers lined up on the sand.

After lunch, a storm blew in (our first rain of the tour), so we waited for it to pass before going out again on the voadeiras. This time, we cruised up a narrow channel, where we saw Botos, numerous Hoatzins, the diminutive Klages’s Antwren and an Amazonian Umbrellabird crossing the channel. The next morning we cruised another creek, and saw Varzea Schiffornis, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher, Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner, and Rusty-backed Spinetails. On our way back we saw a number of good raptors, including a Hook-billed Kite, Great Black-Hawk and a juvenile Zone-tailed Hawk soaring over the Branco. One of the neat features of the Rio Branco is that it has disjunct populations of white-water birds that are typically found along the main channel of the Amazon. These include Lesser Wagtail-tyrant and White-bellied Spinetail, both of which we saw on a river island on our way back to Caracarai, although the spinetail didn’t cooperate as well as we would have liked it to.

Our last full day of birding we spent back at Virua, this time birding the terra firme. We caught up with several antbirds including Northern Slaty and Amazonian Antshrikes, Guianan Warbling Antbird, and Ferruginous-backed Antbird, which everyone saw extremely well as it walked around like an oversized pipit. Before heading back to Boa Vista, we made a final stop outside of Caracarai where we had up-close looks at Black-headed Parrots, a satisfying closure to our time in Roraima. Tom and I would like to thank Helio and Maxswel for their great driving, company and assistance on the tour, J Pavani and Paulo for their local expertise and Christine for setting things up for us. We'd also like to thank you all for a fun-filled couple weeks; we had a great time birding with you and look forward to crossing paths again soon!


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tom and Micah assembled this video of some of the tour highlights.
Tinamidae (Tinamous)
CINEREOUS TINAMOU (Crypturellus cinereus) – Heard several times throughout the tour. [*]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – Heard several times on the Estrada Agua Boa outside of Caracarai. [*]
UNDULATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus undulatus) – We heard it along the Rio Branco and on our way up to Tepequem. This species tends to prefer flooded forest. [*]
GRAY-LEGGED TINAMOU (Crypturellus duidae) – We heard this poorly-known tinamou at the entrance of Virua National Park. This species prefers white sand forest and occurs in disjunct populations thought the northern Amazon. [*]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – We stopped for a group of these on our way toward Tepequem.
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
VARIABLE CHACHALACA (Ortalis motmot) – Common at Tepequem. We also had some along the Estrada Perdida.
BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile cumanensis) – We saw one along the Rio Branco.
CRESTLESS CURASSOW (Mitu tomentosum) – Certainly one of the highlights of the tour! We had one cross the road in front of us on the Estrada Perdida. We got out of the van and the bird walked toward us! Virua National Park is certainly one of the best places in the world to see this remarkable species.
BLACK CURASSOW (Crax alector) – We saw a family group cross the road on our way to the park headquarters at Virua.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
CRESTED BOBWHITE (Colinus cristatus) – Common throughout the tour. We had our best looks at one on our way up to Tepequem.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – We had great looks at this ornate pigeon along the Agua Boa Road.
RUDDY PIGEON (Patagioenas subvinacea) – We saw one calling along the Estrada Perdida.
COMMON GROUND-DOVE (Columbina passerina)
PLAIN-BREASTED GROUND-DOVE (Columbina minuta) – Tom pointed these out on the drive back to Boa Vista.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
BLUE GROUND-DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – Some blasted past us while we were birding up at Tepequem.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – Common throughout the tour.
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – These look a lot like Mourning Doves with a squared off tail.

This Harpy built its nest in an enormous Kapok tree outside of Boa Vista. She sat peacefully while we watched her from a nearby bridge. By the time we return for the next tour in April, there should be a well-grown chick in or near the nest. Photo by Micah Riegner.

Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – This riverine Ani was common along the Rio Branco.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
LITTLE CUCKOO (Coccycua minuta) – We called one out along the Estrada Agua Boa.
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
LEAST NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles pusillus) – Some took off in the campina outside Caracarai. This particular population is only found in campinas. Stay tuned for taxonomic updates.
LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) – We saw some flying high overhead near Caracarai. Tom photographed them and we could see that they had rounded wingtips.
BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – A couple took off at dusk over the Estrada Perdida.
BLACKISH NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus nigrescens) – Seen along the road at Virua.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – A couple were seen along the Estrada Perdida.
WHITE-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis cayennensis) – We had decent looks at them along the Estrada Perdida.
LADDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR (Hydropsalis climacocerca) – We saw several throughout the tour. There was a nice male that spun around us at dusk on the Rio Branco.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – We saw one on our night walk at Sesc Tepequem. Interestingly, it didn't show up in the heat scope.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
TEPUI SWIFT (Streptoprocne phelpsi) – We had our best looks from the parking lot at Sesc Tepequem. They presumably roost under the waterfalls at Tepequem.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – A few were mixed in the flock of Tepui Swifts.
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura)
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus)
FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT (Tachornis squamata) – Fairly common throughout the tour, often near Mauritia Palms.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora)
SOOTY-CAPPED HERMIT (Phaethornis augusti) – We had fabulous looks at this hermit at Tepequem, perhaps the best place in Brazil to see it.
GREEN-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus theresiae) – Common in the campinas. We saw one perched out along the Estrada Perdida.
RUBY-TOPAZ HUMMINGBIRD (Chrysolampis mosquitus) – We missed this bird at Tepequem, but had great looks at it along the Estrada Perdida.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – We had scope views of one at Tepequem.
BLUE-TAILED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon mellisugus) – We saw one nectaring at some flowers along the Estrada Perdida.
GRAY-BREASTED SABREWING (Campylopterus largipennis) – The largest hummer of the tour. We saw it along the trail at Sesc Tepequem.
WHITE-CHESTED EMERALD (Amazilia brevirostris) – It was cool to see this hummer with gleaming white underparts at Tepequem. It's another species from Venezuela that just makes it to the mountaintops of northern Brazil.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
GREEN-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia viridigaster) – We saw this bird multiple times at Sesc Tepequem, perhaps the best place in Brazil to see it.
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus)

Tom Johnson photographed this Crested Bobwhite as it sang in the heat of the day.

Opisthocomidae (Hoatzin)
HOATZIN (Opisthocomus hoazin) – We saw hundreds along the Rio Branco, certainly, the most I've ever seen.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
PAINT-BILLED CRAKE (Mustelirallus erythrops) – We heard it in the soccer field in Caracarai, but it just wouldn't come into view. [*]
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinica)
AZURE GALLINULE (Porphyrio flavirostris) – We saw a few in the marsh near the Rio Amajari.
Heliornithidae (Finfoots)
SUNGREBE (Heliornis fulica) – We saw a couple along the Rio Branco.
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Psophiidae (Trumpeters)
GRAY-WINGED TRUMPETER (Psophia crepitans) – What a cool bird! We saw one at Virua.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
PIED LAPWING (Vanellus cayanus) – These were common along the Rio Branco.
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
COLLARED PLOVER (Charadrius collaris)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER (Calidris fuscicollis) – Sweet! We saw three along a sand bar on the Rio Branco. They were refueling for their journey to southern South America.
SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE (Gallinago paraguaiae) – We saw one along the Estrada Agua Boa our last morning of the tour. It was running around in the drainage ditch just off the road.
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – We saw a few of these migrants throughout the tour.
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca)

Sooty-capped Hermit is a bird of Venezuela that makes it to some of the mountaintops in Roraima, Brazil. Tom Johnson photographed this one while we were birding at Tepequem.

Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris) – Both terns were common along the Rio Branco.
LARGE-BILLED TERN (Phaetusa simplex)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger) – We saw well over 60 lined up on a sand bar on the Rio Branco.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – The Estrada Perdida seems to be a good place for these. We saw a few throughout our time there.
JABIRU (Jabiru mycteria) – A common bird in Roraima. We saw them regularly along the highway. We also saw a pair on a nest in a huge Kapok tree along the Rio Branco.
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – We had a couple along the Rio Branco.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (SOUTH AMERICAN) (Butorides striata striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – Lots of these elegant herons were seen along the Estrada Agua Boa.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – We saw some at a puddle along the highway on our drive back from Tepequem and another group along a sand bar on the Rio Branco.

Dark morph White-tailed Hawks are always a treat to see. Gil Ewing photographed this one below Tepequem.

Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – We had one from the parking lot at Sesc Tepequem.
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – Fairly common in the open country throughout the tour. Also seen along the Rio Branco.
GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes melambrotus) – We had one from Mirante da Paiva at Tepequem and another along the Rio Branco.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Common along the Rio Branco.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
PEARL KITE (Gampsonyx swainsonii) – We saw quite a few of these along our drive to and from Tepequem.
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – We saw one soaring above the Rio Branco.
HARPY EAGLE (Harpia harpyja) – We had outstanding looks at the female on the nest near Boa Vista. We'll be back to check the nest in April!
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – It was cool to see this bird just outside of Boa Vista.
BLACK-COLLARED HAWK (Busarellus nigricollis)
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – We saw one soaring way off in the distance at Tepequem. Even at that distance we could see the white under-tail coverts flared out to the side.
CRANE HAWK (Geranospiza caerulescens) – We had a few encounters with this bird throughout the tour. Our best look was along the Rio Branco.
SLATE-COLORED HAWK (Buteogallus schistaceus) – We saw a few of these varzea hawks along the Rio Branco.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – It was awesome to see the dark morph of this bird along the drive back from Tepequem.
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus)
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – We saw this bird a couple times above Sesc Tepequem. We even saw it perched, which is something you don't see too often.
ZONE-TAILED HAWK (Buteo albonotatus) – It was really neat to see this bird along the Rio Branco. Interestingly, there are few records from within Amazonia. Most of the records come from the edge of the Amazon Basin.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – We had a lucky encounter with this bird just outside of Boa Vista. It was roosting in a vine tangle.
TAWNY-BELLIED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops watsonii) – We played the recording and the bird came right in at the same spot we had it last year.
CRESTED OWL (Lophostrix cristata) – We heard one at Sesc Tepequem, but it wouldn't come in. [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We heard them throughout the tour. Tom spotted one at Mirante da Paiva at Serra do Tepequem.
BLACK-BANDED OWL (Ciccaba huhula) – One called back to us along the road at Virua, but it wouldn't come in. [*]
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – We saw one on the Estrada Perdida in the early morning.
Momotidae (Motmots)
AMAZONIAN MOTMOT (Momotus momota) – We saw one briefly at the Capuchinbird spot outside of Boa Vista and another one along the road to Virua National Park.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – We had brief looks at one along the Rio Branco.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle inda) – After much effort we all saw it way back in the forest along the Rio Branco.

Tom and Micah documented some of the many great meals on the tour. You can see we didn't go hungry.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BLACK NUNBIRD (Monasa atra)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
GREEN-TAILED JACAMAR (Galbula galbula) – Common throughout the tour. We had our best looks at one on the road below Tepequem. Stella spotted it. Way to go Stella!
Capitonidae (New World Barbets)
GILDED BARBET (Capito auratus) – We had fabulous scope views of this spectacular barbet at Tepequem.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
GREEN ARACARI (Pteroglossus viridis) – We saw them twice along the Estrada Agua Boa.
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) [*]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – The largest toucan in the world! We saw some along the highway on our way back to Boa Vista. They have been expanding their range in Amazonia as a result of deforestation.
WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN (Ramphastos tucanus)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET (Picumnus exilis) – We got up-close views of a pair in the campina along the Estrada Perdida.
WHITE-BELLIED PICULET (Picumnus spilogaster) – A Rio Branco specialty. We saw one our first afternoon while birding around Boa Vista.
YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes cruentatus) – We saw a family group of these noisy woodpeckers at Tepequem.
LITTLE WOODPECKER (Dryobates passerinus)
RED-NECKED WOODPECKER (Campephilus rubricollis) – One came in close while we were watching the Harpy. We had a second view at the Estrada Agua Boa.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – Fairly common throughout the tour.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus) – We saw a couple while we were at the Harpy nest.
CHESTNUT WOODPECKER (Celeus elegans) – It was awesome to watch a pair of these elegant woodpeckers at Virua. The ones here have a blond crest.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – One shot across the road while we were watching the Orange-breasted Falcon at Tepequem.
BLACK CARACARA (Daptrius ater)
CRESTED CARACARA (Caracara cheriway)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans)
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – We saw one in Boa Vista and another near Caracarai.
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – There was a pair flying around near the Harpy nest.
ORANGE-BREASTED FALCON (Falco deiroleucus) – It was outstanding to see two different individuals on the tour. Our first was at Tepequem and the second, much closer bird was along the Estrada Agua Boa near Caracarai. Both birds stayed long enough for us to get great scope views.
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – A young bird was seen in the campina along the Estrada Perdida. This was only the second Peregrine I've ever seen in Amazonia.

Micah photographed this Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl at Virua National Park.

Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
GOLDEN-WINGED PARAKEET (Brotogeris chrysoptera) – We had a couple flocks go by overhead throughout the tour.
DUSKY PARROT (Pionus fuscus) [*]
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus)
FESTIVE PARROT (Amazona festiva)
YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT (Amazona ochrocephala)
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – The most common Amazona of the tour.
GREEN-RUMPED PARROTLET (Forpus passerinus)
BLACK-HEADED PARROT (Pionites melanocephalus) – We had awesome up-close views of a group along the Estrada Agua Boa our last morning of the tour.
RED-FAN PARROT (Deroptyus accipitrinus) – We had extraordinary views of a flock of these bizarre parrots along the Estrada Perdida.
BROWN-THROATED PARAKEET (Eupsittula pertinax) – Common in the open habitats throughout the tour.
SUN PARAKEET (Aratinga solstitialis) – Woohoo! After searching the streets of Boa Vista we came upon a pair right before sunset. They were just glowing in the afternoon light.
RED-BELLIED MACAW (Orthopsittaca manilatus)
BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna) – Fairly common throughout the tour. We saw a tree that was just full of them near Tepequem.
SCARLET MACAW (Ara macao) – A pair was flying beside us as we drove 55 km per hour on our way to Tepequem.
RED-AND-GREEN MACAW (Ara chloropterus) – Fairly common up at Tepequem. We saw some roosting on the cliff at Mirante da Paiva.
RED-SHOULDERED MACAW (Diopsittaca nobilis) – These mini macaws were common throughout the tour, especially up at Tepequem.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – We called one out of a thicket near the Harpy nest.
BLACK-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE (Sakesphorus canadensis) – Common throughout the tour. We had our first looks in the riverine forest near Boa Vista.
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – A common bird throughout the Neotropics. We had great views of one along the Rio Uraricoeira.
MOUSE-COLORED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus murinus) – We saw one in the terra firme forest at Virua.
NORTHERN SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus punctatus) – This antshrike is generally found in forests on nutrient poor soils. We saw a pair along the main road at Virua National Park.
WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus aethiops) – We heard one calling off the Estrada Agua Boa and it shot right past us. We would have spent more time on it, but we had a plane to catch!
AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus amazonicus) – There was one in a feeding flock along the road at Virua. I made some video of it wagging its tail while it called.
CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE (Thamnomanes caesius) – We saw a female along the trail at Sesc Tepequem and a male along the road at Virua. These antshrikes act as the sentinels for the understory mixed species flocks.

Gil Ewing photographed this Yapacana Antbird as it sang in front of us at Virua National Park, the best place in Brazil to see this bird. It looks a lot like the widespread Silvered Antbird, but sounds totally different.

KLAGES'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula klagesi) – We saw this little streaky antwren along the Rio Branco.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris)
SPOT-BACKED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus) – We tried to get this one to come in, but he just wasn't in the mood. [*]
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis) – There was a pair in the feeding flock we saw at Virua.
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea) – We had great looks at this campina bird in the low scrubby vegetation at Tepequem.
GUIANAN WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis cantator) – We called one out into the open at Virua National Park. It sat out for quite a while.
IMERI WARBLING-ANTBIRD (Hypocnemis flavescens) [*]
WILLIS'S ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides laeta) – We saw this little skulker on our way to the Capuchinbird site. Both male and female snuck around us.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacroides tyrannina)
RIO BRANCO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra carbonaria) – We had tremendous views of this Rio Branco specialty at Boa Vista and the Rio Uraricoera.
WHITE-BROWED ANTBIRD (Myrmoborus leucophrys) [*]
BLACK-CHINNED ANTBIRD (Hypocnemoides melanopogon) – One came in while we were trying to see Rusty-backed Spinetails along the Rio Branco.
BLACK-HEADED ANTBIRD (Percnostola rufifrons) – There was a pair at an army ant swarm near the field station at Virua.
FERRUGINOUS-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus ferrugineus) – After a couple attempts to bring this bird into the open we finally got great views of it as it crossed a gap in front of us. Just fabulous!
YAPACANA ANTBIRD (Aprositornis disjuncta) – We walked into a patch of white sand forest and used the bluetooth speaker to bring it into view. What a bird! It's only known from a few localities in northern Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
THRUSH-LIKE ANTPITTA (Myrmothera campanisona) – Heard a couple times at Virua. [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (Sittasomus griseicapillus) – We had one cross the trail in front of us at Tepequem.
STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) – This floodplain forest specialist was seen along the Rio Branco.
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus guttatus)
STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) [*]
POINT-TAILED PALMCREEPER (Berlepschia rikeri) – We had outstanding views of one near Virua National Park. We even saw it catch a katydid!
PALE-LEGGED HORNERO (Furnarius leucopus) – We saw it a few times along the Rio Branco.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus rufipileatus) – We called one in along the Rio Branco. This skulker tends to like vine tangles and dense bamboo.

Tom Johnson used the x-ray mode on his camera to photograph this Rio Branco Antbird in the middle of a vine tangle.

RUSTY-BACKED SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca vulpina) – Common in the forest along the Rio Branco.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – We saw one along the BR174 on our way north to Tepequem.
WHITE-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Mazaria propinqua) – This showed up briefly along the river island on the Rio Branco.
PLAIN-CROWNED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis gujanensis) – We called one out at the first river island we stopped at on the Rio Branco.
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens) – We had outstanding views of this generally tough-to-see spinetail along the Rio Uraricoera.
HOARY-THROATED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis kollari) – One of the rarest spinetails in Brazil. We saw a pair at a nest along the Rio Uraricoera.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
MOUSE-COLORED TYRANNULET (Phaeomyias murina) – We saw a couple our first afternoon of birding outside of Boa Vista.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – We got on a few that were in some low shrubby vegetation outside of Caracarai.
YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET (Tyrannulus elatus) – This mistletoe specialist was seen a couple times at Tepequem.
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – We got great views of one our final morning of birding along the Estrada Agua Boa.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – The most common Elaenia at Tepequem and along the Estrada Perdida.
PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA (Elaenia cristata) – Very similar to Yellow-bellied Elaenia, but with a different voice. We called one in along the road at Tepequem. It seemed to cock the tail more so than Yellow-bellied. I wonder if that's a characteristic thing that they do.
RUFOUS-CROWNED ELAENIA (Elaenia ruficeps) – We saw this campina specialist along the Estrada Agua Boa. It even flashed the rufous crest!
SLENDER-FOOTED TYRANNULET (Zimmerius gracilipes) – We had outstanding views of this bird at Tepequem. Tom even photographed it with a mistletoe fruit hanging off its bill.
PALE-TIPPED TYRANNULET (Inezia caudata) – Common in the floodplain forest along the Rio Branco and the Rio Uraricoera.
LESSER WAGTAIL-TYRANT (Stigmatura napensis) – This dapper little flycatcher has a disjunct population on the Rio Branco. We saw a pair on a river island with young successional vegetation.
HELMETED PYGMY-TYRANT (Lophotriccus galeatus) [*]
SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus sylvia) – This little bugger played hard to get but eventually came out in front of us at the Rio Uraricoera.
SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum maculatum) – We had super close views of a pair on an island in the Rio Branco.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – Common around Boa Vista. Interestingly, this bird doesn't occur around Manaus.
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias assimilis) [*]
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – Fairly common in the riverine forest along the Rio Branco and Uraricoera.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea) – It was cool to see and hear these unusual flycatchers at Tepequem.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (Myiobius barbatus) – There was one in the feeding flock at Virua.
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatior) – We had great views of the varzea form of Fuscous Flycatcher along the Rio Uraricoera. Stay tune for taxonomic updates.
VERMILION FLYCATCHER (Pyrocephalus rubinus)

We couldn't ask for better views of this Point-tailed Palmcreeper along the road to Virua National Park. Photo by Tom Johnson.

DRAB WATER TYRANT (Ochthornis littoralis)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
CINNAMON ATTILA (Attila cinnamomeus) – Seen along the Rio Branco.
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – We heard one calling at Tepequem. [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) [*]
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni) – We saw a pair in the campina along the Estrada Perdida.
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – We saw a pair in the low shrubby vegetation along the Rio Uraricoera.
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – We had our best views of a pair at the Point-tailed Palmcreeper spot.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – Common throughout the tour, even in the white water habitats along the Rio Branco.
YELLOW-THROATED FLYCATCHER (Conopias parvus) – This canopy flycatcher was seen on the main road at Virua.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) [*]
WHITE-THROATED KINGBIRD (Tyrannus albogularis) – We saw this austral migrant in downtown Boa Vista.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – We saw a few of these migrants throughout the tour.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – We saw some of these strange cotingas on our way to the Capuchinbirds.
AMAZONIAN UMBRELLABIRD (Cephalopterus ornatus) – We saw one fly across the channel in the late afternoon along the Rio Branco. The Rio Branco is a good place to see them.
CAPUCHINBIRD (Perissocephalus tricolor) – Fantastic! One of the coolest birds of the tour. We had outstanding views of them near the Harpy site outside of Boa Vista.
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
BARE-NECKED FRUITCROW (Gymnoderus foetidus) – We had a couple fly-overs throughout the tour.
Pipridae (Manakins)
BLACK MANAKIN (Xenopipo atronitens) – It was neat to see a couple of these campina specialists along the Estrada Perdida. They were feeding on fruits in the campina.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Lepidothrix coronata) – We saw one way up in the canopy at Sesc Tepequem, kind of an odd place to see a manakin.
FIERY-CAPPED MANAKIN (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) – Tom spotted this little guy with the heat scope during our night walk at Tepequem. It looked like a little pink cotton ball on a branch.

Happy Harpy watchers outside of Boa Vista. Photo by Tom Johnson.

Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-TAILED TITYRA (Tityra cayana) – We saw an adult and juvenile along the main road at Virua.
VARZEA SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis major) – We had outstanding views of this generally tough-to-see bird along the Rio Branco.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – We saw both male and female in the forest edge habitat at Sesc Tepequem.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – Fairly common. We had our best view up at Tepequem when one came in to Pygmy-owl tape.
ASHY-HEADED GREENLET (Hylophilus pectoralis) – One of the first birds of the tour. We saw it along the Rio Branco near Boa Vista.
GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus semicinereus) [*]
CHIVI VIREO (Vireo chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
VIOLACEOUS JAY (Cyanocorax violaceus) – Common at Sesc Tepequem. We also saw them along the Rio Branco.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLACK-COLLARED SWALLOW (Pygochelidon melanoleuca) – This is one of the best-looking swallows in Amazonia. They tend to be around rapids. We saw a couple at the boat dock in Caracarai.
WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW (Atticora fasciata) – Another really cool swallow. We saw them on our boat trip on the Rio Branco.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – A few of the northern migrants zipped past while we were watching the White-rumped Sandpipers.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (SOUTHERN) (Troglodytes aedon clarus)
BICOLORED WREN (Campylorhynchus griseus) – We saw a pair at a gas station right outside of Boa Vista.
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) – We saw one briefly at Tepeqeum.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) [*]
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea) – We saw a little family group getting ready to roost along the Rio Branco near Boa Vista.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) – The most common thrush on the tour.
SPECTACLED THRUSH (Turdus nudigenis) – We saw one along the Rio Uraricoera.
BLACK-BILLED THRUSH (CAMPINA) (Turdus ignobilis arthuri) – We had a last minute view of this thrush in the campina along the Estrada Agua Boa right before dark.

Capuchinbirds are one the strangest birds in South America. Micah photographed this one near Boa Vista.

Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus gilvus) – Common around Boa Vista.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
FINSCH'S EUPHONIA (Euphonia finschi) – We saw this very local euphonia in some mistletoe at Tepequem. The male showed a rich rufous belly (unlike what's shown in the Birds of Brazil).
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea) – There was a pair in the same clump of mistletoe at Tepequem.
GOLDEN-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chrysopasta) – A pair came in to the Pygmy-owl tape at Tepequem. Formerly called White-lored Euphonia.
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis) – We saw a few right along the highway on our way to Tepequem.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
EASTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella magna)
RED-BREASTED MEADOWLARK (Leistes militaris) – A few were seen in the open grassland on our way to Tepequem.
GREEN OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius viridis) – Fairly common up at Tepequem. We saw them our first morning up at the Sesc.
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – Fairly common throughout the tour.
OLIVE OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius bifasciatus) – The large oropendolas with the pink cheek patch seen along the Rio Branco.
EPAULET ORIOLE (MORICHE) (Icterus cayanensis chrysocephalus) – It was cool to see these up at Tepequem.
YELLOW ORIOLE (Icterus nigrogularis) – Gil spotted a few on our drive through Boa Vista.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla) – We saw a couple of these backyard birds up at Tepequem. It's cool to see how they spend the winter.
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia) – We saw a couple in the lowlands along the Uraricoera and around Caracarai.
BLACKPOLL WARBLER (Setophaga striata) – These champion migrants were abundant at Tepequem. We saw at least 10 of them one morning at the Sesc.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
RED-CAPPED CARDINAL (Paroaria gularis)
BLACK-FACED TANAGER (Schistochlamys melanopis) – These were common up at Tepequem.
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – It was neat to see one eating a large caterpillar along the Rio Uraricoera.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – We saw one in the feeding flock at Virua.
RED-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus phoenicius) – This bird was abundant at Tepequem. The red shoulder is rarely visible, sort of like the ruby crown on a Ruby-crowned Kinglet.
SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus carbo)
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus)
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (Tangara cayana) – One of the most common birds at Tepequem. We saw them just about every outing.
TURQUOISE TANAGER (Tangara mexicana)
YELLOW-BELLIED DACNIS (Dacnis flaviventer) – Tom spotted one while we were birding near Caracarai.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – A male and female came in to the Pygmy-owl tape at Tepequem.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – The most common bird around Boa Vista.
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (Sicalis luteola) – We saw a couple of these in the grassland on our way to Tepequem.
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – We saw them in the grassland on our way to Tepequem.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – A few were hopping around in the grass at Tepequem.
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
PLUMBEOUS SEEDEATER (Sporophila plumbea) – We saw some at our grasslands stop on our way to Tepequem. It was interesting that most of the seedeaters we saw were female plumage. Thus, we weren't able to identify the majority of them.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GRAYISH SALTATOR (Saltator coerulescens)

Guianan Bearded Sakis often form large troops that move noisily through the canopy. Micah photographed this one outside of Boa Vista.

BARE-TAILED WOOLY OPOSSUM (Caluromys philander) – Tom spotted a couple with the heat scope in Virua National Park.
GREATER BULLDOG BAT (Noctilio leporinus) – It was neat to see these emerging at dusk along the Rio Branco. They feed on minnows by scooping them out of the water and shoving them into their cheek pouches.
WHITE-COLLARED TITI MONKEY (Cheracebus lugens ) – We heard them really well but unfortunately they got away before we reached the patch of forest where they were calling at the Estrada Agua Boa. [*]
RED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta seniculus) – We saw some near the Rio Branco on the first afternoon of the tour.
GUIANA BEARDED SAKI MONKEY (Chiropotes sagulatus) – Sakis are some of my favorite primates. We saw a small group of them near the Harpy nest site outside of Boa Vista.
GIANT ANTEATER (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) – Woohoo! One of the best mammals of the trip! We saw it just past the Rio Amajari on our way back to Boa Vista.
BICOLORED RICE RAT (Oecomys bicolor) – Tom found this with the heat scope up at Tepequem.
FERREIRA'S SPINY TREE-RAT (Mesomys hispidus ) – We had great views of this guy along the board walk at Virua. It was just sitting out on a termite mound while chewing on a piece of fruit.
CUVIER'S SPINY RAT (Proechimys cuvieri) – This is that big terrestrial rat Tom found along the main road at Virua.
RED-RUMPED AGOUTI (Dasyprocta agouti) – Virua is a great place to see agoutis. We saw them multiple times along the road.
AMAZON RIVER DOLPHIN (Inia geoffrensis) – Also known as the Boto in Brazil. We saw a couple of them on our boat trip on the Rio Branco.
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous) – We saw one at night along the road to Tepequem and then another one on our night walk at the Sesc.
NEOTROPICAL OTTER (Lontra longicaudis) – Four of them crossed the Rio Branco as we were loading onto the Dom Alfredon.
AMAZON LAVA LIZARD (Trepidurus torquatus) – The most common lizard on the rocky outcroppings at Tepequem. This is the one that went up my pants.
AMAZON PYGMY GECKO (Pseudogonatodes guianensis ) – The smallest vertebrate in Amazonia! We saw one our first afternoon of birding around Boa Vista.
GIANT AMEIVA (Ameiva ameiva)
RAINBOW WHIPTAIL (Cnemidophorus lemniscatus) – This gorgeous whiptail was in the campina along the Estrada Perdida.
GOLDEN TEGU (Tupinambis teguixin) – We saw a few throughout the list.
GREEN ANACONDA (Eunectes murinus) – Unfortunately it was dead on the BR174. It was at least 12 ft long.
AMAZON TREE BOA (Corallus hortulanus ) – We saw an orange phase on our night walk at Virua.
SPECKLED WORM LIZARD (Amphisbaena fuliginosa ) – One of the coolest herps of the trip! We saw it crossing the highway just below Tepequem. Neither snake, nor lizard, worm lizards fall into a category of their own. There are over 180 species worldwide in Europe, Africa and South America.
BLACK CAIMAN (Melanosuchus niger) – One seen briefly on the Rio Branco.
SMOKY JUNGLE FROG (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) – We saw one of these monstrous frogs on our night walk at Virua.
MANAUS SLENDER-LEGGED TREE FROG (Osteocephalus taurinus) – This was that cool looking frog we saw on the board walk at Virua.


Here are some of the lifer foods we enjoyed on the tour:

Tambaqui- Often considered the best fish in the Amazon. We had this vegetarian piranha a couple times at Caracarai.

Pirarucu- One of largest fish in Amazonia. They served it on the boat trip.

Churrasco- Brazilian barbecue. We had it on the boat and at Caracarai.

Farinha- That crunchy manioc flour that was at almost every meal.

Farofa- The toasted manioc flour served with Churrasco.

Vinaigrette- The diced tomato salad often served with the Tambaqui.

Munguza- The corn pudding that Gerusa prepared for us at Virua. She said it was a specialty of Roraima.

Galinhada- The traditional chicken stew that Gerusa prepared for us at Virua.

Caipirinha- No Brazil tour is complete without this.

Cupuacu- The delightful fruit in the chocolate family that they use for juice and desserts. It has a unique flavor unlike anything I've had in the US.

Totals for the tour: 315 bird taxa and 13 mammal taxa