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Field Guides Tour Report
Nov 1, 2013 to Dec 1, 2013
Bret Whitney & Chris Benesh (Part I); & Marcelo Padua (Part II)

The igneous plugs so characteristic of the ancient mountains of far eastern Brazil make for inspiring landscapes, and the forests are inhabited by a wealth of endemic birds. This was the roadside view of the Serra do Mar outside Teresopolis in Rio de Janeiro state. Photo copyright Valerie Gebert, participant on "North of the Tropic" (Part 1; thanks, Val!).

The 2013 Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours carried on the Field Guides tradition of fantastic birding and travels through the rich Atlantic Forest biome. Weather was better than average overall, which was very helpful in getting good views of almost all of the many endemic and rare birds of this region. "North of the Tropic" (Part 1) began with a week in the mountains and lowlands of the tiny state of Espirito Santo. Highlights right out of the gate included a day-roosting Great Potoo and Boat-billed Heron, and a tractor ride to see Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Red-legged Seriema, Black-cheeked Gnateater, and especially the rare Plumbeous Antvireo and Wied's Tyrant-Manakin followed by a delicious lunch prepared by the local landowners at their house. We then climbed into the scenic mountains of the Serra do Mar, entering a new realm with a new avifauna, the likes of Barred Forest-Falcon (distinctive nominate form), Hooded Berryeater (Wow!), Sharpbill, Bare-throated Bellbird, Spot-billed Toucanet, the gorgeous Yellow-fronted and White-browed woodpeckers, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, White-throated Woodcreeper, a super-cooperative Black-billed Scythebill, the rare Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Ferruginous Antbird, and a host of hummers both at feeders and at flowering trees, including several Frilled Coquettes. The lifers just kept coming! Our final venue in Espirito Santo was the famous Linhares Reserve, which yielded more fabulous woodpeckers (Blond-crested, Robust, and Yellow-throated in one morning!, with the rare endemic subspecies tinnunculus of Ringed the next morning) and parrots (Red-browed Parrot and Maroon-faced and Ochre-marked parakeets topping the list). A nest of Crescent-chested Puffbird was an exciting find, as were a couple of sightings of Least Pygmy-Owl, scope views of a male White-winged Cotinga, and a very close Black-headed Berryeater that stayed put just long enough for scope views. An evening checklist session in the field was punctuated by Minute Hermits bathing in a puddle a few feet away. Nightbirding was also quite productive despite very dark skies. Biggies were a Solitary Tinamou on a night-roost, a fabulous pair of Tawny-browed Owls, a Black-capped Screech-Owl (that one took a while, but it sure was worth it!), and a singing male Ocellated Poorwill.

A travel day took us well south into Sao Paulo state, where we were treated to superb views of the still-undescribed "Sao Paulo" Antwren in a cattail marsh that also gave us Orange-eyed Thornbird and several more lifers. It proved to be an exceptionally long day owing to later-than-planned departure from Espirito Santo and your normally trusty guide (me!) missing a turn-off that cost us an hour, but all survived it well and we slept in a bit the next morning. And what a morning that next, beautifully sunny morning was! A nest-building Buff-throated Purpletuft right off the bat was absolutely wonderful, and it was followed immediately by amazing studies of Spot-backed Antshrike and Scaled Antbird, then Orange-throated Thornbird and a truly unforgettable Spotted Bamboowren that allowed all to see it really well. Dona Sue, I still regret that I never managed to video your representation of that bamboowren's message to us! It was such a fun morning of birding, and lunch back in Ubatuba at a sumptuous "by the kilo" spread was so good we did it again the next day! Speaking of repeat performances, we also visited the spectacular hummingbird feeders at Jonas's place "Folha Seca" two days in a row. What a show, so thoroughly enjoyable. Birding in the forest near his house gave us our second, exciting tapaculo experience when a pair of Slaty Bristlefronts came out to the edge of the road (the male even bounded across it!) to really blow us away; what an incredible voice that bird has!

Our search for Black-hooded Antwren this year was simply a delight -- we saw one the rarest birds in the world quite easily, then had a very pleasant, relaxing lunch at the home of a lady who started inviting us in several years ago. Three nights at Itatiaia National Park was next, and the weather held for us, which always requires a fair amount of luck. Highlights there must include the fabulous morning below Agulhas Negras ("Black Needles", the jagged peaks above treeline) with Black-and-gold Cotinga (sooo close!), Emerald-crested Plovercrests, Rufous-backed Antvireo, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Itatiaia Thistletail, Black-capped Piprites, Buff-throated Warbling-Finch, and Thick-billed Saltator among many others. Lower elevations gave us Saffron Toucanets, Red-breasted Toucan (flagrant nest-robber that it was), White-bearded Antshrike, Ochre-rumped and Bertoni's antbirds, White-bibbed Antbird, Buffy-fronted Seedeater, and a number of fancy tanagers. It was fun just birding the hotel grounds there!

The first part of the tour wrapped up with a couple of days birding around Teresopolis and Nova Friburgo, which added several important birds to our list, foremost among them Three-toed Jacamar, Gray-winged Cotinga (a suspenseful but mega-happy ending!), Large-tailed and Giant antshrikes (awesome experiences, these two monsters), Chestnut-headed Tanager, and Blackish-blue Seedeater. We said good-byes to most of the group at the Rio airport and drove in to Copacabana, where an eager bunch of folks awaited to begin "South of the Capricorn," Part 2 of the saga. Festivities began with dinner and Mariu's Degustare, one of the most memorable restaurants one could ever experience (especially on a birding tour!); it properly imbued everyone with the Brazilian spirit!

Intervales State Park was our first birding venue and it lived up to expectations, producing lifers at a steady pace for a full three days (and nights!) in beautiful, undisturbed montane forest. Tops there were Black-fronted Piping-Guans (not as easy as in recent years, but we eventually nailed it), Spot-winged Wood-Quail, Red-and-white Crake (obrigado, Luiz!), Rusty-barred, Mottled, and Stygian(!) owls, Long-trained Nightjar (Ohh WOW!), Rufous-capped Motmot, White-bearded Antshrike, Ferruginous, Bertoni's, and Dusky-tailed antbirds, Spot-breasted Antvireo, Mouse-colored Tapaculo (southern form being named a new species), Slaty Bristlefront (another one being named as a new species!), Bare-throated Bellbirds, Hooded Berryeater, Gray-hooded and Rufous-tailed attilas about an hour apart, Brown and Olive-green tanagers, and a nesting pair of rare Black-legged Dacnis. Coastal Sao Paulo was excellent for Red-tailed Parrots, Long-billed Wren, and Black-backed Tanager, just as we'd hoped.

Parana state came next, and our luck continued on a roll. Best there were Sickle-winged Nightjar (at our feet!), Wetland Tapaculo (brief but excellent views), Canebrake Groundcreeper, "Speckle-breasted" Antpitta (new species soon to be named!), Kaempfer's Tody-Tyrant, the recently described Parana Antwren (a pair practically at arm's length for minutes), and a tremendous Large-tailed Antshrike that definitively chased us out of his territory. What a haul!!

The tour wrapped up in the far south, in the land of the gauchos, Rio Grande do Sul. The high grasslands and Araucaria forests there provided serene landscapes for some of the most exciting birding on the tour. The dark, haunting Araucarias sheltered such specialties as Blue-bellied, Pileated, and Red-spectacled parrots, Mottled Piculet, Araucaria and Striolated tit-spinetails, Sharp-billed Treehunter, Short-tailed Antthrush, and, to complete another clean-sweep of rhinocryptids across both tours, we thoroughly absorbed a singing male Planalto Tapaculo at very close range. Out in the campos, Black-and-white Monjitas and Saffron-cowled Blackbirds came easily, and Black-bellied Seedeaters had arrived from wintering grounds and were common along roadsides. Marshes and grasslands held everything from Ochre-breasted and Hellmayr's pipits to Sharp-tailed Tyrant and Bearded Tachuri to Firewood-gatherer and Long-tailed Cinclodes and rare Tawny-bellied and Tropeiro seedeaters, the latter an endangered species introduced to science as Sporophila beltoni just a couple of months ago, in "The Auk." We have been showing this little-known bird to Field Guides tour participants for years now, and we were almost certainly the first birders to see it since it received its formal name. Another male Sickle-winged Nightjar also performed beautifully -- just wish I could save him up for next year! Blackish Rail and Rufous-sided Crake had about 15 minutes to show before we had to hightail it to the airport for flights home, and boy did they perform, parading out, one after the other, in the same spot in the marsh.

Sightings for both parts of the Spectacular Southeast Brazil tour are annotated in the following list. N is for "North of the Tropic" (Part 1), and "S" is for "South of the Capricorn" (Part 2). An asterisk denotes species heard only. Thus, N*/S means "heard only on Part 1, seen on Part 2." No codes mean "seen on both parts," and an asterisk by itself indicates "heard only both parts." A capital "E" marks species and distinctive subspecies endemic to the Altantic Forest biome.

I very much look forward to seeing most of you on future Field Guides Brazil tours, and I know several of you are already signed up! Thanks so much for joining us this year, and for remembering the best of an overall fantastic tour experience. A special thanks to Valerie for making available many of her photos via the "Flickr" website; several are dropped in here. Have fun reliving some good times through the video clips, I enjoyed putting them together! I, Chris, and Marcelo send our best wishes to all for an excellent, prosperous 2014 ahead. Boas viagens para todos!!

Com grandes abraços, Bretche

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)

This Solitary Tinamou had settled on its night roost and was seemingly oblivious to our clamorous presence. Digiscope photo copyright Bret Whitney.

SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – N/S an incredible experience seeing one on a night-roost at Linhares (N), and Rick was fortunate to be looking the right direction at the right time to see one walk across a narrow tail at Linhares (S). [E]
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) – N*
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – *
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus) – N*
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – *
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) – N*/S Great, close views from our elevated position in the bus, in Rio Grande do Sul.
Anhimidae (Screamers)
SOUTHERN SCREAMER (Chauna torquata) – Good spot, Dona Alice!! Unexpected sighting in the uplands of Rio Grande do Sul.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – N
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris)
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
SPECKLED CHACHALACA (EAST BRAZILIAN) (Ortalis guttata araucuan) – S Great scope views; just recently proposed as a formal split from Speckled Chachalaca.
RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN (Penelope superciliaris) – N
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)

Black-fronted Piping-Guan! Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – S Excellent!!!
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – S good views of birds crossing the road, at a couple of different venues. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – S
Ciconiidae (Storks)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – S (one!)
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – N
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – N
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea) – S
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius) – N
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – S One flock of eleven birds
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi) – S
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – S
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – S
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – N
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus) – S
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – N
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – N*
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)

This adult Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle came over very low and close. Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – S A single adult soaring over the lodge dining room at Paraiso one afternoon.
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – S
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – N Rare in the Atlantic Forest (especially relative to other areas of its wide distribution)
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – N
LONG-WINGED HARRIER (Circus buffoni) – S One spotted from the plane at the Porto Alegre airport!
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (RUFOUS-THIGHED) (Accipiter striatus erythronemius) – S Good spot, Bruce!!
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – N One at Linhares that flew over the forest canopy and landed on a dead snag proved to be the only sighting of the trip, and it didn't stay put for long.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-NECKED HAWK (Buteogallus lacernulatus) – Seen by tour participants only briefly on Part 1, but on Part 2, Marcelo spotted a fine pair of adults engaged in courtship flight in lowland Parana state. [E]
GREAT BLACK-HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga) – N
CROWNED EAGLE (Buteogallus coronatus) – S A pair of adults, soaring over a distant ridge, were a bit too far off to be really exciting -- but they were Crowned Eagles!!
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – S We were strafed by a magnificent adult as we hiked through the grasslands of the far south in search of the Tropeiro Seedeater; distant, soaring birds were also seen in the area.
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) – We actually missed this one on both tours, although I saw one well as it zipped along a ridge while I was having a pee at Intervales (S). Yeah, I know, I don't count. It's unusual to go through both tours without a good group sighting of this raptor. [E]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)

Red-and-white Crake! Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – S
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – S Thanks to Luiz showing us his confiding, corn-fed friend, we enjoyed truly incredible views of this usually difficult species.
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Numerous good views of this one. [E]
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – A few of us saw one dash across a track in lowland Parana, and it then responded to playback by singing very close, but it never showed again, aaarrrgh!
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – S*
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – S
SPOT-FLANKED GALLINULE (Gallinula melanops) – S
WHITE-WINGED COOT (Fulica leucoptera) – S
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – S
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) – N
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)

This Mottled Owl was reluctant to show, but we eventually spotted it nicely. Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – N
SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria)
LESSER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa flavipes) – S*
SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE (Gallinago paraguaiae) – S
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – S* Three birds were singing and displaying after dark one evening in Rio Grande do Sul, but we could not coax one in close to our position.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis)
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – N
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – S
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
PICUI GROUND-DOVE (Columbina picui) – S
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)

Stygian Owl is rarely seen on the tour, but we sure did enjoy good views this year, on "South of the Capricorn". Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – S*
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – N*
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
DARK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus melacoryphus) – S*
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – N/S* Great study of one on our first day afieldd in the North.
PAVONINE CUCKOO (Dromococcyx pavoninus) – S* This one was frustratingly close, but never showed a feather from inside dense bamboo, though we tried it on two days.
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – N
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) – N An excellent experience seeing this secretive little owl very low and close. [E]
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – S Not quite as close on this one, but seen really well at Sao Fraocisco de Paula. [E]
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – N Wonderful at Linhares and at Itatiaia, but oddly, we couldn't raise one at Intervales this time around. [E]
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) – N/S* Excellent views a couple of times in the North [E]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – N
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – S
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) – S A fine view of this one was a bonus -- it's not seen as regularly as most of the owls on the list. I'm sorry a few folks threw in the towel a few minutes too early that night ;)
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – S Yippee, right over the cabins! [E]
STYGIAN OWL (Asio stygius) – Woo-HOOO! What a great experience we had watching an adult bird as it peered around from its perch on a dead stub. Check out Marcelo's pic >>>>
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) – S

Sickle-winged Nightjar! This full adult male was literally at our feet. HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – S A single, seen by just one van.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – N
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) – N
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – S [E]
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus) – S
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
GREAT POTOO (Nyctibius grandis) – N
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – S Thanks again to Luiz for showing us a day-roosting bird on its stake-out perch -- amazing camoflauge!
Apodidae (Swifts)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus) – N
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – S Fabulous, close views
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
BISCUTATE SWIFT (Streptoprocne biscutata) – Seen on both tours, best in the South, but overall not as nicely as we usually get them.

On "North of the Tropic" (Part 1), we enjoyed hummer feeder shows at Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo (Ruschi's Museu Leitao); Jonas's "Folha Seca" south of Ubatuba; and later, at Itatiaia National Park. Here are a few clips from the first two of these venues. HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – N
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – In Many ways, this handsome, super-distinctive bird is the "essence of endemicity" when it comes to Atlantic Forest hummers, being common and incredibly flashy. As always, we had a fabulous time with hummingbirds on both tours -- check out the impressive list here! [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) [E]
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – S A couple of birds singing at a lek provided our only good views -- but they sure were great!!
MINUTE HERMIT (Phaethornis idaliae) – N [E]
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – N Seen especially well at Fazenda Angelim.
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei) – N

Festive Coquette -- this guy gets a clip of his own! HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – N/S* [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris)
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – N [E]
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus) – S Jonas's feeders were buzzing with these little guys! This nominate subspecies is sure to be recognized as a full species endemic to the southern Atlantic Forest when someone eventually takes up a formal study. [E]
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
PLOVERCREST (EMERALD-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi) – Fabulously brilliant at Itatiaia! The two subspecies' ranges are entirely within the Atlantic Forest biome, this one being the more northerly, shifting abruptly to purple-cresred loddigesii in central Sao paulo state. The study that will split them is well underway, but has not yet been published. [E]

The spectacular Plovercrest hummingbirds will soon be split into northern Emerald-crested (shown here) and southern Violet-crested. Photo copyright Chris Benesh.

PLOVERCREST (VIOLET-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi loddigesii) – S Dynamite at Intervales! [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – N
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – N
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina) – N
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus) – N
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – S
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – N Another one with a highly distinctive "subspecies" (plumage and voice) endemic to the Atlantic Forest. [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – S
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)

This Crescent-chested Puffbird was feeding well-developed young in a nest at Linhares Reserve. Digiscope photo copyright Bret Whitney.

WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru)
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – N At the nest, amazing study, eh? >>>> [E]
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – N
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – N One of the most distinctive east-Brazilian endemic birds -- and so gratifyingly fun to watch!
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – N
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) [E]
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari) – N
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – N [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – N This big toucan is steadily spreadin east with the destruction of its native cerrado/gallery forest habitat and also the clearing of the more humid Atlantic Forest.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) – N
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) – Seen nicely on both tours... but Chris's shocking photo from Itatiaia (Part 1) is featured in a section of the "extras and outtakes" video at the end of the list -- check it out! [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – N A couple of possible hybrids with Ochre-collared seen near Ubatuba on Part 2 [E]
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – S Fantastically close views at Intervales, literally at our feet! [E]
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) – S YESSS!! At the very last minute, and it was worth the suspenseful wait! [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – Seen on both tours this year, perhaps becoming more common as they spread east from interior Brazil.

Saffron Toucanet was seen well on both tours. It's among the most distinctive of the many Atlantic Forest endemic birds. Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) – Gorgeous birds! [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) [E]
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis affinis) – N
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) – N A bird excavating a nest hole provided especially neat views. [E]
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – N A fine scope study of the red-throated(!) Atlantic Forest endemic P. f. erythropis.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) – Seen nicely on both tours... but it still doesn't have a white brow. [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros) – N/S*
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides) – S
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens) – What a fab bird!! [E]
RINGED WOODPECKER (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) – N One and only one of this rare woodpecker, but we were thrilled to get it! This subspecies is sure to be split as yet another Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – N
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – Good views of this impressive bird on both parts of the tour. [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – A fine spot by Ebbe provided us with our first views. Pete made a good spot on a pair on Part 2, where we saw several others.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis) – N A superb adult came in from very far off to eventually allow 3-4 minutes of scope viewing, thoroughly enjoyed by all.
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus)

Linhares Reserve was a great place for woodpeckers! (Sorry about that nasty cicada in the background.) HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango) – S
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – N*
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – S
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis) – S
BAT FALCON (Falco rufigularis) – N
PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) – N One was spotted in flight from Chris's van as we drove north from Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro state.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) – N This gorgeous bird put on a great show for us. it proves to be the basal member of the Pyrrhura parakeet complex, meaning it's closest to ancestral stock among all known members, very cool because it's also the most divergent morphologically of all. [E]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MAROON-FACED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura leucotis) – N Often appears on lists as "White-eared Parakeet" [E]
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus) – S A couple of fly-bys outside Porto Alegre on our last day.

We saw the endangered Red-spectacled Parrot on "South of the Capricorn" (Part 2) exceptionally well this year. HD digivideo copyright Bret Whitney.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – N
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – N An especially nice scope study of a perched pair.
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – N/S*
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) – Seen only as high, darting specks on Part 1, finally nailed perched on Part 2. [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) – S Best-ever views of these rare parrots; let's hope that continues for future tours. [E]
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) – S Right on time, YESSS! [E]
RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) – N It took a while, but we finally did get good scope views! [E]
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica) – N
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – N

An unusual flight photo of Vinaceous-breasted Parrot. Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

VINACEOUS-BREASTED PARROT (Amazona vinacea) – S Superb scope studies of these gorgeous birds. [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – S It looked iffy for a bit there, but we came away with wonderful scope views for all. [E]
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – N Couldn't raise one for Part 2 this time. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – Great views on both N and S -- what a BIRD!
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – All agreed that the better name for this superb bird would be Starry-night Antshrike! We had adult males real, real close on both parts of the tour, thoroughly blew us away! [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – N*/S Excellent views of an adult male at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – Good views on both parts of the tour this time around.
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – N
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – N [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster) – S
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens) – N

Large-tailed Antshrike is one of the finest birds in South America! HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – N (usually seen on Part 2 as well) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – N Just one good male, but everyone nailed it. [E]
PLUMBEOUS ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus plumbeus) – N Always one of the trickiest birds to for all to see well, but we eventually caught up with one male. [E]
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula gularis) – This one was seen well on Part 1 by only a few folks; thoroughly enjoyed by all on Part 2. [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – N
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – N (usually seen in the South as well) [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – N [E]
BLACK-HOODED ANTWREN (Formicivora erythronotos) – N Ohh soo nice!! Truly one of the world's rarest birds, especially when one considers only continental species (as opposed to island endemics). [E]
PARANA ANTWREN (Stymphalornis acutirostris) – S Simply incomparable views of a pair at around minimum focus range for a couple of minutes. [E]

Parana Antwren (aka Marsh Antbird) was described to science only in 1996. We enjoyed unusually leisurely viewing of this pair. HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
[SAO PAULO] ANTWREN (Stymphalornis sp. nov.) – N It looked dicey for getting this one, but we pulled it out for all to see really well -- no easy feat, that! Look for this bird to receive its formal description sometime in 2014. [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – A gorgeous antbird, the appearance of which elicited proper oooohs and aaaahs both N and S! [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) – Good looks at this one N and S. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – N A highly range-restricted antbird seen extraordinarily well at Itatiaia National Park. [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – Nicely at Itatiaia (N) and Intervales (S). [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – Also seen well on both parts, but not everyone had a good angle on Part 1. [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) – N Stunning! [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – An active nest at Itatiaia was a special treat to see; I'd seen just one before this. [E]
RIO DE JANEIRO ANTBIRD (Cercomacra brasiliana) – N A species we used to see fairly regularly on the tour, but the area was burnt and the birds disappeared. We now have a new area that, this year, proved to be great for seeing this rare antbird. It's actually more reliable on the Northeast Brazil tour. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – Really close views on both parts of the tour. [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza loricata) – N A real beauty! [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa) – S Ditto that remark! [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (RUFOUS) (Conopophaga lineata lineata) – N Great views early on, in Espirito Santo.

Wetland Tapaculo (here in slow motion) was seen scampering across a small opening in the grass several times (better than shown here, I didn't get the best appearance on video), and Planalto Tapaculo performed like a champ. Both species were described to science only recently. HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) – S Seen very nicely in the South, this population will be split (subspecies elevated to species rank). [E]
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – N Superb views of a superb bird! [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – Darn, no good opportunity for pulling one up. [*]
[SPECKLE-BREASTED] ANTPITTA (Hylopezus sp. nov.) – S We enjoyed excellent views of a singing bird in Parana state. it is soon to be described as a new species, separate from more northerly Speckle-breasted Antpitta. [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – WOW! Fantastic, suspenseful views around Ubatuba (N), then fair-to-middlin' looks at one at Intervales (S). [E]
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) – N Fab views, make that incredible views, near Jonas's place. Loved it! [E]
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) – S Every bit as good, possibly even BETTER(?) looks at this one at Intervales. It will soon be named a new species. [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – S We tricked one into view at Intervales; he unwittingly put on a great show for us. [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – N Seen pretty well by most, but nasty weather interfered some with this one. [E]

The endemic sylviellus subspecies of Olivaceous Woodcreeper is sure to be split as a species when a thorough study of the complex is eventually performed. Photo copyright Chris Benesh.

[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) – S Wonderful views of a singing bird at Paraiso; it will soon be described as a new species, separae from norther populations (north of central Sao Paulo) of Mouse-colored Tapaculos. [E]
PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) – S Incomparable studies of a highly aggressive male who wouldn't back down an inch -- in fact, he got up as close as possible without coming out on the road. He definitively won that battle, kicked us waaay outta there! [E]
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) – S Trickery once again came into play, but all's fair in love, war, and tapaculos ;) [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – N*
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) – S Thanks to a great spot by Marcelo, we managed to get scope views of a bird on a hidden song perch.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – It wasn't in the cards to get a good look at this bird this time around. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – N Also not seen very well this time. [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – S Fabulous, close study of one in Parana. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (PLAIN-WINGED) (Dendrocincla fuliginosa turdina) [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – N*/S One at a nest at Intervales was especially nice.
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – Great looks at this huge woodcreeper on both tours. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) – N [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – S* [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus) – N A great study of this nominate subspecies, an Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – N Wonderful studies a couple of times on Part 1, but we couldn't raise a single bird on the second half this year. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – N [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) – S Good spotting, Pete! [E]

Pale-browed Treehunter (subspecies holti). Photo copyright Chris Benesh.

PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – N
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – N Spreading into the region from its native stronghold in NE Brazil, following habitat clearance.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – Fabulous views on both tours; SE Brazil is the easiest place to see this bird!
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) – S Gratifyingly common, and it was fun to see a male perform its wing display. [E]
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – Great views multiple times, both tours. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) – N/S* Unusually close views of a pair. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus camargoi) – S Both subspecies seen very nicely. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus contaminatus) – N [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor lichtensteini) – N*/S [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – N This beauty showed best at Linhares. [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – N No luck pulling one up on part 2 this year. [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) – S It was suspenseful, but we eventually came away with very nice views of this secretive bird. [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – N/S* [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) – S Amazingly close views of a bird in sparse shrubs along a fenceline, literally 10 feet in front of us all. [E]

Araucaria Tit-Spinetail, a highly specialized endemic of Southeast Brazil. Digiscope video copyright Bret Whitney.
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – Also seen very nicely, especially on Part 2 where it's common. [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – N
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis) – S
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – N Point-blank stares at Ubatuba. [E]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – Great for both groups this year (doesn't always work out that way). [E]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – S Close scope study of this interesting bird
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – N You only see this one up real close! [E]
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris) – S Nicely through the scope; just one good sighting this year.
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – S [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
CHOTOY SPINETAIL (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) – S A really attractively patterned spinetail.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – S*
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – Excellent experiences on both tours. [E]
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – S [E]

Spix's Spinetail -- a really nice view! Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme) – N*
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – N
BEARDED TACHURI (Polystictus pectoralis) – S It took a while, but we finally managed to get good views of an adult male, and even got to see him do a couple of fantastic aerial displays!
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – N/S*
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura sordida) – S
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans)
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) – S Excellent study of this recently described species. ALmost all of the many tyrannulets and tody-tyrants were seen super-well, and most of the more widespread ones were seen well on both parts of the tour. [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – S Not a one until we got to Part 2 of the tour, unusual. [E]

The spectacular display of Streamer-tailed Tyrants is truly unforgettable! This is the responsive pair we saw near Intervales on "South of the Capricorn" (Part 2). Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) [E]
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri) – N
GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – S Yesss!
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – N A single, skulking individual allowed only about half of us to see it well.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – Especially nicely at low, hanging nests on both parts of the tour. [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) – N [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus obsoletus) – N* [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) – S [E]
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – N [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – S [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – S Wow, this rare bird came super-easily this year, showing up within a minute of us getting out of the vehicles and with no playback -- and it then stuck around for long, close study -- sweet! [E]
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) – N Also seen quite easily and well. [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – N [E]
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – N
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – N
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) [E]
GRAY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – N

Royal Flycatcher, Atlantic Forest endemic subspecies swainsoni. This individual ended Ebbe's 12-year wait for a Royal Flycatcher! Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – N
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) – Good scope studies on both tours. This distinctive Atlantic Forest subspecies will surely be recognized at the species level after someone gives it focused study. [E]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) – N
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
TROPICAL PEWEE (Contopus cinereus) – N
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) – N [E]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris)
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes)
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – N [E]
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – S
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – S
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – N
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero) – S
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis dominicanus) – S Seen multiple times; very small world range.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa)

Handsome Hooded Berryeaters were seen several times across both tours. HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – This monotypic, endemic genus was seen well on both tours. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) – N/S* [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – S Not a single bird heard at Itatiaia this year; perhaps we were just a bit too early?
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – N*
SIRYSTES (EASTERN) (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex simplex) – N [E]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – N
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)

Gray-winged Cotinga was a cliff-hanger this year, but we came away with long, leisurely looks at two birds feeding in a small fruiting tree (I couldn't get the still photo at the end to stay on for more than a split second, sorry). That morning on Pico de Caledonia was truly sensational! HD video copyright Bret Whitney.
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – N
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) – N This endemic subspecies has lots of rufous in the wings. [E]
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – S Good scope study at Intervales.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Not many sightings, but seen well on both tours.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Ditto that remark -- what a fabulous bird! [E]
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) – N Excellent view of an adult male at Linhares. [E]
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – S A surprise appearance by an adult male eventually led to excellent views for all but a few of us.
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans) – N*

This handsome pair of Swallow-tailed Cotingas was feeding two fledglings near Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul. Digiscope photo copyright Bret Whitney.

CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – Finding a nest was a very rare event, the first I'd ever seen. [E]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – N Seen beautifully twice, the second time being a subadult male that stayed put for several minutes. [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – N Just a fabulous experience watching two males feeding on fruits at close range on a fabulous day in a very special place -- could not have been more satisfying! [E]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Seen nicely on both tours, but more adult males seen on Part 2. [E]
WHITE-WINGED COTINGA (Xipholena atropurpurea) – N We were fortunate to have good scope views of an immature male at Linhares; easily missed! [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris) – S We dipped on Part 1 but came through bigtime in the South, actually documenting some of the first (if not the first) evidence of nesting in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. gorgeous birds!
Pipridae (Manakins)
WIED'S TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma aurifrons) – N A wonderful view of this rarity... after some sneaking around in the forest. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – S Super-close at Intervales. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]

Black-capped Piprites, among the top highlights from "North of the Tropic" (Part 1). Photo copyright tour participant Valerie Gebert.

RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Pipra rubrocapilla)
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
BLACK-CAPPED PIPRITES (Piprites pileata) – N It was tricky to get everyone into the forest on a steep, narrow trail where the male was singing, but all managed to get up there and get a good look! Val even got a pretty nice photo, no mean feat! [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina turdina) – N A good view (previously known as Thrush-like Manakin or Thrush-like Schiffornis).
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – S [E]
BUFF-THROATED PURPLETUFT (Iodopleura pipra) – N We were fortunate to find a nest under construction, allowing us particularly leisurely viewing of this interesting activity; check out the video I made through the scope >>>> [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – N
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – N/S*
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus) – N

Buff-throated Purpletufts were nest-building on 9 Nov. I returned to the site in hopes of making professional quality video on 5 December, when there might have been a large chick in the nest, but the entire nest was gone, no sign of it. Digiscope video copyright Bret Whitney.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
Vireonidae (Vireos)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus) – N
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – S [E]
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis) – N
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – N
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa)

Eastern Slaty-Thrush is not always "in" by late November, but they were around this year! Digiscope video copyright Bret Whitney.
BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – N
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) – N
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – Excellent looks at this distinctive wren on both tours.
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
MASKED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila dumicola) – S Wim spotted one on our last morning in Rio Grande do Sul
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
COCOA THRUSH (Turdus fumigatus) – N
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
SLATY THRUSH (EASTERN) (Turdus nigriceps subalaris) – S They were in in good numbers this year, and relatively easy to see.

Brazilian Tanager. Photo copyright Chris Benesh.

WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
OCHRE-BREASTED PIPIT (Anthus nattereri) – S An unforgettable time with a territorial bird that eventually approached me to within about 12 feet -- what fun! He then resumed his high-flying courtship display, persumably being admired by a female far below.
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus) – S
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – A very distinctive endemic, seen well on both trips. [E]
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) – N? -- I'm not sure whether a few folks got to see one that Chris spotted or not...
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – Finding a nest was an unusual treat.
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – N
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – Low, close views on both tours; perhaps the single most distinctive, unusual endemic passerine bird (in my opinion!). [E]

Chestnut-backed tanager has GOT to be one of he fanciest of all Tangara tanagers... right? Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – N Beautifully on time! [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – N
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – Numerous sightings, including some at feeders -- always a show-stopper! [E]
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Thraupis bonariensis) – S
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Muchos! Another distinctive monotypic, endemic genus. [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota) – S
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara peruviana) – S Wow, a fantastic view of an adult male that stayed around us for several minutes. [E]

Bay-chested Warbling-Finch. Photo copyright Valerie Gebert, "North of the Tropic" tour participant.

CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – S Now that they're coming to feeders regularly, your guides can breathe easier ;) [E]
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) – N [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – N [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – N [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – N [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – S Had we not found that nest under construction at Intervales, this rare bird might have slipped through the net! [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – N
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – N

Lesser Grass-Finch near Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul. Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – Not many individuals, especially in the South, but seen well by all. [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons) – S
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza thoracica) – Great looks on both tours. [E]
BUFF-THROATED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza lateralis) – N Several good views. [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris) – S
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola) – N [*]
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus) – S That bird came a loooong way to confront us ETE (that's "eye-to-eye")!
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) – N Few around, but we managed good views of one bird. [E]
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – S
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera leucoptera) – N*
TAWNY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypoxantha)
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) – S good numbers this year, but very few females had yet arrived. [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni) – S Certainly a tour highlight on Part 2 was seeing this endangered bird, described to science only in October 2013! What a wonderful day it was all the way around -- and it my birthday! [E]
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)

Thick-billed Saltator. Photo copyright Valerie Gebert, "North of the Tropic" tour participant.

GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) [E]
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – N
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – N*/S Close views at Intervales. [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) [E]
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis) – S
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – N
BLACKISH-BLUE SEEDEATER (Amaurospiza moesta) – N One fine adult male; easy to miss this one. [E]
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED BLACKBIRD (Sturnella superciliaris)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – S
SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus) – S A very rare blackbird; seen pretty easily this year.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)

Green-throated Euphonia, aka "Green-chinned" Euphonia. This male was feeding on fruits, really low and close! Photo copyright Marcelo Padua.

SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii) – N
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) – N
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – S We lucked out with that adult male very low and close at Intervales; unusually fine views! [E]
GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA (Euphonia cyanocephala) – S Excellent views of a pair near a nest; a gorgeous little bird.
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – N
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – N*
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild) – N

WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) – N
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) – N Tonya spotted a couple that a few other lucky folks also got to see. [E]
BUFFY-HEADED MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus flaviceps) – N An endangered species, seen fairly well through dense vegetation early in the tour. [E]

EXTRAS & OUTTAKES from both tours -- enjoy! Video copyright your enduring guide, aka The Kite.
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) – N Excellent views, after having heard them lots. [E]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – N/S8 Good views early in the tour.
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella) – N
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – N
BRAZILIAN RABBIT (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) – N
EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus europaeus) – S
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAVY SP. (Galea/Cavia sp.) – S
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – S
BROWN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta variegata) – N
NUTRIA (Myocastor coypus) – S
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus) – S
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) – S
SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (Nasua nasua) – N Lots at Linhares!

Valerie and Company perform "The 12 birds of Christmas" in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro at the close of "North of the Tropic" (Part 1). It was fun!! Cell phone video copyright Bret Whitney.
COLLARED PECCARY (Tayassu tajacu) – N One large herd straggled across the road, over 20 animals.
BROWN BROCKET DEER (Mazama gouazoubira) – N


Among lots of other creatures of interest were Striped Hognosed Skunk (S - Rio Grande do Sul at night); Yellow-footed Tortoise (N - Linhares); a fer-de-lance Tonya spotted *outside* her room at Itatiaia (rather than inside it, as she did with a Boa at Alta Floresta a year or so ago!); Tupinambis tegu lizards (large, terrestrial guys that came out on roads on sunny days); some enormous Bufo icerotis toads on forest roads; lots of small leaf-litter (camouflaged) toads; several tarantulas, especially on Part 2 near Sao Francisco de Paula where we saw 4-5 big ones one day!; and many fabulous butterflies along the way.

Totals for the tour: 540 bird taxa and 19 mammal taxa