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Field Guides Tour Report
Spectacular Southeast Brazil (Parts I & II)
Oct 19, 2018 to Nov 18, 2018
Bret Whitney & Marcelo Barreiros

Cherry-throated Tanager is one of rarest birds of the world and we got it! Congratulations, guys, for that moment! Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Our two Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours this year were again truly wonderful trips, scoring a very high percentage of the 170+ species (and then many subspecies) endemic to the Atlantic Forest (AF) biome. That said, both tours had more than half of the days both wetter and colder than average, which made our birding all the more challenging. On “North of the Tropic,” the only truly regrettable consequences of inclement weather were loss of significant owling opportunities at Linhares Reserve and rainout on Pico de Caledônia. It hit us hardest on “South of the Capricorn,” at Intervales State Park, where owling was practically impossible. Enough of the gloom, let’s get to the good stuff!

WE GOT CHERRY-THROATED TANAGER – now twice in succession, and thanks in large measure to our great friend and awesome fieldman, Gustavo Magnago!! This year, a pair of birds with a mixed-species flock foraged in a couple of treecrowns for several minutes, allowing good scope views for everyone, and some pretty cool photos and video (see below). This is one of the most Endangered birds anywhere in the world, and may be the single rarest passerine (among those definitely known to be extant) on a continent. Everyone thoroughly appreciated our great good fortune on that second morning of the tour – we were off to an amazing start! A Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle, scope studies of nesting Swallow-tailed Cotingas, regally ornamented birds, a pair of huge White-throated Woodcreepers, a highly territorial Mouse-colored Tapaculo, and a massive Robust Woodpecker were also greatly enjoyed by all, as was a trio of Saffron Toucanets, an elusive Black-billed Scythebill, a scope-friendly Sharpbill, a drab-plumaged but quite rare Weid’s Tyrant-Manakin and handsome pairs of Scaled and Serra antwrens. We squeezed in an owling excursion as well, coming away with excellent Rusty-barred Owl and Mottled Owl (seldom-seen AF endemic subspecies borelliana). The hummer feeders at Augusto Ruschi’s “Museu Mello Leitão” in Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo (ES), properly blew everyone away, especially for their dozens of flashy Black Jacobins and several gorgeous male Frilled Coquettes.

Highlights at the justly famed Linhares Reserve, now in the ES lowlands, were many, from Endangered Red-billed Curassows, Red-browed Parrots, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Ocellated Poorwill, and Tawny-browed Owl to wonderful views of Minute Hermit, Ringed Woodpecker (distinctive AF endemic subspecies tinnunculus), Cream-colored Woodpecker (rarely seen AF endemic subspecies subflavus), and the increasingly difficult Black-headed Berryeater. Among other “megas” of that first week in ES were scope studies of a pair of Pygmy Nightjars during the day, a singing male Crescent-chested Puffbird, very close, cooperative pairs of White-bibbed and rare Rio de Janeiro antbirds, and a pair of Mangrove Rails (split from Clapper Rail complex) literally “at our feet”. Onward to Rio de Janeiro!

Gray-winged Cotinga is certainly among the naturally rarest continental birds in the world, occurring in a small area of central Rio de Janeiro state, centered on the Serra dos Órgãos, a range of jagged, heavily forested mountains. The bird lives in the highest, windswept, stunted forest zone, further limiting its available habitat. Needless to say, seeing this species is a great birding challenge. Our Spectacular Southeast Brazil tour had an almost incredible record of 8-1 on seeing Gray-winged Cotinga. Now it’s 8-2, darn it! We have only a single morning to devote to the effort, which is considerable, involving multiple 4-WD vehicles negotiating a rather treacherous piece of “road” up the side of Pico de Caledônia to reach rarified heights… and this year it just “was not to be”. After much effort, we made it to the best area for the bird, and even got one male to vocalize close by on a miserably wet and windy morning, but seeing it was simply not possible. Fortunately, weather improved greatly as we drove into the lower elevations of the Rio Paraíba do Sul and on to the mountains around Teresópolis, seeing Three-toed Jacamars, White-browed Woodpecker, Tufted Antshrike, Dusky-tailed Antbird, Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, Blackish-blue Seedeater, Chestnut-headed Tanager, Brassy-breasted Tanager, topped off with a stunning male Large-tailed Antshrike. Bring on Itatiaia National Park!

We finally got the break we were hoping for at Itatiaia, which is perhaps the single most likely place to hit lousy weather on the whole SE Brazil tour route. Our morning in the high country of Agulhas Negras, on the highest-elevation road in all of Brazil, was unforgettable. We made it up there nice and early and thoroughly enjoyed birding tall, undisturbed forest and up the road to eventually enter the dwarf bamboo and grassland zone, above natural treeline. Birds were all over the place most of that day, and it was exhilarating to experience multiple, fast-moving mixed-species flocks full of lifers the likes of Rufous-backed Antvireo, Diademed Tanager, Black-capped Piprites, both Buff-throated and Bay-chested Warbling-Finches, and Thick-billed Saltator, among numerous species foraging solitarily, like Green-crowned Plovercrest, Itatiaia Spinetail, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Velvety Black-Tyrant, Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, and White-browed Warbler. A Gray-backed Tachuri responding to our recordings was a first-ever sighting for this tour; it has been found very rarely in the Itatiaia region (but is likely regular, just under-recorded due to lack of coverage by birders familiar with detecting it). In a class by itself, however, was a perfect male Black-and-gold Cotinga that Marcelo finally spotted through a gap in a couple of treecrowns. The bird eventually worked its way up to sing for several minutes on an exposed snag, where we all enjoyed prolonged scope viewing. Lower elevations in the park were also super-productive. After days of rain ahead of our arrival in the park, a sunny midday thermal was all it took to get a fabulous pair of Mantled Hawks wheeling just over the hotel rooftop! Next morning, we thrilled to a pair of Black Hawk-Eagles calling loudly as the male performed flight displays low overhead. Lower-elevation, mountain trails yielded wonderful repeat encounters with Robust Woodpecker and Black-billed Scythebill (there you go, Jill!), and also Ferruginous and Ochre-rumped antbirds, Slaty Bristlefront, Rufous Gnateater, Gray-hooded Attila, Brown Tanager, and scope studies of several Buffy-fronted Seedeaters, which have become quite scarce following a massive fruiting and die-off cycle in the extensive bamboo stands. White-breasted Tapaculo is seldom recorded in Itatiaia, but we managed to get pretty nice views of a bird this time around. And, of course, the feeders at Itatiaia provided streaming enjoyment, as various hummers, tanagers, and other species were present at all hours.

Black-hooded Antwren, like Cherry-throated Tanager, is among the rarest continental passerines on Earth, but it’s a whole lot easier to find than is the tanager. That doesn’t mean Marcelo and I were feeling at all complacent as we began our hunt for this Endangered species on a sunny, post-Itatiaia afternoon. A beautiful Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant showed up first (wonderful!) followed only a few minutes later by gorgeous male antwren that rose from the dense undergrowth to allow perfect views over the next few minutes, a deeply soul-satisfying encounter. We continued south along the coast to Ubatuba, where we would have three days in lowland forest, with a lot of species on everyones’ “wish list”. Hopes were fulfilled, I would have to say, thanks to star performances by the likes of Spot-backed Antshrike, Unicolored Antwren, Spotted Bamboowren, Black-cheeked Gnateater, Orange-eyed Thornbird, and, last but not least, Buff-throated Purpletuft! Jonas’s hummingbird feeders were simply fantastic, with truly non-stop action on 10 fronts at once. Saw-billed Hermit and Festive Coquette, many of each, were probably the most-appreciated, as it’s especially difficult to see these two so well away from feeders.

Our final venue on “North of the Tropic” was an important stop to search for the recently described Parana Antwren, in São Paulo state represented by the taxon Formicivora acutirostris paludicola, considered a subspecies by the SACC (South American Classification Committee) and, by the CBRO (Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee), a distinct species, Sao Paulo Antwren. Whatever, it’s a very rare little beast, and highly unusual in being a cattail marsh-inhabiting antbird! Happily, we found a pair that permitted us excellent views, and without delaying our continuation to our hotel in São Paulo, where we were met by participants newly arrived for “South of the Capricorn”.

Intervales State Park is one of the finest birding spots on the continent of South America, more than worth the half-day drive it takes to get there from São Paulo. In fact, a couple of fortuitous stops along the way produced Red-legged Seriema and a spectacular, displaying pair of Streamer-tailed Tyrants! Despite our four days in the park requiring raincoats and umbrellas most of the time, the large number of AF endemics to be found there – many being lifers for the participants newly arrived for “South of the Capricorn” while others were new for folks continuing from the North – appeared on cue, one-by-one. A couple of slow-moving mixed-species flocks were especially appreciated, as, over a couple of exciting hours of birding, something like two dozen AF endemics seemed to materialize “out of the woodwork” around us, with some of the more similar-looking species (e.g., multiple foliage-gleaners and tyrannulets) allowing close comparisons to help cement identifications. At the top of individual Intervales highlights was a nest of Gray-bellied Hawk, the adult female perched nearby, shown to us by our trusty local guides, a very rare sighting indeed – and also a pair of Ornate Hawk-Eagles at their nest, which was breath-taking! Among many other top-shelf sightings were a Black-fronted Piping-Guan Marcelo spotted feeding on palm fruits, a family of Spot-winged Wood-Quail and also a Red-and-white Crake which have become accustomed to getting handouts of cracked corn from our guides, a Long-tufted Screech-Owl that we managed to get into view one evening, singing Dusky-throated Hermits and amazing Purple-crowned Plovercrests, Saffron Toucanets, great scope studies of a pair of Red-capped Parrots, gorgeous Blond-crested and Robust woodpeckers, a Giant Antshrike at point-blank range (Bret later found its nest!), a couple of White-bearded Antshrikes, nesting Squamate Antbird, Rufous Gnateater (here the distinctive, southernmost subspecies, anomala), scope views of a Short-tailed Antthrush on a song perch, excellent looks at Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (dark, dreary weather helped us there!), Black-billed Scythebill, Scalloped Woodcreeper, Orange-breasted Thornbird, Royal Flycatcher (distinctive AF endemic subspecies swainsoni), Rufous-tailed Attila, handsome Hooded Berryeaters, a couple of excellent encounters with Red-ruffed Fruitcrows, bonging views of Bare-throated Bellbirds, incredible Swallow-tailed Manakins, and nesting Golden-winged Caciques and Golden-rumped Euphonias. It was also great fun watching the trees around the entrance station early in the morning, with something like two dozen species of birds snapping up moths of various sizes that had been attracted by the lights the night before.

We had performed a clean sweep of the tapaculos on the first half of the tour, getting the northern Mouse-colored, White-breasted, Spotted Bamboowren, and Slaty Bristlefront, no mean feat. Heading into “South of the Capricorn,” the stakes were going to climb a notch. We stayed on track for a repeat of the perfect score we registered on the 2016 tours by getting the Mouse-colored Tapaculo and Slaty Bristlefront at Intervales (both critically important, as they represent as-yet undescribed species), and also another Spotted Bamboowren there (we had to settle for a heard-only White-breasted). That left just Wetland and Planalto tapaculos to pick up farther south…

The second leg of the tour took us to the coast of São Paulo, this time in the extreme south of the state, around the picturesque fishing and tourist town of Cananeia. Most unfortunately, rainy weather followed us there, effectively shutting us out of our traditional, lovely late-afternoon happy hour and reading of the list against an estuarine, Atlantic Forest sunset – and it proceeded to rain all night as well! Our mission there was seeing the extremely local Red-tailed Parrot, with a fighting chance for the recently described Restinga Tyrannulet, the rare and beautiful Black-backed Tanager and perhaps some Scarlet Ibis, which seem to be staging a comeback in coastal São Paulo state. Somehow… we nailed all four (whew)!

Southbound for Curitiba, we finally left the rain in the rearview mirror. Two full days in that region (book-ended by additional half-days) gave us ample time to continue our impressive build of AF endemics. Birding a mosaic of marshlands and forest patches in the lowlands yielded beautiful views of Scaled Chachalaca, a soaring pair of Mantled Hawks, Crescent-chested Puffbird, Yellow-fronted and Yellow-throated woodpeckers, Spot-backed Antshrike, Parana Antwren (here near the site of the species’s discovery in 1995), the rare and little-known Kaempfer’s Tody-Tyrant (super-close!), our first (of many!) Azure Jays, and a nesting pair of the elusive Black-legged Dacnis. Montane forests and grasslands closer to Curitiba produced White-necked Hawk (a gorgeous adult soaring below eye-level against seemingly endless forested slopes), Mottled Piculet (what a fabulous experience with this difficult bird!), White-spotted Woodpecker, Canebreak Groundcreeper (great views, at last, yip yip yip!), spritely Araucaria Tit-Spinetail and Olive Spinetail, gorgeous Chestnut-backed Tanagers, dapper Gray-throated and Black-and-rufous warbling-finches, and very cooperative Glaucous-blue Grosbeak and Green-chinned Euphonias. Also memorable was a Short-tailed Nighthawk that zoomed low through our group as it snapped up mass-emerging winged termites at dusk (check out the video, below). Later that evening, we managed to get a Sickle-winged Nightjar to vocalize once, fairly close by, but the bird was not interested in showing itself (courtship was probably over, incubation underway). Speaking of birds showing themselves, we did our dead-level best to trick a Wetland Tapaculo into coming into view… and it finally worked, with several folks getting a quick look or two, which is far better than average for this little bird -- mostly because of the tall, very dense marsh grass in which it maintains its precarious existence; the habitat itself quite endangered due to burning and conversion to agriculture.

Brazil’s southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul, also marked the terminus of our journey through Spectacular Southeast Brazil. We had done extraordinarily well on forest-based endemic birds, still lacking views of the undescribed species of antpitta (related to Speckle-breasted), Blue-bellied Parrot, Red-spectacled Parrot (both species rare and difficult to find), perched views of Vinaceous-breasted Parrot (yes, we are greedy), Striolated Tit-Spinetail, Gray-bellied Spinetail, and Eastern Slaty-Thrush. Luck was with us, and we made good on seeing all of those, although we had to settle for our Vinaceous-breasted Parrots only in flight. On the not-to-be-hoped-for (realistically) side of the ledger was a Brown Tinamou that we pulled across a forest track, and those dashing, smashing views of a pair of Planalto Tapaculos whose territory had been trashed since our last visit (it will now probably improve as vegetation regrows), which gave us a repeat sweep of Rhinocryptids.

Grassland and open-country species rounded out our roster of special birds of the Far South. One by one (or two-by two, sometimes!), we enjoyed seeing beautiful Whistling Herons, Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail, Plumbeous Rail, Chaco Eagle (Wow, a pair of adult birds soaring over a verrry distant ridge – but that’s what scopes are for!), Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle (much closer at times), Buff-necked, Bare-faced, and White-faced ibises, muchos Chimango Caracaras, Field Flickers (here replacing the Campo Flickers, a different subspecies we had seen several times, farther north), Rufous-capped Antshrike, Long-tailed Cinclodes (a highly distinctive furnariid described to science only in 1965), snappy Sharp-tailed Tyrants, Crested Black-Tyrant, dashing (and rare) Black-and-white Monjitas together with equally flashy and rare Saffron-cowled Blackbirds, Ochre-breasted (Yesss!) and Hellmayr’s Pipits, Long-tailed Reed-Finch, Lesser Grass-Finch in direct comparison with widespread Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch, Tawny-bellied and Back-bellied seedeaters, and last but definitely not least, the very rare Tropeiro Seedeater in the company of our great friend, Márcio Repenning, who described the species new to science in 2013. Many of the members of our group generously donated (unsolicited) funds to Márcio to help him buy tiny geolocators with which to tag his birds, and we look forward to seeing his migratory-route maps in due course!

We always run our Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours during the austral breeding season, and it’s fun and educational to pay close attention to behaviors associated with breeding, especially nesting. We enjoyed pursuing this every day, keeping track of species we observed nesting (gathering or carrying nesting material, at an active nest, or feeding fledglings), or performing behaviors closely associated with nesting in the immediate vicinity (such as courtship displays and copulation). This year, we tallied 68 species actively nesting or certainly in the process of nesting very near our point of observation (perhaps the third-highest total across all previous tours)!

The following list designates N for birds seen only on “North of the Tropic”, S for those seen only on “South of the Capricorn” (no letter means seen on both tours), and asterisks denote species heard only. Marcelo and I greatly enjoyed birding and traveling with all of you! THANK YOU very much for choosing to bird Spectacular Southeast Brazil with Field Guides – these two tours truly are among the greatest birding tours on the planet, and we loved showing off to you all of the MANY endemic birds of the verdant Atlantic Forest. Come back for more of Brazil with us, and sign up early (now!) to guarantee your space as the time for tour deposits draws close.

Grandes abraços para todos! – Bretche e Marcelo

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – The largest Tinamou in SE Brazil. We saw a bird walking across a road at Vale natural reserve. [E]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – N - [*]

The group enjoying a male Green-crowned Plovercrest at Itatiaia National Park. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – Heard a few times during the S tour and seen walking across the trail on the S tour.
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) – N - [*]
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – S - [*]
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) [*]
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – S - Two individuals were seen in a rice field.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna bicolor)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
YELLOW-BILLED PINTAIL (Anas georgica) – S -
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris) – S -
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
SCALED CHACHALACA (Ortalis squamata) – S - Seen nicely in Paraná state. [E]
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – S - This fancy bird is one of the most wanted targets on this tour. We had a fantastic view at Intervales. A single bird feeding on Jussara palm tree for a few minutes.
RED-BILLED CURASSOW (Crax blumenbachii) – N - This is a very hard bird to see and Vale Natural Reserve is maybe the best place for it. [E]
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – S - Some local guides at Intervales are feeding a group of these fantastic birds and for our lucky group, they were there! [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – S -
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – S - Great looks at two adults and three young birds swimming in a lagoon on the way to Rio Grande do Sul.

This female Red-billed Curassow was foraging with her mate at Vale Natural Reserve. This was our best view on the tour. Photo by participants David and Judy Smith.

Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – S -
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – S -
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – S - Amazing looks in a rice field in Paraná.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – S - What a bird! We saw three big flocks of birds, from the ferry, in front of Ilha Comprida. Those birds are probably going to feed in somewhere close.
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)

A piece of paradise! This is where Mr. Jonas lives, at Ubatuba. He started feeding birds 17 years ago and now this is the best place in the world to see Festive Coquette. Video by guide Marcelo Barreiros using a Drone.
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – S -
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – Fantastic views at Itatiaia National Park. A bird just showed up soaring very low over our lodge.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – S - We had the privilege of visiting an active nest near to Intervales. After several minutes watching a female near to her nest, a male called and she went close to him to get a prey, a Solitary Tinamou that she brought to their chick. That was FANTASTIC! Thanks to our friend Duco for that morning.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus)
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – X - Seen by the boardwalk to "Devil's Throat" on Argentinian side of Iguazu falls.
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon) – Nice scope views on both tours.
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
LONG-WINGED HARRIER (Circus buffoni) – S -
GRAY-BELLIED HAWK (Accipiter poliogaster) – S - YES! This is a very rare bird to see, specially near to its nest, as we did at Intervales.
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (RUFOUS-THIGHED) (Accipiter striatus erythronemius)
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – S - A bird perched for a few minutes, spotted by Daphne.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-NECKED HAWK (Buteogallus lacernulatus) – S - An endemic bird, only found in AF (Atlantic Forest), seen well on both tours. [E]
CHACO EAGLE (Buteogallus coronatus) – S - Two birds soaring, at distance, on the S tour.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – S -
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – Another great raptor seen on both tours. [E]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)

Red-and-white Crake - A great moment captured by participant Bill Byers.

Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – S - We have to say thank you to our friends, the local guides at Intervales state park for that. They go, almost everyday, to feed those birds on the marsh.
MANGROVE RAIL (Rallus longirostris) – N - Recent split from Clapper Rail.
GRAY-COWLED WOOD-RAIL (GRAY-BACKED) (Aramides cajaneus avicenniae)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) [E]
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – N - [*]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – S -
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – S -
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – S -
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – S -
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) – N -
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – N - Fantastic bird and moment! Thanks to our friend Gustavo Magnago for showing us the bird in daylight.
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – S -
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – N -
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – N - Seen twice during the N tour.
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – Common on both tours.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea) – N -
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata) – N -
BLUE GROUND-DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) – N -
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – X - [*]
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)

Ornate Hawk-Eagle is one of the most beautiful raptors in the country. Great picture by participant Craig Caldwell.

Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – X -
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
DARK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus melacoryphus) – X -
PEARLY-BREASTED CUCKOO (Coccyzus euleri) – N - Heard during our first morning at Vale Natural Reserve. [*]
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba)
BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) – N - [E*]
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – S - A great bird seen on Intervales access road. [E]
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – N - [E]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – N - [E*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – X - [*]
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – S -
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) – N - WOW! Fantastic bird seen very well, during a chilly evening at Monte Verde Lodge.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – N - An immature bird was seen and its parents were heard at Monte Verde lodge. [E]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri)
PYGMY NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus hirundinaceus vielliardi) – N - An incredible moment of the N tour, two birds extremely camouflaged on the rock. Really cool to see them "walking" on the rock.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus) – S - We tried for two nights in a row but it was not possible to see them. We were very close and at least three birds were heard. [*]
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – S - Incredible bird with that very long tail. We could see one of them perched by the road at Intervales access road. [E]
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) – N - Great looks at Vale natural reserve.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – N - Our friend Gustavo Magnago showed us an adult on its day roost perch.
LONG-TAILED POTOO (Nyctibius aethereus aethereus) – N - [E*]
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Potoos are masters of camouflage but Betinho, one of the local guides at Intervales has X-ray eyes and found a bird on its nest.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus)

Great Dusky Swift - A highlight on the Extension! Participant Craig Caldwell captured this moment.
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – One of the best things at Iguazu Falls is to enjoy the scene of hundreds of these birds going to their nests under the falls.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – N -
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – N -
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – What a big Hermit! A few of those are always well seen at Ubatuba. This was the first hummer to visit Mr. Jonas feeders, 17 years ago. [E]
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – N -
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – S -
MINUTE HERMIT (Phaethornis idaliae) – N - A very appropriated name for this tiny little guy. We had great looks at Vale Natural Reserve. [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – N -
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – Great looks at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris)
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus) – S -
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – N - A special bird. We've seen it extremely well on the N tour. [E]

Festive Coquette (Festive) is a fantastic little hummer that we saw very well at Ubatuba. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

FESTIVE COQUETTE (FESTIVE) (Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus) – Another great bird. This nominal subspecies is endemic to Southeast Brazil. [E]
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – One of the smallest hummers in Brazil.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
BLUE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Chlorestes notata) – N -
GREEN-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) – N - North of the tropic. [E]
PURPLE-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis loddigesii) – S - This guy used to be considered a subspecies and it was elevated to species a couple of years ago. [E]
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris)
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus) – N -
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – X - Beautiful hummer seen on the extension only.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – A small Trogon that lives in the subcanopy and usually provides great looks. [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – X - Fantastic bird! We tried for this bird from the first day of the tour and we finally got it on the extension, right by our lodge at Puerto Iguazu. [E]
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) [E]
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – N - Two birds seen at Vale Natural Reserve.

This Three-toed Jacamar was captured nicely by participant Becky Bradley.

Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – N - What a bird! This little Jacamar has some golden feathers on the face. Fantastic! [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis)
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – Great looks on both tours. [E]
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – N -
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – Another AF endemic seen very well on both tours. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – We usually see this bird only during the extension but this year we saw two individuals flying across the road on the way to Teresópolis.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel)
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – N [E]
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) [E]
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) – S - The rarest Piculet on this tour! We had fantastic views near Curitiba. [E]
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) – N - Seen a few times on the N tour. [E]
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – Our friend Gustavo Magnago showed us a bird near by its nest on the very first day of N tour.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (GREEN-BARRED) (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros) – S -
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides) – S - The subspecies "campestroides" has a white throat and only occurs to the south of São Paulo state.
RINGED WOODPECKER (ATLANTIC BLACK-BREASTED) (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) – N - A rare bird seen well at Vale Natural Reserve. [E]
CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavus subflavus) – N - Another hard bird to get, this subspecies, endemic to the AF, has a small range near to the coast. [E]
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (BLOND-CRESTED) (Celeus flavescens flavescens)
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – The biggest Woody in the AF seen well on both tour. [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – S
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) – S - [*]
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango) – S - Another bird that only occurs to the south of São Paulo state.
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)

We saw the very endangered Black-fronted Piping-Guan at Intervales State Park. Photo by participant Bill Byers.

ORANGE-BREASTED FALCON (Falco deiroleucus) – N - Seen in a distance on the N tour.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – S - Seen a couple of times on the S tour.
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) – Outstanding views at Intervales. [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – A special bird, endemic to the AF. We saw a male, probably near to his nest, on the S tour. [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) – A possible split from Blue-headed Parrot, this one has a beautiful blue throat and only occurs in the AF, between Rio de Janeiro e Bahia states. [E]
VINACEOUS-BREASTED PARROT (Amazona vinacea) – S - [E]
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) – S - Spectacular bird seen a couple of times on the S tour. [E]
RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) – N - Great looks at Vale natural reserve. [E]
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa)
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) – S - This is bird is one of the main reasons to visit Ilha Comprida! Even during a rainy morning, we had very nice looks. [E]
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) – N - One of the biggest species of the Pyrrhura genus. [E]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MAROON-FACED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura leucotis) – N - Great looks at Vale Natural Reserve. [E]
PEACH-FRONTED PARAKEET (Eupsittula aurea) – N - Only on the N tour.
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana)
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – One of the AF "big five" Antbirds. We had great looks on both tours. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – S - WOW! That bird is beyond great. A huge Antbird, usually shy, lives in dense vegetation so it is a challenge to get nice looks.
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – N - [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – Another big Antbird seen well. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – S - The last of the Big Five Antbirds seen during the tour. We had great looks at Intervales State Park. [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) – S - Seen well at Intervales.
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – N -
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – N - [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster) – N -
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens) – S - Nominate subspecies only found on the southern AF.
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – N [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – N - Great looks in the highlands of Itatiaia National Park. [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – N - This is the only subspecies found in AF, the others are in the Amazon. This bird has a Silvery flank instead a white one.
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – N - Great looks at Ubatuba. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (SOUTHERN) (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) [E]
BLACK-HOODED ANTWREN (Formicivora erythronotos) – N - With a very restricted range, this is one the most endangered birds in the country. We had fantastic views near Angra dos Reis. [E]
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) – N - A nice surprise seen at Espírito Santo. [E]
PARANA ANTWREN (Stymphalornis acutirostris) – S - Another endemic and very Endangered species on the southern part of the tour. We had great looks near Curitiba. Thanks to our friend Thiago for that. [E]

A very cooperative female [Sao Paulo] Antwren that we saw on the way back to São Paulo. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

[SAO PAULO] ANTWREN (Stymphalornis sp. nov.) – N - A sister species of Parana Antwren, this species is not recognized by the Clement's Committee yet. [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – N - A bird only found in highlands like Itatiaia National Park. [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – Usually shy, this year we got lucky and had fantastic views near to Teresópolis and later, at Intervales. [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) – N - This was one of the first birds we saw on the N tour. Nice start! [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – N - YES! Another AF endemic seen well during the N tour. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) – N - Very similar to the Squamate Antbird, this one lives in higher lands. [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus squamosus) – Seen on both tours, we had great looks at a female incubating at Intervales. [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – N [E]
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – N - Great looks at Itatiaia.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) – S [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
[SPECKLE-BREASTED] ANTPITTA (Hylopezus sp. nov.) – S - [E*]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – Fantastic little creature seen on both tours. [E]
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – N - The nominate subspecies seen on the N tour. [E]
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) – S - This subspecies doesn't have a name yet!!Very similar on plumage, its voice is much slower than its northern cousin. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – N - [E]

This Planalto Tapaculo was one of the fantastic moments on southern part of the tour. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) – S - Fantastic moment on the S tour. [E]
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) – S - Seen by a few folks near Curitiba. [E]
[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) – S [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – N - Seen twice at Ubatuba, including a very responsive individual walking across the trail.
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) – S -
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – We heard it on both tours but only saw it during the northern part, at Itatiaia National Park. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – N - [E*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – Fantastic views at Intervales. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – Seen a few times on the tour including a bird getting into its nest on the extension. [EN]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – The biggest Woodcreeper on the tour. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) – N - [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – S - [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus) – N - [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – Spectacular adaptation to get bugs deeper in the holes! [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – N - [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) – S - [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – N -
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – N -
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – N -
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – The Argentinian national bird! We could not miss it there!
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – Seen a few times on both tours.
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) – S - [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (RUFOUS-TAILED) (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) – S - [E*]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus contaminatus) – N [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus camargoi) – S [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Great bird seen on both tours. [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – S - [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) – S - Fantastic views at Curitiba. [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – N - [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) – S - Similar to the other Tit-Spinetail but only found in the southern part of the country. [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – A bird that is closely tied to the Araucaria pine trees, the only native pine in Brazil. [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – N -
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis) – S -

A little bit of Itatiaia National Park and Hotel do Ypê. Video by guide Marcelo Barreiros using a Drone.
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – N - [E]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) [E]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – S - Nice bird seen a few times on the S tour, including one building a nest.
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – N - Fantastic Brazilian Endemic, only found above the tree lines in Southeast. [E]
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris) – S - Great looks on the S tour.
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – S - [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – N -
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – S - [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) [E]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
GRAY-BACKED TACHURI (Polystictus superciliaris) – N - A nice surprise on the N tour, we saw it extremely well at Itatiaia National Park.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
GREENISH ELAENIA (Myiopagis viridicata) – S -
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (BRAZILIAN) (Elaenia obscura sordida)
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans)
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus)
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – Seen a few times on both tours.

Green-headed Tanager - How many colors can you see in it? Photo by participant Linda Rudolph.

SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – X - A hard bird to get on the regular tour, the Iguaçu Extension is a nice chance to see it. We had fantastic views at Poço Preto trail.
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) – S - Another Endemic bird seen very well on the S tour. [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – N - Great looks at Ubatuba. [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – S - [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – N - [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – S - A pair of birds carrying food to their nest at Intervales. [EN]
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri)
GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – S - Tiny little bird seen on the S tour.
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – X - Another bird only seen during the Iguaçu Extension.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – The smallest passerine on the tour, seen carrying nest material a couple of times on both tours. [EN]

After several days trying to find one during the regular tour, this Buff-bellied Puffbird was the first bird we saw on the extension! Photo by participant Craig Caldwell.

DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) – S [E]
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – N - [E*]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – S - Fantastic AF endemic only found to the south of São Paulo. [E]
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – N - A fancy little bird seen extremely well near Paraty. [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – Seen on both tours, including carrying food to the nest near Curitiba. [E*]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – N -
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – N - [E]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – N - Seen once, at Vale Natural Reserve.
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – N -
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) – S - The subspecies swainsoni, different in plumage and voice from the others, is considered a species for some authorities. We saw an adult near to its nest for a few minutes at Intervales. [EN]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (SWALLOW) (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) – N -
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (BUFF-RUMPED) (Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi) – N - [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus) – We saw two young being fed by their parents near Curitiba.
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) – S - [E]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – S -
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – N - [E]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – N -
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys)
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – S -
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero) – S -
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis dominicanus) – S
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – S - Great looks on the way to Intervales.
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – N - A pair of birds seen at Itatiaia National Park. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – N - See once at Vale Natural Reserve.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)

A nice Araucaria Pine tree. Photo by participant Linda Rudolph.

CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) – S - Seen well at Intervales. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – S -
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Seen nicely a few times. [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex simplex) – N - [E]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – N -
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – N -
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) – N - The subspecies erythropterus is endemic to the AF. [E]
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Seen well at Itatiaia doing their thing, stealing some Cacique nest.
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – N - Great looks at Mata dos Caetés.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Great looks on both tours. [E]
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) – YES! One of the main targets of N tour, we've had fantastic looks at Vale Natural Reserve. We also heard it while waiting for the Ornate Hawk-eagle, on the S tour. [E]

This fantastic photo of a male Swallow-tailed Cotinga incubating was made by participants David and Judy Smith.

SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris) – N - Great looks, including two adults incubating at Monte Verde Hotel grounds. [N]
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – S - The biggest of the Cotingidae in the Atlantic forest!
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – Another endemic seen on both tours. [E]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – N - On the way down from upper Itatiaia mountains, we saw an adult male perched on top of a big tree right by the road for several minutes. It was amazing to see that guy and hear that long whistling song. [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – N - This year was a tough challenge to get on the top of Pico da Caledônia road. We had three 4-wheel drive cars but only one was able to cross the huge holes and get there. We heard the bird a few times but the we couldn't see it. The weather was terrible on that morning. [E*]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Seen on both tours. [E]
Pipridae (Manakins)
WIED'S TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma aurifrons) – N - A rare bird seen nicely near Santa Teresa. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – An Atlantic Forest jewel, this is a common Manakin but it's always nice to see the colorful adult males. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – N - One of the most beautiful Manakins in the country. [E]
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – X - [*]
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (WHITE-CROWNED) (Dixiphia pipra cephaleucos) – N - Great looks in the lowlands of Espírito Santo.
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla) – N -
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)

Participant Bill Byers captured the flight display of this Ochre-breasted Pipit.

BLACK-CAPPED PIPRITES (Piprites pileata) – Seen nicely at Itatiaia National Park and heard in Rio Grande do Sul. [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina turdina) – N -
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
BUFF-THROATED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura pipra) – YES! Great bird seen at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba area. [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – Fantastic bird seen on both tours.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – N -
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – S - A big Jay seen on the S tour. [E]
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops)
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis) – N - A few individuals foraging below the canopy at Itatiaia National Park.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera) – S
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – S -
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) – S -
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) – S -
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – N -
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – N -
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
CREAMY-BELLIED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila lactea) – X - One of the main targets of the Iguaçu Extension, seen very well on Argentinian side.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
SLATY THRUSH (EASTERN) (Turdus nigriceps subalaris) – S - Great looks on the S tour.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)

The beauty of "tabuleiro" Atlantic Forest. Video by guide Marcelo Barreiros using a Drone.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
OCHRE-BREASTED PIPIT (Anthus nattereri) – S - Great looks including a flight display on the way to Rio Grande do Sul state.
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus) – S -
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) – S -
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – WOW, that thing looks like a Foliage-gleaner! [E]
RED-COWLED CARDINAL (Paroaria dominicana) – N -
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) – N -
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – Beautiful Tanager seen a few times during the tour.
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – Seen nicely at Vale, including a young being fed by the parents.
CHERRY-THROATED TANAGER (Nemosia rourei) – N - Well, we got it, TWICE! Congratulations guys. Now you belong to a very selective group of birders that have Cherry-throated Tanager on your life list! Thanks to our friend Gustavo Magnago for all the efforts in the field to help the species. [E]
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) [E]
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis pyrrhocoma) – N - Nice looks near Teresópolis. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Microspingus lateralis) – N - [E]
GRAY-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Microspingus cabanisi) – S -
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – N -
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – A very good name for this fantastic bird! [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Beautiful birds usually found in highlands of Southeast Brazil. [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota)
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Pipraeidea bonariensis) – Seen on S tour and Iguaçu Extension.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara peruviana) – S - Yes! great looks at Ilha Comprida. [E]

A beautiful adult male Tropeiro Seedeater was seen very well during the southern part of the tour. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – S - Similar to the Black-backed Tanager, we had nice looks on Graciosa Road. [E]
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) – N - AF subspecies. [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – Beautiful bird seen a few times. [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – N - [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – S - Another very rare bird seen well on the S tour! We saw male and female building their nest. That was very cool! [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – N - A few males seen on the feeders at Augusto Ruschi Eco Reserve.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – X -
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor) – N -
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – N -
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons) – S - Seen a couple of times on the S tour.
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Castanozoster thoracicus) – S - [E]
BLACK-AND-RUFOUS WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza nigrorufa) – S -
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris) – S -
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – S -
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus) – S - We got lucky to spot both Grass-finches side-by-side near Curitiba.
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis) – S -
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera) – N -
TAWNY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypoxantha) – S -
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) – S - Great looks on the S tour. [E]
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – S -

This Frilled Coquette was another tiny jewel seen during the northern part of the tour. Photo by guide Bret Whitney.

DUBOIS'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila ardesiaca) – N - [E]
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – N -
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) – N - [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni) – S - Fantastic views! Thanks to our friend Marcio Reppenning for that!
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus) – N -
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus) – X -
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – N -
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) [E]
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – Nicely viewed on both tours. [E]
Passerellidae (New World Buntings and Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis) – N -
PECTORAL SPARROW (Arremon taciturnus) – N -
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – N - [E]
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris) – X - Great looks during the Iguaçu Extension.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – The nuclear species of understory mixed-species flocks in AF.
BLACKISH-BLUE SEEDEATER (Amaurospiza moesta) – N - YES! Fantastic bird seen near Teresópolis. [E]
GLAUCOUS-BLUE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) – S -
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella superciliaris) – S -
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – N -
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous) – A nest colony seen at Itatiaia National Park.
EPAULET ORIOLE (Icterus cayanensis) – S -
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii) – N -
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) – S -
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – S -
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus) – S - YES! Fantastic views on the S tour.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – Great bird! We saw one individual at Itatiaia and later on the Argentinian side of Iguaçu.
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – S - [E]
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala) – S -
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

These White-tufted-ear Marmosets were nicely captured by participant Bill Byers.

WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) – N -
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) – N [E]
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) – N [E]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – S -
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus europaeus)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae) – X -
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus) – S - A few of these seen from the ferry, on the way back from Ilha Comprida.
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) – S - Nice looks on the S tour.
JAGUARUNDI (Puma yagouaroundi) – X - Nice moment on the 101 road, Argentinian side of Iguaçu Extension.


Totals for the tour: 543 bird taxa and 13 mammal taxa