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Field Guides Tour Report
Spectacular Southeast Brazil 2014 (Parts I & II)
Oct 29, 2014 to Nov 28, 2014
Bret Whitney

Beautiful Southeast Brazil, so many great places, such wonderful birds! If you want to really put yourself in the mood, play Caetano Veloso's famous "Samba do Verão" from one of the links here as you watch this clip. I swear, even the mountains were dancing ;-)

The 2014 Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours were fabulous trips! Weather was very cooperative (one of the main reasons we do the tour at this precise time of year), our groups were small and congenial, and very few birds slipped through the net. As usual, several participants did just one of the two main parts of the tour, which are "North of the Tropic" and "South of the Capricorn" (plus, for some, an extension to Iguaçu Falls, which is not included in the present list). At 17 days each, we moved through the Atlantic Forest (AF) of SE Brazil at a brisk but thoroughly enjoyable pace as we sought good views of all of the 170+ endemic birds of this region. The following list designates N for birds seen only on the North, S for those seen only on the South (no letter means seen on both), and asterisks denote species heard only. As usual, we were highly successful in seeing on both tours almost all of the more widespread endemic species.

Highlights must include fine studies of Solitary and Red-winged tinamous, two fabulous encounters with the globally rare Red-billed Curassow, picking up both of the split "Variable" chachalacas (East Brazilian and Scaled), and exciting nightbirding experiences with Black-capped Screech-Owl, Long-tufted Screech-Owl, Tawny-browed Owl, Rusty-barred Owl, Stygian Owl, Least Pygmy-Owl, Ocellated Poorwill, and the rarely seen nominate subspecies of Long-tailed Potoo endemic to the AF. Red-legged Seriema appeared nicely several times. Among raptors, White-necked, Mantled, and White-rumped hawks were standouts, but special accolades go to that nesting pair of Orange-breasted Falcons, the first I'd seen anywhere in the AF over all these years... Wow, what a splendid show that was!

Among 28 species of hummers, many of them endemics, Black Jacobin, Minute Hermit, Saw-billed Hermit, Frilled and Festive coquettes, Brazilian Ruby, and both stunning Plovercrests (Emerald N and Violet S) were perhaps the most thrilling. We enjoyed seeing Rufous-capped Motmot, Crescent-chested Puffbird, Three-toed Jacamar, Saffron Toucanet, Red-breasted Toucan, White-barred, Ochre-collared, and the rare Mottled piculets, and White-browed, Yellow-fronted, and the spectacular Blond-crested woodpeckers, but the AF endemics Ringed (distinctive subspecies tinnunculus) and Robust woodpeckers kept us searching hard before finally securing them in the scope. Parrots were kind to us, which is always appreciated. Tops among the lot were all three Pyrrhuras, especially nice being the Ochre-marked Parakeets that performed so tamely at the buzzer, and excellent experiences with rare Red-browed, Red-tailed, Vinaceous-breasted, and Red-spectacled parrots; those fabulous Blue-bellied Parrots in the far south were in a class by themselves.

An impressive, even daunting, antbird roster included all five of the big guys (Spot-backed, Giant, Large-tailed, Tufted, and White-bearded antshrikes), Star-throated Antwren (walk-away looks), Plumbeous Antvireo (due diligence for that one, but it paid off!), Rufous-backed Antvireo, rare Salvadori's and Unicolored antwrens, the ultra-rare Black-hooded Antwren (check out the video), two distinctive subspecies of Serra Antwren, high-fiving with Sao Paulo Antwren (described to science just last year -- it was a nail-biter!) and, later, its older sister, Parana Antwren (itself described to science only in 1996). Adding to those were great views of Ferruginous, Bertoni's, Ochre-rumped, Rufous-tailed, Dusky-tailed, Scaled, White-bibbed, and Squamate antbirds, and simply perfect assimilation of the rare Rio de Janeiro Antbird a few feet away and below eye-level. That singing male Spotted Bamboowren that graced our bins for extended views was the best of all time; it is just not possible to imagine a better view. Marsh Tapaculo is surely among the most difficult species of tapaculo to actually see, but we lucked out this time around, coming away with two good, if brief, binocular views of an adult male. Slaty Bristlefront kept us waiting for days, but it did, in the end, put on a star performance, flipping up on to the trail fully in the open before slowly hopping up the hill as we all gasped in delight, a very exciting birding moment for all of us! Its unnamed southern sister proved to be far more cooperative, parading around us for a couple of minutes! Such's and later Rufous-tailed antthrushes were, with patience, also gratifyingly cooperative, as were Speckle-breasted Antpitta and Rufous-breasted Leaftosser. Our local guide at Intervales showed us a Variegated Antpitta sitting on its nest -- a truly amazing find, the bird was hard to see even in the scope!!

Southeast Brazil is loaded with special furnariids (members of the Ovenbird family), and we nailed essentially the entire roster (one heard only) over the course of both tours. Woodcreepers, let's see... yep, got 'em all including the cuneatus subspecies of Wedge-billed, an underappreciated AF endemic. Slightly amazingly, the same can be said of the massive number of flycatchers endemic to the AF, as only a single species on our route escaped our binoculars (Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant, weathered out) and most were seen more than once, for added emphasis and familiarity. Sweet! Cotingas were exciting, as always, the list headed by Hooded and Black-headed berryeaters, a very close Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, a couple of spectacular experiences (N and S) with Swallow-tailed Cotingas, and superb sightings of Black-and-gold and Gray-winged cotingas, both in the nick of time.

Manakins have diversified impressively in Southeast Brazil, and we made sure we saw them all well as often as possible, but it's sometimes the species you get just once that stand out, those this year being the drab (and rare) Wied's Tyrant-Manakin and the handsome Black-capped Piprites. We also picked up a fine male of the seldom-seen AF endemic Eastern Striped Manakin! Buff-throated Purpletuft fell into place fairly easily this year, as did White-browed and Riverbank warblers, which allowed unusually prolonged viewing. We also did very well on tanagers, picking up everything but the elusive Cherry-throated, which has now escaped us for several years running. To a larger extent than any of the other endemic species in the AF (at least, those seen on tours in the past ten years or so), Cherry-throated Tanager sightings are the result of great luck; you simply have to spend sufficient time in habitat, on-site, to allow yourself the chance to be in ear-shot of at least one of the very few individuals present. Black-backed Tanager got away essentially heard only this year, although we did have a pair fly over us and land out-of-sight several times one morning. The rare Black-legged Dacnis put in two far-separated but equally welcome appearances.

Among a rich host of finches and seedeaters, outstanding, for sure, was seeing several of the endangered Tropeiro Seedeater (Sporophila beltoni), described to science only a little over a year ago (check out the video). The rare, remnant montane grasslands of the far south -- with these rare seedeaters, Bearded Tachuris in flight display, Saffron-cowled Blackbirds, Sickle-winged Nightjar, and an exhilarating view of a Giant Snipe were especially productive and memorable birding venues and events for us, right at the close of South of the Capricorn.


Note: We'll be running South of the Capricorn again in 2015, then both tours again in 2016. From that year forward, we'll be doing them both only every other year. So, you have plenty of time to plan for taking your turn birding spectacular Southeast Brazil with Field Guides! I certainly look forward to sharing some of the world's best birding with you.

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – Good views on both tours, as it turned out, but to be expected only N. [E]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – N [*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – N*/S We lured one across a narrow road and then pulled it in for skulking, brief views -- not great, but a whole lot better than nothing!
YELLOW-LEGGED TINAMOU (Crypturellus noctivagus) – S [*]
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) – N [*]
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU (Crypturellus parvirostris) – S [*]
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – S A wonderful study of one foraging just a few yards from us in Rio Grande do Sul.
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) – S
Anhimidae (Screamers)
HORNED SCREAMER (Anhima cornuta) – N It was a (big!) surprise to see a pair of these in Espírito Santo!
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – S
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – N
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
SILVER TEAL (Anas versicolor) – S
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris) – S
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)

East Brazilian Chachalaca (and southern, Scaled) were split from widespread Variable Chachalaca -- two more endemics (can be tough to see). [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
EAST BRAZILIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis araucuan) – N [E]
SCALED CHACHALACA (Ortalis squamata) – S We lucked out with one good view. [E]
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – S A single bird, but what a nice view it was!
RED-BILLED CURASSOW (Crax blumenbachii) – N A regal pair watched for several minutes on our first morning at Linhares, then a single male calling in a tree the next morning. Great stuff! [E]
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – S [E*]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – S
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster) – S
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – S
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – S
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – S
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – S Just two birds, and they kept us waiting... but they were beauties! Ann Margareth had been waiting for years, actually!
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – S
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – S
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – S
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – N [*]
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) [*]
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (RUFOUS-THIGHED) (Accipiter striatus erythronemius) – S Just one!
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – N Distinctive subspecies with much gray barring below, pale iris, etc.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-NECKED HAWK (Buteogallus lacernulatus) – Seen on both tours, first spotted by Kent (a pair soaring high that unfortunately didn't stay up for long). [E]
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
HARRIS'S HAWK (Parabuteo unicinctus) – N
WHITE-RUMPED HAWK (Parabuteo leucorrhous) – N This one is usually tough to find, but we sure had nice views this year!
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – N A dramatic view of of an adult dealing with a dive-bombing American Kestrel (it very nearly turned the tables on it!).
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – Also seen nicely on both tours. [E]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – N
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – S [*]

Red-and-white Crake and Plumbeous Rail were star performers this year! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – S The tame bird at Intervales performed perfectly, thanks to Faustino!!
GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides cajaneus) – N/S* Rarely seen subspecies A. c. avicenniae, endemic to coastal se Brazil.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) [E]
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – N [*]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – S (we missed seeing a couple of usually reliable rails because we didn't have time to get to a particular marsh on our last day before flying to SP) [*]
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – S Fabulous views of this beautiful rail!
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – N
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – S
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius)
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) – S
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca) – S
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes) – S
SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE (Gallinago paraguaiae) – S
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – S We had close views of a bird that came in to playback of its "song" -- a mighty impressive bird on a beautiful, moonlit evening. That was one "snipe hunt" that paid off!
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger) – S
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – N [*]
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea)
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata) – N
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – N/S*
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – N/S*
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – One especially nice view at Intervales.
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – S
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) – N
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – S One on a day roost provided fantastic views.

Ocellated Poorwill, Black-capped Screech-Owl, Tropical Screech-Owl, and Rusty-barred Owl were among nightbirding highlights this year. [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) – N With some patience, we came away with close views of a singing bird. [E]
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – S Fabulous views of a singing bird. [E]
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – N Wonderful looks at a singing pair of these big guys. [E]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – N Excellent scope studies. [E]
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – S
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – S It took a while, but we finally managed to coax a bird into view! [E]
STYGIAN OWL (Asio stygius) – S One responded to recording playback by flying in from afar to land for a few seconds before disappearing into the night -- exciting stuff!
STRIPED OWL (Pseudoscops clamator) – N Heard calling then seen by some of us as it lifted off and flew overhead.
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – S Wow, what fantastic studies of these huge nighthawks on the ground all around us, and also in flight against a burnt-orange sunset!
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus) – S After missing them at our most reliable venue (courtship was past, probably already nesting this warm, dry year), we were fortunate indeed to pick one up a few days later, much farther south.
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – N Unfortunately, we saw only eyeshine and a bird flying away this year. Although we had ideal weather on a couple of nights farther south, no birds were araound their usual haunt. [E]
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) – N Wonderful scope views of an adult male on a song perch.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – N Two adults seen during the day.
LONG-TAILED POTOO (Nyctibius aethereus aethereus) – N Always a challenge to see, a Long-tailed Potoo (huge, AF endemic N. a. aethereus) put on a fine show for us this year, coming in to perch on the exact limb we had preselected for it -- gotta love that! [E]
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – N One was singing late in the morning on a rainy day in lowland Sao Paulo. [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus) – S Great, low views in excellent light.

Great Dusky Swifts on their nesting ledges behind a waterfall. One was taken on the wing by a male Orange-breasted Falcon moments later! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Seen best on our first day afield, in Espirito Santo, where 20-30 birds were nesting behind a waterfall, but also seen really well on the wing in the far south.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – Seen well on both trips.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – S One spotted by Hans was our only sighting.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – N/S* Check out the hummers video collage >>> [E]
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – N
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – S Males singing at a lek.
MINUTE HERMIT (Phaethornis idaliae) – N Several excellent views of this diminutive endemic hermit. [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – N
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris)
WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT (Polytmus guainumbi) – S A brief appearance by a male as we stood transfixed for the Marsh Tapaculo.

Saw-billed Hermit, Festive Coquettes, Brazilian Ruby, and Black Jacobins -- all at once at Jonas's feeders!! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – N Great at feeders! [E]
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus) – N Ditto that remark!! [E]
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Muchos, especially at Itatiaia. [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
BLUE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Chlorestes notata) – N
PLOVERCREST (EMERALD-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi) – N Perfect views of singing males at Itatiaia. [E]
PLOVERCREST (VIOLET-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi loddigesii) – S Southern loddigesii will surely be split from the nominate (green) one soon. Check out the video of both >>> [E]
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – N
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)

Both species [still not officially split, I invented the names ;-)], northern Emerald-fronted and southern Violet-fronted, were seen really well, as usual! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – N
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus) – N
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – N (yellow/orangish belly) and S (red belly) seen well. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – N/S* AF endemic; likely to be split based on distinctive plumage and voice. [E]
COLLARED TROGON (Trogon collaris) – N Now rare and local in the AF; seen well at Linhares.
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – Both tours, the good view at Intervales was the product of team-spotting by Rick and Ellen! [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

Three-toed Jacamar is one of the highly distinctive SE Brazil endemics. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – S
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – Excellent views on both tours (we've actually missed it altogether once or twice over the years)! [E]
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – N
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – N Perfect! [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – N
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – N [E]
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – N
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – S Beautiful views at Intervales. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – N Displaced into the highly disturbed regions of the AF as the land dries out and native cerrado habitat in interior Brazil is destroyed.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) – N
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) – One at a low nest hole at Intervales was especially neat to see. [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Mottled Piculet is among the most rarely seen of all the many piculets, and is also among the most distinctive -- a great AF endemic! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – N [E]
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – S [E]
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) – S Fantastic 10 minutes watching an adult male foraging by hammering open soft, then twigs. This large, crested piculet is basal to the radiation of New World piculets, an important endemic to get! [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – Seen well on both tours, for a change (they're increasingly moving into the disturbed AF region).
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis) – N
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) – N [E]
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – N/S* Distinctive AF endemic with red throat!
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros) – N A good spot by Martha for our first sighting.
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides) – S

White-browed Woodpecker, yet another AF endemic species [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – Both tours, spectacular everywhere! [E]
RINGED WOODPECKER (ATLANTIC BLACK-BREASTED) (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) – N Yess! [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – After exaggerated stressing over this one, we eventually had several very fine views, both tours ;-) [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – Dona Marta spotted that first, distant bird!
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) – N A pair calling consistently was brought in close, but the responding male was sneaky and hard to see such that only a couple of folks managed to get their bin's on it. This is the nominate, endemic subspecies.
COLLARED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur semitorquatus) – S [*]
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango) – S
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – S

Orange-breasted Falcons were nesting near a huge waterfall in Espirito Santo state. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – N
ORANGE-BREASTED FALCON (Falco deiroleucus) – N Seeing a pair of these great birds early in the tour in Espirito Santo was a mega-highlight for me -- my first anywhere in the Atlantic Forest! Here's a bit of video >>>
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
GOLDEN-TAILED PARROTLET (Touit surdus) – N High, bulleting fly-overs a couple of times -- not wonderful, but there they were! [E]
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) – N*/S Heard or seen as tiny specks hiiigh overhead in the North, but we enjoyed incredible scope views of an adult male in the far south (this is often the way it plays out). [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – S Great looks, very close -- with patience and perseverance! [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) – N AF endemic subspecies. [E]
VINACEOUS-BREASTED PARROT (Amazona vinacea) – S At pretty much the last minute, but it was fantastic! [E]
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) – S Great flight views of these rare parrots, an exciting experience! [E]
RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) – N Fab views at Linhares. [E]
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – N Also seen well at Linhares.
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) – S Good scope study of this endangered, endemic parrot. [E]
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – N
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – N/S*
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) – N Just barely, but the scope viewing was superb! [E]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MAROON-FACED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura leucotis) – N Also seen really well. [E]
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – N A pair whirled in very impressively to land just a few yards away -- wow!
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – N Dynamite views of this dapper bird. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – N*/S
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – Fabulous views on both tours -- what an increcible BIRD!! [E]

A medley of endemic antbirds to whet your whistle: Star-throated Antwren, Black-hooded Antwren(!), Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Scaled Antbird, and a Variegated Antpitta on its nest -- can you make it out, big, cream-colored moustaches bordering the dark throat? [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – N/S* [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – N fine views of a singing male, whenever he stopped to peer out of that tall bamboo! [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) – S [*]
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – N
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – N [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster) – S
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens) – Both tours
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – N check out the video (tough to see this well, but we were all standing right there!) >>> [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – N/S* (very quiet at Intervales this time around) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – N good views, with perseverance [E]
PLUMBEOUS ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus plumbeus) – N another that took patience and quiet, but we eventually all came away with great views of a male; [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – N
SALVADORI'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula minor) – N Three birds in a family group with a mixed-species flock near Ubatuba, an excellent sighting. [E]
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – Both tours [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – N nominate subspecies, an AF endemic [E]
BLACK-HOODED ANTWREN (Formicivora erythronotos) – N A spectacular experience seeing two adult males and a female of this highly endangered species; truly one of the rarest passserines on Earth (espcially among continental species). [E]
WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN (Formicivora grisea) – N
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana serrana) – N southern Espirito Santo
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) – N interior Rio de Janeiro state [E]

Sao Paulo Antwren and sister Parana Antwren -- wonderful to see them both so well! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
PARANA ANTWREN (Formicivora acutirostris) – S Wonderful views of a pair with a juvenile right beside the road.
SAO PAULO ANTWREN (Formicivora paludicola) – N Seeing this recently described species was quit challenging this year, due to very dry conditions compromising favored marshes -- but we managed to pull up a fine male for all to see nicely. Check out the tour video of both of these rare marsh-dwelling endemic antbirds >>>
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – N [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – N/S* [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – N Tremendous views of this one! [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza loricata) – N [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa) – S [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (RUFOUS) (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – N A couple of good sightings; look for this one to be split into multiple species.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) – S One of the surest splits, the southern subspecies anomala. [E]
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – N Excellent views of this handsome little bird. [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)

A brief clip of the Spotted Bamboowren we saw so incredibly well this year [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – N*/S Faustino had found a nest, and we were able to find one angle that was good for viewing the incubating bird through the scope! Even then, it was so well camouflaged and hidden in the fork of a tree that it was quite difficult to make it out (if you didn't have a good search image to start with)!
SPECKLE-BREASTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus nattereri) – S We had wonderful views of a pair that came in close to circle us in Rio Grande do Sul. This southern population will soon be described as a new species! [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – Incomparable views in the North, also seen pretty darned well on the South tour! [E]
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – N An exciting view, after lots of searching (we'd lost out at the best place for it due to persistent rain). [E]
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) – S Another bird in the queue for getting a formal description as a new species; an adult male performed beautifully for us at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – S Elusive this year, seen briefly. [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – N Excellent views at Itatiaia. [E]
[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) – S After hearing them a few times, we finally managed to coax one into view for a very nice look. This population, from southern Sao Paulo south, will soon be described as a species separate from Mouse-colored, to the north. [E]
PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) – S* Darn, we had a male singing quite close, but bright, sunny conditions combined with the steep terrain (not possible for us to get of the road into forest) kept us from getting it into view. [E]
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) – S Terrific!! [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) – S Couldn't get one to come in close enough for viewing. [*]
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – N*/S Good views at Intervales [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – N Superb views of a singing bird one drizzly morning [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – S One came in very close! [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) [E]
WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Glyphorynchus spirurus cuneatus) – N Nice views at Linhares; this subspecies is endemic to the AF, widely disjunct from the nearest Amazonian populations.
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – Great views on both trips. We found a nest (rarely seen) at Intervales. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) – N [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – S These two subspecies, and X. f. atlanticus of NE Brazil, are almost surely going to be split soon. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus) – N [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – N/S* Exciting encounters! [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – N [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) – S [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus minutus) – N Watch for several species-level splits in widespread Plain Xenops.
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – N
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura)
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) – S Several excellent views [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) [E]

A heckuva nice view of White-eyed Foliage-gleaner ;-) [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus) – N [E*]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus contaminatus) – N Especially nice views this trip [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – N [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – S Hard to come by this time around, but we finally picked it up at Intervales. [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) – S Hardrain shut us out of birding one early morning at Curitiba, but it let up enough to allow us time to search for the groundcreeper -- and we were fortunate to get a pair of birds to come in through the drippy, foggy forest -- an exciting sighting, for sure! [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) – S Excellent views, just before we turned our atention to our lifer Araucaria Tit-spinetails -- great to see them right together like that! [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – N*/S Check out the video! >>> [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons)
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis) – S
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – N [E]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – Both tours, very nicely! [E]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – S Excellent views, after a fair amount of trying for it.
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – N Close views in the high country of Itatiaia. [E]
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris) – S We managed to get a bird to come in very close -- that's the way we wish they would all behave!
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – S Actually, this one did behave as well, or better! [E]

Orange-eyed and Orange-breasted thornbirds, for many years considered conspecific, are actually quite different species and have even been documented nesting at the same locality in Minas Gerais. They were split only a few years ago! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney}
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – N/S* [E]
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – S [E*]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – N
BEARDED TACHURI (Polystictus pectoralis) – S A suspenseful wait ended very happily as an adult male came in close and then performed a couple of thrilling display flights before crossing a wide gully to distant hillsides.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – N
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – S
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca) – Excellent on both tours -- we had "elaenia workshops" a couple of times, when 2+ species were nearby.
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis albivertex) – S
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura sordida)
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans) – S
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata) – N
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) – S Super-close studies a couyple of times. [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – S I finally heard one out the van window at Intervales and we subsequently enjoyed great views -- but we darned near missed it this year (a highly unlikely event, actually). [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – S A highly distinctive endemic tyrannulet. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – N Another super-distinctive, endemic species. [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – S A couple of good views of these tiny tyrannulets. [E]
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri) – Nice scope views.
GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) – N*/S Close, low views. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – Nice views [E]
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – S The pair we saw so nicely in the scope came in a loong way to see us!
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) – N [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus obsoletus) – N [E]

Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, probably more accurately called a tody-tyrant, was seen well again this year. Check out the forked, white-tipped tail! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) – S [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – S Excellent, very close studies of this rare tody-tyrant, in a new place (our usual place was not accessible this year, scary!) [E]
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – N [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – N
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – N/S* [E]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – N
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – N
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) – S Fabulous scope studies of this rare, AF endemic population (a very likely future split). [E]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (BUFF-RUMPED) (Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi) – S nice to pick this one up at Intervales -- another very distinctive AF endemic "subspecies". [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – S
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) – S Seen well in dense restinga vegetation (as is typical!) [E]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes)
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – N [E]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – N Best views on Pico de Caledonia
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – S
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus)
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis dominicanus) – S Several fine views of these striking birds, now rare and local.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – Nicely on both trips! Dona Maria made a great spot on the one near Intervales!
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – Also great on both tours. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – S
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) – N/S* [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – N*/S They seemed a little later than average this year (arrival on SE Brazil breeding grounds).
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – N A recent split of widespread Sirystes (long overdue) has set this one off as an AF endemic. We usually manage to see it well on both tours, but this year they were real quiet down south.
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex simplex) – N Another one that will eventually be "studied" and split. [E]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – N*
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – N
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) – N This subspecies is a local AF endemic (lots of rusty in the wing). [E]
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – S
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)

Black-headed Berryeater at Linhares Reserve. The upper bird, with a blacker head, is the male. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Good views of this highly distinctive bird on both tours (as is usual).
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Great on both trips! [E]
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) – N It was very unusual to have a pair perched close together for several minutes; females are seldom seen! [E]
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – Seen on both tours, but that male Ellen spotted for us, just a few yards away, was a heart-stopper!!
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans) – N Usually a "heard-only" species, but we had a really nice view of one this time around.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – N/S* [E]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – N One fabulous, singing adult male stayed long enough for everyone to have a scope view before it dropped off its song perch. Whew! [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – N The weather was ugly. The transmission on our 4WD snapped in half on a very steep up-grade: "TILT" on the mountainside pinball game. What a BANGG it made!! Rain pelted the windows as we huddled in place, hoping the driver's cell SOS might grab a 06:30 Sunday-morning response. Good luck, amigo(s). Oh yes, and it's a long holiday weekend. Now, as the guide, it's not looking real good. As a participant, one goes to the old fallback: "In Guide We Trust". As one should ;-) So, the driver gets a rescue response -- sweet: The Totyota will be hauled out "manana" (= "definitely not today", right Kentinho?). Another truck will show up "in an hour" to transport our dampened souls down the mountain. But we have business to conduct, birds (or A bird) to see. Just then, the rain seems to subside (= the guide said it was subsiding), and we tumble out to start looking through and listening to the swirling mountain mist. An hour crawls by, chilled spirits longing for a toast with Gray-winged Cotinga spread all over it... then a wisp of a voice, a far-off TSseee... Y'all hear that?!, yep, yeppers, he's ouuut there! Against the wall of moving moisture, and distance, it's tough to tell just where it came from, but we reach a consensus (among the triangulators that heard it at all). At this point, it's full-on game-on. Positioned as strategically as possible, the guide says we must simply wait. A half-hour (a long one) goes by. And then amazingly, extremely happily, we hear the bird again, this time a mere cloud-length away. I tell you... THAT'S the heart-pumping moment, even more so than when the bird actually appears for all to see. Because, once again, as the guide, I know *it's going to show, soon*, either over there or maybe right here. And so it did, beautifully, soul-satisfyingly. An adult male appeared on a dead snag in full view to brace against the wind for several minutes as we all high-fived across a cloud-forest ravine. There are few indidividual Gray-winged Cotingas in the world -- *naturally* few, unlike so many "ultra-rare" birds whose populations have been decimated by anthropogenic activity. The species, today, inhabits just a couple of remote, largely undisturbed mountaintops in the Serra do Mar of SE Brazil, just as it did thousands of years ago. It is a naturally globally very rare organism. And every year that it plays out that we get to see one on the single morning we can devote to the search, I feel a huge sense of happiness and a reaffirmation that birding is among the greatest of all life's many pursuits! [E]

Gray-winged Cotinga is actually much more closely related to some of the pihas than to cotingas. It was with tremendous satisfaction that we all enjoyed great views of an adult male, after paying our dues! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Both tours [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris) – Also seen beautifully on both trips this year, which is often not the outcome!
Pipridae (Manakins)
WIED'S TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma aurifrons) – N Nailed it; a rare bird. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – S Beautifully close at Intervales. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – It was really neat to find a nest, female incubating, on a very rainy day out of Ubatuba. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – Nice view of adult males and emales on the North tour, but heard only on the South this time. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) – N
STRIPED MANAKIN (EASTERN) (Machaeropterus regulus regulus) – N Very nice views of a single adult male. This large, distinctively plumaged (and voiced) population, far-isolated from Amazonian M. r. striolatus, is a sure species-level split. [E]
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (Dixiphia pipra) – N
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla) – N

This pair of Swallow-tailed Cotingas was very busy building their nest during the first days of our tour -- what superb views, then we saw them again really nicely later in the tour, in Rio Grande do Sul. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) – Seen well on both tours
BLACK-CAPPED PIPRITES (Piprites pileata) – N One adult male seen really well -- but that was "it"! [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – S
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina turdina) – N Nice view!
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – Both trips [E]
BUFF-THROATED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura pipra) – N It was suspenseful, but patience and perseverance paid off with fine scope studies of a pair. Nice!! [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – N It was fun to watch a pair building their nest!
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – We also observed nest-building of this (far more common) species.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – N
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus) – Several nests of this one along the course of both tours.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – N Very gray-eyed views.
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus) – N
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – Important to see this one North and South.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – S [E]
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – S Your guide, and perhaps one other person(?), saw one fly across the road right in front of our van, but it couldn't be found after we stopped to try for good views.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)

The nominate, richly colored subspecies of Long-billed Wren; what a show he gave us! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis) – N
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – N
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) – S
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – N Dona Marta spotted one for us!
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – N [*]
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – N
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – Mega-nicely near Ubatuba (North; check out the vid!) but also really nicely out of Cananeia (South) >>>
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – N
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
COCOA THRUSH (Turdus fumigatus) – N
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
SLATY THRUSH (EASTERN) (Turdus nigriceps subalaris) – S* they just weren't "in" yet this year.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis) – N/S*
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
OCHRE-BREASTED PIPIT (Anthus nattereri) – S* one -- very quiet this year, perhaps already on eggs.
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus) – S Wonderful times watching males singing and performing parachuting flight displays -- great stuff!
Parulidae (New World Warblers)

Riverbank and White-browed warblers were seen super-well this year! [HD Video copyright Bret Whitney]
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis) – S
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) – Extraordinary views, both tours.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – Another highly distinctive (monotypic genus) endemic; seen well on both trips, more than usual, actually. [E]
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) – N
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – N
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – N Super-close response to alarm calls. [E]
ORANGE-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis sordida) – S
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – N [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – N
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota)
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara peruviana) – S [E]
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – S A gorgeous bird! Check out the vid >>> [E]

A fine scope of the rare Black-legged Dacnis; Intervales State Park seems to be the single most reliable place for seeing this one! [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) – N [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – What a wealth of fancy, endemic tanagers!! We found a nest of this one, which was more exposed than normal such that the incubating female was clearly visible. [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – N [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – Kentinho spotted that first male in the lowlands of Ubatuba (where irregular) near Jonas's feeders, then we had a fine pair on the South tour, at Intervales (where scarce but regular). First time we've seen it on both tours! [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – N
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – N
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis) – N Subspecies endemic to the AF.
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – N

A string of miniature gems of the far south: Sharp-tailed Tyrant, Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Black-bellied Seedeater (a molting male), an excited pair of amazing Araucaria Tit-Spinetails, and a Grassland Sparrow. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor) – N
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – N Few around this year. [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons) – S
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza thoracica) – This handsome, distinctive species was seen nicely on both tours. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza lateralis) – N This and the next species (Gray-throated) are the result of splitting widespread Red-rumped Warbling-Finch. [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris) – S
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – N
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus) – S
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
TAWNY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypoxantha) – S
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) – S Fairly good numbers on breeding grounds this year, though few females had arrived. [E]
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)

A gorgeous male of the ultra-rare Tropeiro Seedeater, described to science just a year or so ago. [HD digi-vid copyright Bret Whitney]
TEMMINCK'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila falcirostris) – N* [E]
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) – N Very few around the past couple of years (nomadic around fruiting bamboos). [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni) – S Seeing this newly described species really well was a highlight of the South of the Capricorn tour (as it has been for years now). It is highly endangered due to loss of its special shrub/grassland habitat and selective trapping for the cage-bird trade. Here's a video of one of the adult males we saw this year >>>
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus) – N
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
SOOTY GRASSQUIT (Tiaris fuliginosus) – N
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – N
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) – Nicely both tours. [E]
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) – N
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – N* Darn, habitat at the most reliable spot for it had been destroyed, and the single bird we heard would not come into view there. [E]
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – N
GLAUCOUS-BLUE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) – S Just one this year!
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED BLACKBIRD (Sturnella superciliaris)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – N
SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus) – S Great scope views of this rare (and handsome!) blackbird of the far south.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) – S
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) – Both tours, continuing to spread from southern strongholds.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – S
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii) – N
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – N
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – N
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – S It took a while, but we finally came up with a fine adult male that stayed put for scope views. [E]
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – N*
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea)
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) – N [I]

WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) – N* Introduced in the southeast from native populations in the northeast.
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) – N An attractively white-faced marmoset of local distribution. [E]
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) – N Great views of this primate, endemic to eastern Brazil. [E]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – N*
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella) – N Few seen this year.
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – S Ellen spotted one for us!
EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus europaeus) – S [I]
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans) – N
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.) – S
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – S Some enormous individuals in Curitiba (wow!).
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus) – S
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) – S several sightings
CRAB-EATING RACCOON (Procyon cancrivorus) – S one
SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (Nasua nasua) – N A bunch (15+ in a group) at Linhares
BRAZILIAN TAPIR (Tapirus terrestris) – tracks, oh, and turds (unusual to see, but there they were, in shallow water)
BROWN BROCKET DEER (Mazama gouazoubira) – N One seen in the road at Linhares.


I saw a Grison dash across the road near the Santa Catarina/Rio Grande do Sul state border.A large Yellow-footed Tortoise at Linhares was quite active, as were several monitor-like Tegu Lizards, we saw a huge Bufo icterotis toad as well, and a couple of Green Iguanas. We also came across a couple of monstrous, orange-kneed tarantulas and several enormous land snails (Megalobulimus sp.).

Totals for the tour: 536 bird taxa and 16 mammal taxa