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Field Guides Tour Report
Spectacular Southeast Brazil (Parts I & II)
Oct 28, 2016 to Nov 27, 2016
Bret Whitney with Tom Johnson (Part I) & Marcelo Padua (Part

It's one of those beautiful, spring mornings in Itatiaia National Park, misty valleys below sunny slopes, birds singing absolutely everywhere. There is so much to see!  It's a great birding life! (Photo by guide Bret Whitney)

Our #1 goal for our Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours is simply to “live up to the name”! Of course, we’ll always do our best, but getting a rating of “Yes, spectacular!” from most of the participants is truly challenging, especially when you consider that 8 of the 12 people did both parts of the overall tour. Part 1, “North of the Tropic” and Part 2, “South of the Capricorn” run 17 days apiece (including to-and-from travel), which amounts to 30 days in the field. It is, truth be told, somewhat miraculous when everything goes essentially hitch-free day after day in multiple venues, involving sometimes remarkably different logistical preparation, etc. The 2016 tours were excellent trips all the way around. Ok, let’s go straight to the highlights reel!

North of the Tropic got out of the blocks with a couple of productive birding days in Espírito Santo, the small state just north of Rio de Janeiro. Weather was uncooperative, for sure (on/off chilly rains), but that didn’t hold us back from finding such fabulous birds as East Brazilian Chachalaca, Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle, Spot-billed Toucanet, Pygmy Nightjar, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, White-bibbed Antbird, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Spotted Bamboowren (so close!), Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Shrike-like Cotinga (Wow! Check out the video, below!), Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Sharpbill, Hooded Berryeater, Pin-tailed Manakin, and Pale-browed Treehunter, among many other Atlantic Forest (AF) endemic species. The mega-highlight, however, was finding the rare and endangered Cherry-throated Tanager. It had been several years since we had been fortunate enough to connect with this gorgeous bird, but boy did we get it beautifully this time around! The bird came in quite close and stuck around for perhaps two minutes before it melted back into the canopy – I managed to get a few seconds of video that did not coincide with the best viewing periods, but it’s fun to see, anyway, so I will drop it into the list, below. Continuing our way through Espírito Santo, we called at the Ruschi (Mello Leitao) hummingbird feeders in Santa Teresa, again on a rather rainy day. Action at the feeders was excellent, however, and our first male Frilled Coquettes stole the show. We managed to pick up the rare Wied’s Tyrant-Manakin, Spot-backed Antshrike, and Ornate Hawk-Eagle on our way down the mountains to Linhares Reserve. Three days of overcast, unusually cool weather were quite welcome there (although you guys couldn’t appreciate it so much, not knowing how warm and muggy it can be at Linhares!). As is often the case, nightbirding was really exciting there, with fabulous views of White-winged Potoo (at its southernmost known point of occurrence), Ocellated Poorwill, Black-capped Screech-Owl, and Tawny-browed Owl. So, here’s a question for you: Does four fantastic nightbirds equal one Harpy Eagle? Maybe yes, maybe no, but this year we had the choice to make, because we were treated to an absolutely unbelievable, 10-minute scope study of a huge adult Harpy Eagle, which is ultra-rare in the Atlantic Forest!! Check out the video, below! Many thanks to our friend Gustavo for spotting that incredible bird for us. Over the past ten years or so, the population of Red-billed Curassows at Linhares (the species’ ultimate stronghold) has surged. We saw them several times, and got to hear them singing (“booming”) and calling as well. I seriously doubt we’ll ever have much trouble coming up with this one again – I’m delighted to feel safe in saying! Solitary Tinamou is another one that’s become almost reliable at Linhares; we had good views again this year. White-necked Hawk performed unusually nicely this trip (we got it a couple of more times later in the tour, too), and both Maroon-faced and Ochre-marked parakeets perched for impressive scope viewing. The dreary weather may have cost us a couple of birds, however, as we missed seeing Black-headed Berryeater and Plumbeous Antvireo for the first time ever (going back to 1989!). On our way back to the airport in Vitória, we detoured to a marsh Gustavo knew and quickly picked up a singing male Crested Doradito, the first we’d ever had on the tour!

The Sao Paulo Antwren was described to science only in 2013, but we have been showing the bird to tour participants since it was discovered (around 2005). This year was perhaps the most challenging attempt. It took us nearly three hours to produce good views of one adult male, but we did, finally “git ‘er done”. Orange-breasted Thornbird was a nice bonus in the marsh there. In stark contrast were the following three days at Ubatuba, when birds seemed to drop into place effortlessly. Calm, clear weather helped a great deal, and Jonas’s hummer feeders did much of the rest. His “Sítio Folha Seca” property is simply spectacular for hummer-watching; I’ll include some video clips to help you get the picture ;-) Among other great endemics of that region were Buff-bellied Puffbird, Rufous-capped Motmot, Saw-billed Hermit, Festive Coquette, Black Jacobin (literally hundreds!), Tufted Antshrike, Unicolored and the rare Salvadori’s antwrens, Ferruginous Antbird, Black-cheeked Gnateater, Red-eyed Thornbird, Buff-throated Purpletuft, and some more fancy tanagers, the likes of Green-headed, Red-necked, and Rufous-headed.

Indeed we enjoyed the coastal region of northern Sao Paulo, with its inspiring scenery, great birding without long drives, and excellent restaurants… but all good things must come to an end… just not this trip, for next on the agenda was the mega-rare Black-hooded Antwren, the entire world population of which is in an essentially unprotected region of southern Rio de Janeiro state. After getting our butts kicked on the first attempt at my known, reliable spots for it, I decided to call a time-out (you only get one per tour), have lunch, reboot the system, and try again. Everything worked on the rebound, gracas a Deus, and a fine male antwren sang his song for us and paraded around for all to appreciate. And then the little group of (temporarily) contented birders made their way through the Serra do Mar, into the valley of the Rio Paraiba do Sul, and up into fabulous Itatiaia National Park, to bird happily ever after. Especially the following day, an unforgettable day, on the highest-elevation road in Brazil, where the forest gives way to bamboo thickets and natural grassland above treeline. Super-exhilaration! Seconds after we piled out of the van, Tom had us all scoping a handsome male Black-and-gold Cotinga, after which several skulkers decided to reveal themselves, the likes of Rufous-tailed Antbird, Rufous-backed Antvireo, Gray-bellied Spinetail, Mouse-colored Tapaculo, the handsome Black-capped Piprites, Thick-billed Saltator, and Buff-throated and Bay-chested warbling-finches. Upper elevations yielded close encounters with Itatiaia Spinetail, Large-tailed Antshrike (wowza!), and the distinctive Serra do Mar Tyrannulet. The Green-crowned Plovercrest leks were unusually quiet that day, but we did manage to score great views of one adult male. Itatiaia feeders, hanging right outside the dining room, were excellent for Frilled Coquettes, Brazilian Ruby, and Saffron Toucanets, among a wealth of other species. And Itatiaia gave us superb views of Giant Snipe (amazing!), Black Hawk-Eagle, Red-breasted Toucan, White-bearded Antshrike, Such’s Antthrush, Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Black-billed Scythebill, Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, White-browed Warbler, gorgeous Diademed Tanagers, and, at the last minute, a smashing Slaty Bristlefront! Tom and I were repeatedly asked how we were going to top this stuff. The answer was, “We probably won’t, but let’s try!”

With only two full birding days to go on “North of the Tropic”, we would be able to pick up relatively few new, endemic species – but among them were some wonderful birds like Three-toed Jacamar, Dusky-tailed Antbird (the last of the six fancy Drymophila), Serra Antwren, the rare Gray-winged Cotinga, Chestnut-headed Tanager, and the elusive Blackish-blue Seedeater. To make several stories shorter: We nailed them all! As is often the case, the cotinga kept us in suspense for a couple of hours, but eventually came in dramatically close. We also picked up a couple of spectacular nightbirds to close out Part 1: Long-trained Nightjar and Rusty-barred Owl in quick succession! Check out their videos in the list, below, and also the vid of the Red-legged Seriema that sidled up to us and blew out our eardrums! Tom’s photos of that seriema are on our Facebook page, and he voted it his #1 bird of the trip.

Part 2 of the overall tour, “South of the Capricorn”, marks a kind of “reset” in the birding agenda. Thus, everything we saw on Part 1, while certainly not forgotten, becomes fair game for Part 2. In fact, it’s wonderful for participants continuing from Part 1 to get additional views of most of the endemic birds of the Atlantic Forest even as folks joining just for Part 2 are getting their lifers. Of course, we made sure to position the group so our new arrivals could get good views of these species as efficiently as possible. And this year, Marcelo and I were going to have to be very efficient indeed, because the tour started wet, really too wet, and didn’t much let up for our four opening days, at Intervales State Park. This happens sometimes (albeit rarely), and is just bad luck this time of year. Fortunately, we were able to accomplish some very productive birding under umbrellas. Right off the bat, we got to see an active nest of the rare Gray-bellied Hawk (a goshawk-sized Accipiter), which marked my first-ever encounter with the species in the Atlantic Forest! This and lots of other sightings thanks to our excellent local guides, Faustino and Betinho, who had been monitoring the nest for over a month. A big adult female sat nearby, soaking wet, while her single youngster tore into a prey item on its first or second day out of the nest. Fabulous!! Little by little, almost everything we needed to see at and around Intervales fell into place, including Solitary Tinamou, Red-and-white Crake, Dusky-throated Hermit, Purple-crowned Plovercrest, another wonderful show by Long-trained Nightjar, Ochre-collared Piculet, huge Robust Woodpeckers, Pileated Parrot, White-breasted Tapaculo, the “slaty” bristlefront awaiting description as a new species, the awesome Giant Antshrike, Squamate Antbird, Star-throated Antwren at its nest, Short-tailed Antthrush, White-collared and White-browed foliage-gleaners, the massive White-throated Woodcreeper, Sao Paulo and Oustalet’s tyrannulets, Rufous-tailed Attila (finally! ‘twas nary a one on Part 1), Bare-throated Bellbird, Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Swallow-tailed Manakin, Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant, Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, the rare Black-legged Dacnis, Riverbank Warbler, Half-collared Sparrow, and finally, at the last possible hour, the endangered Black-fronted Piping-Guan (whew!).

We arrived at our hotel in coastal southern Sao Paulo on a beautiful late afternoon, and enjoyed fresh seafood with caipirinhas and other cold libations as we tallied the day’s list. I felt relieved, ready for a nice, sunny morning for the upcoming Red-tailed Parrot search… but it was not to be. We once again were dealt a rainy blow. Happily, though, the parrots were there, as they almost always are, and Marcelo made a couple of great spots from the moving vans that led to everyone getting soul-satisfying (red tails showing!) scope views of this endangered, range-restricted parrot. Not only that, but we were very fortunate to be in the right place (or close to it) at the right time to spot a pair of rarely seen Uniform Crakes as they walked rather slowly across an open track; the dark, dreary weather that morning surely helped us out with that one! We also picked up a couple of close, fly-over Scarlet Ibis and a number of waterbirds, but we had to leave the area sans such specialties as Restinga Tyrannulet and Black-backed Tanager.

Our three days out of Curitiba were marked by all-around excellent birding, including catch-up with the afore-mentioned tyrannulet and the tanager, both of which were stunning sightings. Scaled Chachalaca, Parana Antwren, Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Canebrake Groundcreeper, Olive Spinetail, Kaempfer’s Tody-Tyrant, and Glaucous-blue Grosbeak all performed beautifully. In a class by itself, however, was the Marsh (Wetland) Tapaculo. After nearly an hour of little more than possibly moving blades of grass, we were on the verge of throwing in the towel. After all, seeing this thing is nigh-on impossible because its marsh-grass habitat is so dense that it is simply not possible to set eyes on the bird even as it sings its head off right in front of you. With a bit more patience, and careful repositioning, we got the payoff as the bird showed itself briefly six times, allowing everyone to get at least one decent binocular view. Now, a rare clean sweep of the eight species of tapaculos possible on both tours, including two not yet described to science, was within reach.

The last major venue on the tour is Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil’s southernmost state. We close out our search for endemic birds of the Atlantic Forest biome birding a mosaic of habitats that includes remnant patches of the native grasslands that once covered extensive areas of the far south, now converted to ranching, agriculture, and, increasingly, plantations of eucalyptus and pine trees that have almost zero wildlife value. Fortunately, weather was great for us and we nailed essentially everything we were hoping for! Mention of just a few on the roster of forest-based birds must include Long-tufted Screech-Owl, the scarce Mottled Piculet, White-spotted Woodpecker, the shy and difficult Blue-bellied Parrot, the endangered Red-spectacled Parrot, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Scalloped Woodcreeper, Firewood-gatherer, Araucaria and Striolated tit-spinetails, Black-capped Piprites (again!), Swallow-tailed Cotinga (again!), Azure Jay, beautiful Chestnut-backed Tanagers, and Green-throated Euphonia.

Open country species represented a high percentage of Rio Grande do Sul highlight species, among them Red-winged Tinamou, bastante Red-legged Seriemas, Great Dusky, Sooty, and Biscutate swifts all low and close, Long-tailed Cinclodes, Straight-billed Reedhaunter, Hellmayr’s and Ochre-breasted pipits, Lesser Grass-Finch, Black-bellied, Tawny-breasted, and -- oh yes! -- the recently described, very rare Tropeiro Seedeater, which came in for point-blank scope studies! A couple of marshy swales produced rare Black-and-white Monjitas and Saffron-cowled Blackbirds, and, on one memorable evening, even a Giant Snipe that came by like a ghost (and roared overhead like a freight train!), as there was just barely enough light to see its massive shape.

The following list designates N for birds seen only on the North, S for those seen only on the South (no letter means seen on both tours), and asterisks denote species heard only. Tom, Marcelo, and I tremendously enjoyed birding with all of you! We all felt that our groups this year were exceptionally cohesive and jovial. Thanks so much for joining us, we very much look forward to seeing you on future Field Guides tours, whenever and wherever your schedules dictate.

Com grandes abraços para todos, Bretche

SPECIAL NOTE: Watch for more imagery (hummers, toucans, woodpeckers, flycatchers, and and "extras reel") to be added to our triplist as soon as I am home from the Northeast Brazil tour in mid-February!

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – Excellent vies of this endemic tinamou, on both tours [E]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – N*
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – *
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) – N*
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – S Seen beautifully in Parana, walking around in short grass late in the day
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) – S*
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – N
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata) – N
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
SILVER TEAL (Anas versicolor) – S
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris) – S

Harpy Eagle is now exceedingly rare anywhere in the Altantic Forest. This one, at Linhares, where there have been a few birds seen irregularly over the years, was simply incredible! (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
EAST BRAZILIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis araucuan) – N This and the next species resulted from the split of Variable Chachalaca. Seen at close range in Espirito Santo. [E]
SCALED CHACHALACA (Ortalis squamata) – S Good scope views in coastal Parana [E]
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris) – N A couple of the birds we saw in Espirito Santo looked to be hybrids with Dusky-legged Guan...
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – S Yess!! We stopped in a stretch of the road that had lots of fruit on the acai palms, and there was a bird singing there as we got out of the vehicles! It came in close a couple of times -- sweet!
RED-BILLED CURASSOW (Crax blumenbachii) – N Several fine sightings of this rare and endangered curassow. [E]
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – * We weren't lucky enough to coincide with the covey that had been frequenting the feeding station at Intervales, despite checking for them there several times. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – N
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – A bird near its nest sneaked in close, and kept a close eye on us.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – N Tom spotted a well-concealed nest near Pereque in Rio de Janeiro.
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – N
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – N
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – S Two sightings, the second of which was a beauty of two birds flying low overhead; this species seems to be making a comeback in southern Sao Paulo.
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi) – S
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – S
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – S
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – S
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – N
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – N Bill spotted this one for us
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – S
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – N A dark-morph bird at Linhares was neat to see.
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – N Ken spotted a distant soaring bird at Caetes
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – A few scattered through both tours
HARPY EAGLE (Harpia harpyja) – N A truly fine scope view of a huge (must have been a female) adult Harpy, spotted for us by Gustavo, at Linhares. Very, very rare in the Atlantic Forest!
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – N One being chased around by a Roadside Hawk, at Itatiaia, was especially memorable.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – N Two sightings near an active nest -- spectacular bird rarely seen in the AF.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – N One flew overhead being chased by a caracara at Caetes.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – N
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon) – Seen well on both tours. The distant soaring bird we saw at Linhares, which I expected to be a Double-toothed Kite, proved to be a Rufous-thighed on closer inspection.
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
LONG-WINGED HARRIER (Circus buffoni) – S Just one sighting, of a female at 1000 meters in Rio Grande do Sul
GRAY-BELLIED HAWK (Accipiter poliogaster) – S It was a real treat to see this rare raptor perched near its nest(!), with a recently fledged juvenile eating something just beside the nest. It was a very rainy morning, but the scope sightings were fabulous (check out the video >>>)
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (RUFOUS-THIGHED) (Accipiter striatus erythronemius) – We also saw this one on a nest near Caetes, thanks to Gustavo, and the South tour saw a single bird perched nicely right on our hotel grounds in Rio Grande do Sul. This one is often considered a separate species in the widespread Sharp-shinned Hawk complex.
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – N Distinctive extra-Amazonian subspecies with grayer plumage and lots of barring; eye is yellow/white, not orange/red.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-NECKED HAWK (Buteogallus lacernulatus) – Wow! Seen really well at least four times across both tours -- but we couldn't come up with a single Mantled Hawk this year (mostly due to rainy weather on almost every day we would normally expect to spot one). [E]
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-RUMPED HAWK (Parabuteo leucorrhous) – S A distant soaring bird in the far southern highlands.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – One was acrobaticaly catching and eating flying insects (large, winged termites?) above the high grasslands at Itatiaia.
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – S One bird seen nicely
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – N*/S Fabulous views on our last morning in Rio Grande do Sul
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – S After a couple of failed attempts to see this beautiful crake at Faustino's feeding station, we finally connected, and it was worth the effort.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) [E]
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – S A rare sighting of this secretive crake in coastal Sao Paulo, as a pair sneaked across on open track on a wet, dreary morning.
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis) – N Good views
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – Great looks on both tours, with special thanks to Joshua for a great spot on the N tour.
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – S It took us a while to locate a responsive pair, but boy did they show off when we finally found them!
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – N
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
WHITE-WINGED COOT (Fulica leucoptera) – S

It was a good year for rail-watching! (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – N*
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – S
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – Lots, every day
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) – N
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – A truly exceptional experience on the N tour, as a distant calling bird suddenly gave it up and fluttered (flopped!) in to land only a few feet in front of us, then stand there in the spotlight. The S tour had to make do with a fly-by view of a bird at dusk, but listening to its incredible freight-train-like aerial display on a dark, starry night sprinkled with fireflies was unforgettable!
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – N
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger) – S
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – N
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – N*
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – Lots of these big pigeons, which have increasingly spread into the AF region with the clearing of forest and spread of agriculture.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea) – N This is the nominate form, endemic to the AF (likely to be split someday).
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
PICUI GROUND-DOVE (Columbina picui) – N
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – N We found a nest near Ubatuba (but can you count a Ruddy Quail-Dove before it's hatched?), and saw a single bird fly across a trail; one flew into a window at our hotel in Rio Grande do Sul, and didn't survive the impact.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – N*/S Seen well at Intervales
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
DARK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus melacoryphus) – N Diane spotted one at the tip-top of a tall tree at Linhares, as it snapped up flying termites after days of hard rains. It would be an austral migrant/winterer there.
PEARLY-BREASTED CUCKOO (Coccyzus euleri) – N One good sighting
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) – S A single bird winged over the huge marsh during our Giant Snipe hunt.

Nightbirds (including several seen during the day!) were, as usual, among the top birding highlights of the tours. (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – N*/S Best was the bird on its day-roost at Intervales.
BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) – N It took quite a bit of effort to get the lights on this secretive little screech-owl, but Tom eventually picked it up back in there, and it stayed put for excellent viewing. [E]
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – S Marcelo made an excellent spot to get this one in the lights at Sao Francisco de Paula. [E]
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – N Wow, great views on a (dark, rainy) morning at Caetes, and then again on a beautiful night for owling at Linhares. [E]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – N Great scope study; endemic, nominate form (considered a separate species after split of the widespread complex several years ago). [E]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – N
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – N/S* Amazing looks and listens! [E]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) – Nominate form, endemic to the AF (watch for eventual splitting of this complex).
PYGMY NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus hirundinaceus vielliardi) – N Thanks to Gustavo knowing just where to look for them!
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus) – S Unfortunately, only seen as a (singing) eyeshine on the ground ahead of us, and then in foraging flight low over the grassland. The grass out there needs to be burned off and allowed to regrow (it's now become too tall for this and some other species).
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – Fantastic, awesome views of this spectacular AF endemic nightjar on both tours. [E]
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) – N Voted among the top birds of the trip, across both tours, by several participants this year. Our view of a singing male at Linhares really was spectacular!
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – N Thanks to Gustavo, a great sighting of a Great Potoo during the day!
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Best, for sure, was the adult brooding a 1/3-grown chick at Intervales; they sat there, getting soaked, for the three days we had at the park.
WHITE-WINGED POTOO (Nyctibius leucopterus) – N Simply perfect experience with this bird, which is very rare in the AF, thanks to Gustavo.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus) – S Remarkable views of a foraging group in Rio Grande do Sul.
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – Seen at nesting cliffs and also foraging low over the grasslands of the far south.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – Seen on both trips, but especially well on S.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris) – N
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – N
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – N Who knows how many at Jonas's feeders, certainly the best place in the world to see this AF-endemic hermit! [E]
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – N
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – S On its display perch at Intervales
MINUTE HERMIT (Phaethornis idaliae) – N Good views at Linhares [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – N
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei) – N
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris) – N
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – N Fabulous views of this sprite at feeders [E]
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus) – Ditto that remark (probably dozens around Jonas's feeders), and we had a fine adult male perched in the scope at Intervales. [E]
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Lots, stunning when they turn toward you, flashing the forehead and gorget! [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
GREEN-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) – N Quiet at the leks this year, but seen beautifully nonetheless. [E]
PURPLE-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis loddigesii) – S Great scope views at the lek at Intervales. [E]
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – This flashy, endemic hummer is gratifyingly common. [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – N Not flashy at all, but a genus endemic to the AF!
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – N
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus) – N
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – S
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – N
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – Yellow-bellied in the northern part of the range, going to orange and red from about Itatiaia south; seen well several times. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – N/S* Watch for this one to be split as an AF endemic. [E]
COLLARED TROGON (Trogon collaris) – N Good views, now rare and local in the AF
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – N/S* It took perseverance to get this one into good view! [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – S
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – N Beautiful view of an adult that stuck around for several minutes. A fairly recent split from widespread White-necked Puffbird. [E]
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru)
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – N
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – N Joshua "jumped the gun" on this one, spotting it right across the street from our lunch stop! We later enjoyed really close studies of several birds near their nests in a high dirt bank. This is among the most distinctive of the AF endemics. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – N
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – N The ones that have become acustomed to the feeders at Itatiaia are amazing to see (check out the video >>>) [E]
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – N
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – N Just one good sighting of this fancy little toucan [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – N Spreading from central Brazil into the AF with forest clearance.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) – N
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) – Great views several times. [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – N [E]
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – S [E]
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) – S Great views of all of the three AF-endemic piculets, but this one is consistently the toughest to find. [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – Another species spreading into the AF region with the clearing of forest cover.
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) – Spectacular, close, fabulous bird! Great to see them several times. [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis) – N
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) – N An unusually fine view of a bird Diane spotted on some low, dead trunks below eye-level. [E]
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – AF endemic "subspecies" (watch for split) with a red throat!
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) – N Not many encounters this year, but seen beautifully a couple of times. [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides) – S
RINGED WOODPECKER (ATLANTIC BLACK-BREASTED) (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) – N We lucked out with a fine view of this distinctive bird at Linhares. [E]
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus subflavus) – N The same remark applies to this woodpecker as well! Rarely seen in the AF. [E]
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (BLOND-CRESTED) (Celeus flavescens flavescens) – Seen best on the N tour; seemed uncharacteristically quiet this trip (perhaps due to so much rain).
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – N/S*
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – Great views on both tours! [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – An amazing, unforgettable encounter with a bird that decided to challenge us up real close and personal (N), with numerous birds seen later (S) under normal circumstances.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango) – S
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – N*
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – S
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – N
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – S
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – S
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) – N*/S Best were the birds (male and emale) feeding on fruits in the rain at Intervales, which we scoped beautifully from under the roof at the lodge! [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – S With patience, we came away with fabulous views of at least one pair. This is another highly distinctive genus endemic to the AF. [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) – N Just one bird this trip. [E]
VINACEOUS-BREASTED PARROT (Amazona vinacea) – S This gorgeous parrot was seen well in flight, but we couldn't convince them to sit down and stay awhile. [E]
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) – S Impressive views of this rare parrot in Rio Grande do Sul. [E]
RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) – N Linhares [E]
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – N Linhares
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) – S Great scope studies, especially of one that spread its tail for us, to show the extensive red (not usually visible on a perched bird). [E]
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – N
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) – N Fine scope views at Linhares [E]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Ditto that!
MAROON-FACED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura leucotis) – N [E]
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – N Also seen beautifully in the scope -- this is one fancy little macaw!
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – N
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – N/S* That bird near Santa Teresa, low and very close, was truly extraordinary. Another distinctive genus endemic to the AF. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – N*/S After a couple of frustrating "heard-only" attempts, we connected bigtime with this impressive bird.
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – N We want to rename this one "Starry-night Antshrike". Check out the video, and you'll see why! [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – Unusually cooperative birds on both tours. [E]
GREAT ANTSHRIKE (Taraba major) – N*
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – Also seen beautifully on both tours. [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) – N*/S
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – N We found a nest with two chicks.
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – N [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster) – S Both distinctive subspecies seen on S.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – A nest at Intervales was great to see. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – N [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – N Just one, but seen very nicely. [E]

Southeast Brazil is loaded with endemic antbirds, including some of the fanciest species in South America. (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – N Likely to be officially split soon.
SALVADORI'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula minor) – S It looked like we might miss this one, but we came up with a nice adult male at the last minute. [E]
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – N A little more easily than normal, I'd say! [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – N [E]
BLACK-HOODED ANTWREN (Formicivora erythronotos) – N Much more of a challenge than has been the case the past several years, as my known territories seemed vacated. With patience, we eventually located a fine adult male that cooperated nicely. This is truly among the rarest continental passerine birds in the world. [E]
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) – N This subspecies is essentially endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. [E]
PARANA ANTWREN (Stymphalornis acutirostris) – S Fabulous views in coastal Parana. This bird was described to science only in 1996. [E]
[SAO PAULO] ANTWREN (Stymphalornis sp. nov.) – N Described to science as a species in 2013, it is still not adopted as such by the South American Classification Comittee (SACC) of the AOU; it is accepted by the Brazilian equivalent, CBRO. We finally managed to get good views of an adult male (whew!). [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – This and the following Drymophila antbirds are fancy little endemics, and all were seen well. [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – N [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) – N Scaled is a strange bird, probably belongs in its own genus. [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – Always challenging to get a good view of this little canopy antwren, but we got it really well on both tours this year. [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – N Very close views of a pair in a bamboo thicket -- a rarely seen AF endemic related to the Gray Antbird (C. cinerascens) complex of Amazonia. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – Tail-pumping views on both tours! [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) – N This was the first bird that really "wowed" the crowd on N. [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus squamosus) – S This is the southern counterpart of White-bibbed, and it also put on a very impressive performance. [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – N Unusually close studies of a pair around an ant swarm at Ubatuba, and seen a couple of other times, later in the tour. [E]
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – N A great view at Caetes
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) – S Excellent at Intervales. Watch for multiple splits in the widespread Rufous Gnateater complex. [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – * We almost got our bin's on one at Itatiaia, but try as we might (there and, especially, at Intervales), we couldn't coax one in close enough for viewing.
SPECKLE-BREASTED ANTPITTA (Hylopezus nattereri) – N* Singing very close (and perhaps a couple of folks did glimpse it, I don't recall). [E]
[SPECKLE-BREASTED] ANTPITTA (Hylopezus sp. nov.) – S It took a bit of work to get up a steep slope in parana, but we did all finally get to see it well. This will soon be described as a species separate from northern Speckle-breasted. [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – N/S* Fabulously close views on N; couldn't get one to come into view on S this year. [E]
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – N With perseverance, we located a responsive bird at Itatiaia that allowed us prolonged views, right down to the bristles! [E]
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) – S Very quiet (lots of rain) this year, but we finally found a male that put on a nice show for all to see, rising up to song perch some three feet above ground. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – N*/S The bluetooth speaker did its job -- great views as it came in close 3-4 times over 1-2 minutes. [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – N [E]
PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) – S [E]
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) – S As highlighted in the introduction to the list, we nailed all of the tapaculos this time; check out the video, which includes most of them! [E]
[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) – S [E]

Getting great views of all of the tapaculos possible in Southeast and Southern Brazil is challenging, but it's fun to try. And even more fun when you actually DO get them all! (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – N Excellent, close views of pair around an ant swarm.
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) – N*/S Seen nicely at Intervales, near the tinamou feeding station. It was a dark, rainy morning, but the bird came by several times, allowing repeated views.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – N/S* Stunning (twice!) at Itatiaia. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – N Also a superb viewing experience at Itatiaia. [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – Sen nicely a couple of times. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – This distinctive subspecies is endemic to the AF and is sure to be split when someone gets around to do a proper phylogeographic analysis of the widespread Sittasomus group. [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – N Scope views -- most unusual indeed! [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – These massive woodcreepers were seen to great advantage a couple of times, as they tore into mossy limbs to extract hapless invertebrates, aarrrgh! [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) – N Not yet "officially" (SACC) split, but likely to get there eventually, I think. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – S [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus) – N Another likely split as an AF endemic. [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – N Hard to come by this time around, but we finally found one bird that permitted us to see it really well. Intervales is usually quite good for this one, but rain there was hard to overcome this trip. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – N [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) – S Great, low views of a foraging bird in Rio Grande do Sul. Recently split from Scaled. [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – N*
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – N
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – The pair feeding young in Rio Grande do Sul was unforgettable -- so close and "studyable"!
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) – S Seen nicely a couple of times. This conspicuous endemic bird was described to science only in 1969! [E]
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – Excellent views of this handsome endemic furnariid, especially on N. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) – Good views on both trips. A very good (overdue) candidate for splitting! [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus) – N Fine scope views at Caetes. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus contaminatus) – N Both N and S subspecies seen well, probably forming a cline with a porous interruption in it through Sao Paulo, I think; unlikely to be split at the species level. A fabulous, endemic genus. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus camargoi) – S [E]

Furnariids (members of the Ovenbird family) have speciated richly in the Atlantic Forest. Here are some of the endemic species, from both tours. (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Good views on both tours. [E]
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – Muchos
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – N/S* Seen nicely at Caetes, but a responsively calling bird at Intervales refused to come into decent view. [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) – Excellent views a couple of times. [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) – N/S*
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) – S Probably the easiest time we've ever had with seeing this distintive endemic, as one came in immediately, and hopped through the understory at close range for 2-3 minutes. [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – N White-eyed views! [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) – S One came in very close and low, and we saw an Araucaria Tit-Spinetail just a few monutes later. [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – Great views on both tours; a true Araucaria specialist! [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – N
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis) – S
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – N Very close at Ubatuba (must have been near a nest). [E]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – Good views on both tours; recently split from Orange-eyed (the complex was formerly called "Red-eyed" Thornbird). [E]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – S Doing their thing in Rio Grande do Sul.
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – N A bit more retiring than is usually the case, but they nonetheless put on a good show in the high-altitude grasslands of Itatiaia National Park. [E]
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris) – S A pair responded vigorously, coming out of the marsh and on to a fence post a couple of times!
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – S The first one was best -- incredibly good views! [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – Seen a number of times, including a couple of pairs at nests. [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) [E]
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – Always a challenge to see well, but we got them into view nicely on both tours this time around. [E]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi) – That bird at Caetes, that paraded around on bare limbs for a whole minute, was amazingly cooperative.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – N
CRESTED DORADITO (Pseudocolopteryx sclateri) – N Thanks to scouting by Gustavo, we got to see a fine adult male in a cattail marsh. This was the first time we'd had the species on our SE Brazil tour!
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – N/S*
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – S
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca) – Fabulously close views
LESSER ELAENIA (Elaenia chiriquensis albivertex) – S
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura sordida)
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans) – N
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata) – S
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) – S Just one good sighting this year [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – A nest in Parana
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) – S Amazingly close views (after we finally found one)! [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – Good studies at Ubatuba and Intervales [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – The tail-shivering behavior of this AF endemic tyrannulet is highly distinctive; it is quite different from any other tyrannulet. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – N Another super-distinctive bird, seen really well at Itatiaia. [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – S Best views at Intervales, where rain and bad overhead lighting hampered sightings. [E]
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri) – Good views on both trips.
GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) – This one, too! We studied the differences it shows from the very similar Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – Always around mistletoe; watch for it to get transferred to the "correct" genus, Zimmerius, after it is analyzed together with the appropriate assortment of other tyrannids. [E]
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – S Great views of a single bird (mate was probably at the nest) in Rio Grande do Sul.
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – N An unexpected plus at Itatiaia; we had great looks at a singing bird.

A medley of photos from "North of the Tropic" (Part I of the overall tour), more or less in chronological order. (Images from guide Bret Whitney's iPhone)
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – Several close encounters with this tiny, endemic flycatcher. [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) – N/S* Best at Caetes, also good at Itatiaia. [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus obsoletus) – N* [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) – Intervales [E]
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – N Best ner Jonas's place. [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Nice, close studies on both tours [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – S Truly outstanding views of a single bird in an unexpected (but very welcome!) spot in coastal Parana. [E]
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – N Good views a couple of times, especially at Itatiaia. [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – This little bird always impresses with its attractive plumage pattern.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – Fierce-eyed views several times. [E]
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus olivaceus) – N Just once, at Linhares
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – Another widespread complex that will surely be split into multple species, from southern Mexico to Paraguay. We saw the nominate subspecies, endemic to the AF. [E]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – N
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – N
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – N*/S Point-blank studies a couple of times.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) – N
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) – S* [E]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – A pair in Espirito Santo had built its nest on the floor of a deep, cement culvert.
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – N A pair in the rocky, high-altitude grasslands of Itatiaia National Park. [E]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – N At Itatiaia and again at Pico de Caledonia.
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – Diane spotted our first one, and Richard caught up with the last one!
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – S
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – N One in open country near Itatiaia was in a new locality for the tour.
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero) – S Quite a few around in lowlands near Porto Alere on our last morning.
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis dominicanus) – S Excellent views of this handsome, rare tyrannid in Rio Grande do Sul, almost always in the company of, or accompanied by, Saffron-cowled Blackbirds.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – N Fabulous displays right in front of us early in the tour in Espirito Santo. Check out the video >>>
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – Never very close, but seen well with scopes several times. A distinctive, AF-endemic genus. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – Especially low and close along the road at Intervales.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) – N* [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – S After hearing none at all on the N tour (we usually get it at Itatiaia this late in the year), we found them in pretty good numbers at Intervales. This species breeds only in the AF region, then disappears into Amazonia for the rest of the year.
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Great views several times. [E]
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – N*
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – this is a result of splitting widespread Sirystes.
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex simplex) – N We noted the whitish eyes of this nominate subspecies, endemic to the AF. [E]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – N
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – N
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) – N Good views of a pair [E]
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – S
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – N
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – N/S* Excellent views at Caetes; I think rain kept us from getting it well at Intervales on S.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Seen beautifully on both tours. [E]
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) – N* [E]
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – S One particularly close adult male at Intervales.
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – Good views in scopes a couple of times. [E]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – N Fantastic scope views of this interesting endemic with its strange voice. [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – N Suspenseful, for sure, but the pay0ff was big when a male finally approached and sat for close views at the edge of the road. We saw several individuals at once as they fed at a fruiting tree across the valley from our position on the road. [E]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Good, blue-green-faced views of adult males bonging away! [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris) – We found a very low and close active nest at Caetes (N), and found another pair late in the S tour near Sao Francisco de Paula.
Pipridae (Manakins)
WIED'S TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma aurifrons) – N One bird seen super-well. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – S This one came more easily, at Intervales. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – Formerly called Blue Manakin -- fabulous views of these fabulous birds several times. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – N Nicely at Caetes, but quite scarce after that early success. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) – N
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (WHITE-CROWNED) (Dixiphia pipra cephaleucos) – N
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla) – N*
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) – S Seen pretty well at Intervales.
BLACK-CAPPED PIPRITES (Piprites pileata) – Excellent views on both tours! We usually get it only on N (and we have actually missed it once or twice over the many years we've run the SE Brazil tour). [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – N
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina turdina) – N Good, prolonged view at Linhares; split from widespread Thrush-like Schiffornis.
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – N*/S It took several tries, but we finally found a bird that cooperated nicely. [E]
BUFF-THROATED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura pipra) – N Steve made a great spot on this one, leading to scope views for all of us. [E]
SHRIKE-LIKE COTINGA (BRAZILIAN) (Laniisoma elegans elegans) – N We definitely went that "extra mile" for this bird -- and the investment paid off with fabulous views of a singing adult male. [E]

Cotingas! Here are some of the fabulous Atlantic Forest endemics from both tours. (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – N Especially nicely at a nest under construction at Caetes.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – N
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – N The eyes are barely gray, but we could see it!
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus) – N This is the AF-endemic, nominate subspecies; likely to be split when the complex is studied in detail.
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – S Several satisfying sightings. [E]
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – S
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW (Alopochelidon fucata) – N One in disturbed, open country near Itatiaia was new for the tour.
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis) – A couple of individuals spotted on both tours.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa)
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – S
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – N Nominate subspecies, restricted to the AF.
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – S
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – Stubbornly unwiling to show themselves, but we eventually repositioned enough to get a nice look.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola) – S
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – N One articularly responsie pair came in from hundreds of meters out in a marsh to perform their pair-duet for us.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis) – N/S*
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens) – N A couple of birds were spotted on a soccer pitch near our restaurant stop the day we went for the Black-hooded Antwren.
OCHRE-BREASTED PIPIT (Anthus nattereri) – S After much searching of appropriate habitat, we finally located a bird and got to see it doing its impressive flight display.
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus) – S Much easier to come by, and also seen doing its flight displays.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – The loud, descending song of this bird was always with us in the mountains of SE Brazil. We enjoyed good views of the singers sveral times. [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) – Seen nicely on both tours, which is rather unusual.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – It took us until the last minute to find it at Itatiaia, but we did just that! It came much easier at Intervales, in spite of the rain. A very distinctive AF-endemic genus. [E]
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) – N
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)

Cherry-throated Tanager! I wish I had managed to get the camera rolling a few seconds earlier, when the bird was very low and close, but the excitement was too much, just looking at the bird! Tom's photo on our Facebook page is much better. (Video by guide Bret Whitney)
CHERRY-THROATED TANAGER (Nemosia rourei) – N Due diligence, and a stroke or two of luck, paid off with wonderfully exciting views of a single bird in loose association with a mixed-species flock at Caetes. You have to be very fortunate to encounter this rare tanager in just a couple of days of effort, because the accessible percentage of available habitat is very small and the birds could easily be "just beyond range" the whole time. We are hopeful that the forest this bird depends on for its survival will soon come into the hands of organizations that will protect it in perpetuity, and we are working to help make that happen. [E]
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – Yet another highly distinctive AF-endemic genus. It is apparently most closely related to the geographically remote Carmiol's Tanager and its relatives. [E]
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – N Finally... super views of male singing in a bush below eye-level. [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – N
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – S [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Gratifyingly common, always beautiful. [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota)
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Pipraeidea bonariensis) – Steve spotted a couple of these tanagers for us.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara peruviana) – One of the great moments of the tours was having a pair of these scarce and beautiful tanagers show up in low trees right in front of us. [E]
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – This one is a very close relative of Black-backed, and is also a really striking bird; seen well several times in the far south. [E]
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) – N Good views at Linhares, where we found a nest! [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – N There are lots of gorgeous species of tanagers endemic to the AF, including this one! [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – N [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – N [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – S We lucked out and found a pair at Intervales; easy to miss this rae bird on the tour (especially under rainy skies like we had). [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – N
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis) – N
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – N
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – N/S* Lots around, and singing vigorously. [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons) – S One came in very close in Rio Grande do Sul.
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza thoracica) – N Excellent at Itatiaia. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza lateralis) – N Another handsome warbling-finch seen well at Itatiaia. This and the next species result from the split of widespread Red-rumped Warbling-Finch. [E]
GRAY-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza cabanisi) – S If you had seen Red-rumped Warbling-Finch before the tour (check your lists from Argentina, for example), that was the same bird that's now split and called Gray-throated Warbling-Finch from Sao Paulo south.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris)
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola)
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus) – S Close views revealed the subtly beautiful plumage pattern of this secretive denizen of grassy marshes.
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis) – S

Here's a selection of photos from "South of the Capricorn" (Part II), more or less in chronological order. (Media from guide Bret Whitney's iPhone)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – S
TAWNY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypoxantha) – S Several pairs seen well
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) – S More of these handsome seedeaters were in this year (had arrived on their breeding grounds) than is normally the case. [E]
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis)
DUBOIS'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila ardesiaca) – One "pure-looking" bird in Espirito Santo, where we also noted a bird or two that looked intermediate toward Yellow-bellied Seedeater. [E]
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) – N Good numbers around Itatiaia. [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni) – S Beautiful views of this rare and endangered seedeater, described to science only a couple of years ago. (We've been showing it to our tour groups since well before its formal description.)
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus) – N
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
SOOTY GRASSQUIT (Tiaris fuliginosus) – N*
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – N
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) – Excellent views on both tours. [E]
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – Also seen nicely on both trips. [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – As was this bird -- which we usually don't pick up on N, but we had it twice at Itatiaia, where I have never heard one before this year! [E]
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – N
BLACKISH-BLUE SEEDEATER (Amaurospiza moesta) – N An adult male popped up right in front of us, seconds after we gave it its cue. So cool! [E]
GLAUCOUS-BLUE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) – S This one was kinda the same deal... we picked a good spot and pulled it up quick-time!
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella superciliaris)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
UNICOLORED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus cyanopus) – N
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus)
SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus) – S Good scope views of foarging and singing birds in marshy swales in the rolling grasslands of Rio Grande do Sul.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius badius) – S
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) – N
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – S
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii) – N Invading incresingly into the AF from drier habitats of NE Brazil.
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – N
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – N*/S
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – S Seen fabulously well a couple of times, yet the throat never really looked "green", but always seemed a deeper shade of greeny-blue. Trust me, it can look pretty green in certain lights! [E]
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – Incredible views at feeders!
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis) – DOR, I'm afraid
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) – Great views at Linhares [E]
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) – N Seen well a couple of times. [E]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – N/S* Sen a couple of times, heard a couple of times; rather rare in the AF nowadays...
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – N
EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus europaeus) – S Introduced in the far south
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.) – S
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – S Lots loafing around in the municipal park in Curitiba.
BROWN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta variegata) – N
NUTRIA (Myocastor coypus) – S
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus) – S
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) – S
OCELOT (Felis pardalis) – tracks only
JAGUAR (Panthera onca) – tracks only (but impressive all the same), at Linhares
BRAZILIAN TAPIR (Tapirus terrestris) – tracks only... then we SAW a Brazilian Tapir in the road right in front of one early morning at Linhares!! That was the first actual sighting of a tapir we have had on a SE Brazil tour.
RED BROCKET DEER (Mazama americana) – S


A number of other interesting creatures were spotted along the way, some regularly, others just once, including Grison (a pair foraging in a grassy marsh in Rio Grande do Sul); a Patagonian Skunk; some huge Tupinambis tegu lizards; a Yellow-legged Tortoise (Linhares); a side-necked turtle; a stunningly green Plica sp. lizard at Itatiaia; and a Bahia Forest Frog (Macrogenioglottus alipioi). This latter frog is rarely seen, at least at Intervales, where our local guides Betinho and Faustino were quite excited to see it, telling us they'd seen one just once or twice in the lives. We also saw a couple of huge Marine Toads and a couple of massive Bufo icterotis toads. The fantastic land snail we saw at Intervales was genus Megalobolaimus, I believe. The beautiful, pom-pom shaped plants we saw in southern Brazil were Paepalanthis, "sempre-vivas". Photos of some of these animals and plants will be included in the imagery accompanying this list.

Totals for the tour: 550 bird taxa and 19 mammal taxa