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Field Guides Tour Report
SE Brazil: South of the Capricorn 2015 (with Iguazu Falls Extension to Dec. 3)
Nov 14, 2015 to Nov 29, 2015
Bret Whitney and Marcelo Padua

Seeing the rare, endemic Red-tailed Parrot so well -- and so close -- was a real highlight of the tour. Photo by participant Chuck Holliday.

Southeast Brazil has always been has always been one of our most popular destinations, as the area holds the highest number of endemics (more than 160!) and the food, scenery and Brazilian hospitality make it a very pleasant tour. Over the course of the years, the tour has been constantly changing and adapting, due to new information that we get from our vast network of Brazilian contacts and to the possibility of visiting new areas as the infrastructure develops. This year, we ran only the second part of our long-running tour pair (plus an extension), but the main tour benefited from a lot of minor tweaks and perks. We started things in Sao Paulo and drove to Intervales, where our local guides have starting feeding a few key birds, such as Red-and-White Crake and Spot-winged Wood-Quail, granting us excellent looks at birds that would normally have been poorly seen or heard-only -- a nice way to complement the already fabulous birding experience at Intervales. We had also hoped for good news regarding the construction of the road we planned to use to go to the coast, but instead were told that the construction was finished but the road was not yet open to the public. This meant that we would have to drive an additional four hours on a very busy road with no birding stops, so we contacted a few friends and ended up getting a special permit to travel on the road before it was officially opened to the public -- a rare treat which we enjoyed as we drove through miles and miles of pristine forest with no traffic, birding along the way! We picked up species like Buff-bellied Puffbird (thanks Martha!), Streak-capped Antwren, an undescribed species of tapaculo, Pale-browed Treehunter, and other goodies, enjoying the scenery as we came down from the mountains to the coast. We spent one night there, and in addition to enjoying great seafood and scenery, we saw the endangered Red-tailed Parrot and the rare Black-backed Tanager, as well as Restinga Tyrannulet, before heading out to Curitiba. The drive to Curitiba would have been terrible (as one of the lanes was closed, and the traffic jam extended for miles and miles), but a friend had tipped us off to a new birding area, so instead of wasting the better part of the day in stuck inside our vans, we went there instead, and got great looks at Black-billed Scythebill, Olive-green Tanager, and Violaceous Euphonia. We'll certainly be coming back for more next year!

In Curitiba, we met some friends from the university and birded several nearby areas, including a reserve recently established to preserve the habitat of the newly-described Parana Antwren, which we saw extremely well, along with the recently split East Brazilian Chachalaca, and Many-colored Rush Tyrant. Our usual spots did not fail us, and we accumulated great looks at Canebrake Groundcreeper, Sickle-winged Nightjar, and many others. The last change to the tour is that we've altered the Itinerary -- instead of flying to Rio Grande do Sul, we kept our trusty drivers for a few more days and continued southward by land, picking up all sorts of great birds with the help of a friend who showed us some really rare species, including the newly-described Tropeiro Seedeater, Bearded Tachuri, Freckle-breasted Thornbird, and even the elusive Giant Snipe. Once we reached the town of Sao Francisco de Paula, we had great looks at Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Blue-bellied and Red-spectacled parrots and Swallow-tailed Cotinga.

We finished the main tour with one last Brazilian barbecue extravaganza, but a few of us continued on to Iguazu for a grand finale -- our extension, which visits both the Brazilian and Argentinian sides of Iguazu Falls. In Argentina, we were once again treated to an early admission to the Devil’s Throat, and were once again able to enjoy good looks at Black-fronted Piping-Guan -- as well as enjoy the falls -- before the herds of tourists invaded the park. In Brazil, our hotel was just a few steps away from the falls, granting us privileged access to the falls and to birding spots that produced great looks at Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher, Southern Bristle-Tyrant, and Russet-winged Spadebill.

This was another great year in Southeast Brazil, clearly showing why it's such a popular tour. I can’t wait to see what new and exciting opportunities will present themselves on next year’s tour! Thanks for joining us.

-- Marcelo

* Note: This triplist covers both the main tour and the extension. A notation next to the bird's name indicates whether it was recorded on the main tour (M) or the extension (E). If a species was seen on one part of the tour and only heard on the other, I have noted that.

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)

Though named for Brazil (where the type specimen was collected), the Brazilian Teal is widespread across much of eastern South America. Photo by participant John Drummond.

SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – M [E*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – ME - Seen on the main tour and heard on the extension.
YELLOW-LEGGED TINAMOU (Crypturellus noctivagus) – M [*]
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens) – M - A single bird was flushed by our vans as we drove along the fields in southern Brazil.
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa) – M
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata) – M
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
RINGED TEAL (Callonetta leucophrys) – M - Spotted by Kent in a marsh in the outskirts of Porto Alegre on the last day of the tour.
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – M
SILVER TEAL (Anas versicolor) – M
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris) – M
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
EAST BRAZILIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis araucuan) – M - This was considered a subspecies of the Speckled Chachalaca until recently. [E]
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – M

The Black-fronted Piping-Guan is another of Brazil's endangered species. Photo by participant John Drummond.

BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga) – ME - Once common in the forests of southeastern Brazil, this beautiful cracid has suffered greatly from both the deforestation of the Atlantic Forest and poaching; it is now rare and restricted mostly to protected areas. Tom spotted one for us at Intervales on the main tour, and we found them again along the Devil's Throat walkway in Argentina on the extension.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – M - One of the many great surprises our Intervales guides had lined up for us. They have habituated a family group of these shy forest dwellers to take cracked corn, allowing our entire group to enjoy fabulous looks at these rarely seen birds. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) – M - We enjoyed great looks at one singing on a pond by the side of the road.
Ciconiidae (Storks)
MAGUARI STORK (Ciconia maguari) – M
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana) – M
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – M - Common along the coast on our tour route.
Sulidae (Boobies and Gannets)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster) – M - Seen from the ferry on our crossing to Long Island.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – ME
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – ME
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba) – ME
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula) – M
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – M
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) – M
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – ME
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – M
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) – ME
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber) – M - A few birds spotted from the boats as we transferred to a private reserve owned by friends.
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi) – M - 87 individuals seen around a pond along the road.
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus) – M
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus) – M
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – M
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – ME
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – M
Pandionidae (Osprey)

The Red-legged Seriema is more often heard than seen, but we found this one casually strolling along the side of the road. Photo by participant John Drummond.

OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – M
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – M
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – M
SNAIL KITE (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – ME
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon) – M
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – ME
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – M
CROWNED EAGLE (Buteogallus coronatus) – M - One of the highlights of a wonderful day spent at a ranch in Rio Grande do Sul. The group enjoyed prolonged views of one soaring over the hills across the valley just before we left the area.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris) – M
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – M
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) – M - Our group went birding and we left one of our scopes behind with the vans. When we came back, the drivers had one of these in the scope for us, giving us our best views on the tour.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – M
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius) – M
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus) – M - This has always been one of the hardest crakes to see -- that is, until our local guides at Intervales discovered that they have a taste for cracked corn. Then we started seeing them regularly on our tours!

The Plovercrest was recently split into two species. We saw the Violet-crested Plovercrest, which occurs south of southern Rio de Janeiro. Photo by participant John Drummond.

SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – ME - Seen on the main tour as well as on the extension. The birds on the extension had chicks with them. [E]
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) – H
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – ME - Seen on the main tour and heard on the extension.
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus) – M
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – M
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna) – M
Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus) – M
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – ME
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – M
Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and Allies)
SPOTTED SANDPIPER (Actitis macularius) – E - Seen on the rocks by the walkway to the Devil's Throat in Argentina.
SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE (Gallinago paraguaiae) – M [*]
GIANT SNIPE (Gallinago undulata) – M -The odds are always against you on a snipe hunt, but this time our efforts were rewarded with great looks at this rarely-seen species.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus) – M
YELLOW-BILLED TERN (Sternula superciliaris) – M
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus) – M
SANDWICH TERN (Thalasseus sandvicensis) – M
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) – ME
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – M
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – M
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea) – M
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – ME
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana) – M [*]
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – ME
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – M
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata) – ME
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – ME
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – M
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – M [*]
PAVONINE CUCKOO (Dromococcyx pavoninus) – M [*]
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – E
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – ME
Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
BARN OWL (Tyto alba) – M
Strigidae (Owls)

The intricate pattern of the Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper makes it one of the nicest looking members of the ovenbird family. Photo by participant Chuck Holliday.

TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – M - A pair of birds with young near the reception building at Intervales.
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – M - It took a lot of work to find these birds this year, but we eventually managed to get good looks at one near our hotel. [E]
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – M [E*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – ME
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – M
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – M [E]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles nacunda) – M - A massive termite hatch after some rain turned into a feast for Nacunda Nighthawks, and we, in turn, ended up having great looks at them.
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) – M
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus) – M
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – M [E]
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – M
Apodidae (Swifts)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus) – M
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex) – ME - This species is the symbol of the Iguazu National Park. We had great looks at them, both on the main tour and the extension.
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – M

The lush forests of Intervales are stuffed full of interesting birds. Photo by participant Chuck Holliday.

SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis) – M
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris) – M
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – M
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – ME [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – M - Great looks at a bird perched for more than a minute. [E]
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus) – M
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – M
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – ME - Great looks on both the main tour and the extension. [E]
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – E
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – M - A couple of females seen during the tour.
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – M
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – E
VIOLET-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis loddigesii) – M - This species was considered to be a subspecies the Green-crowned Plovercrest until recently, but proposal #664 of the South American Classification Committee has split the two into separate species.
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – ME [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – M
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor) – M
GILDED HUMMINGBIRD (Hylocharis chrysura) – E - Common at hummingbird feeders on the extension.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis) – M
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – M [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – E [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – ME - Heard-only on the main tour, and seen on the extension. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – M
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – ME
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
BUFF-BELLIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus swainsoni) – M - We were having a picnic lunch on a road through the park when Martha spotted this scarce puffbird sitting in a nearby tree. [E]
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – M
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – M [E]
CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus castanotis) – E
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – ME - Seen on both the main tour and the extension. It was particularly nice to see a female feeding young at a nest that our local guides at Intervales had staked out for us. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – ME - Seen only by Martha on the main tour, but a common sight near the falls on the extension.
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) – M [E]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Sometimes you aim for one target and end up getting something else entirely! Our first attempt to see Red-and-white Crake failed miserably (fortunately, we had great looks later!) but this handsome Orange-breasted Thornbird gave us some of the best views ever. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) – ME [E]
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) – M - We had great looks at this rare species outside Curitiba. [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – M
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) – ME - This fabulous woodpecker was a common sight right outside our rooms at Intervales. [E]
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis spilogaster) – M [E]
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) – M [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros) – E
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris) – M
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides) – M
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (BLOND-CRESTED) (Celeus flavescens flavescens) – ME - Heard-only on the main tour, but seen on the extension.
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – ME - Heard-only on the main tour and seen on the extension. [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – M - One seen close to the road in the mountains of Rio Grande do Sul.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – ME
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – ME

The genus Poospiza has several striking birds but the Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch is certainly one of the prettiest of them. Luckily, we had a very obliging individual that came in for close inspection. Photo by participant Chuck Holliday.

CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – M
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) – M
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – M [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) – M - This is usually a very hard species to see, but some fruiting trees near our lodge proved irresistible to these beautiful parrots, and we ended up having great looks at them. [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – M [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani) – ME
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) – M - After we had failed to see them at our usual spot, things were not looking good for finding them this year, but our backup spot came through, and we saw 12 birds fly by at the end of the day. [E]
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) – M - Another rare parrot that was seen extremely well on the tour. It was specially nice to see one perched at close range. [E]
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – ME
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis) – M
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus) – E
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – ME [E]
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – M [E]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – ME - Male and female seen on the main tour. Heard-only on the extension. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – M [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) – M
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster) – M
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens) – ME
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – M [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – M [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis) – ME
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – M
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – E [E]
PARANA ANTWREN (Stymphalornis acutirostris) – M - It was particularly nice to have the people who discovered and described the species show it to us, at the reserve recently established to help conserve the bird. [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – M [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) – M [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – M [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – M [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – ME - We had great looks at this minute canopy antwren on the main tour, even getting to see the chestnut patch on its back. Heard-only on the extension. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – ME [E]
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza squamosa) – M [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)

Intervales is a great place for birding -- and the birding starts the moment you step out of the door! We found this Streaked Xenops just a few steps away from our lodge. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) – ME [E]
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – M [E]
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – M [*]
[SPECKLE-BREASTED] ANTPITTA (Hylopezus sp. nov.) – M - This species is currently treated as Speckle-breasted Antpitta, but it has a very distinctive song and shows clear plumage differences, so Bret and some colleagues are working on describing it as a new species. [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – M [E*]
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) – M [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – M [E]
PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) – M [E]
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) – M [E*]
[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) – M [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) – ME - Heard on the main tour, and seen on the extension.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – M [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) – ME - Seen on the main tour, heard-only on the extension. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – ME [E]

The Violet-capped Woodnymph is one of the most common hummingbirds on our tour route. Photo by participant John Drummond.

PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – ME - Heard-only on the main tour, and seen on the extension. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – E
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – ME [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – ME
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – M - One of our friends tipped us off to a new area to visit, and we decided to check it out. It turns out the area is great, and this was one of the many great birds we saw while visiting it. [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) – M [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – M [*]
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans) – M - Great looks right outside the restaurant at Intervales.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – ME
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – M - We had wonderful scope views of this ornate ovenbird.
WREN-LIKE RUSHBIRD (Phleocryptes melanops) – M
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) – M [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) – M - There are two subspecies, with very distinctive songs; they are likely to be split in the future. [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus camargoi) – M [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – M [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – M [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) – ME - Particularly common around Iguazu. [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) – ME
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) – M [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – ME - We had great looks at one bird sitting quietly near a nest. [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) – M - Robin spotted one for us, and we ended up having great looks at an eye-level bird. [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) – M [E]
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis) – M - Nesting. [N]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) – M - Our first attempt at seeing the Red-and-white Crake failed, but we didn't come out empty-handed, as one of these birds came in so close that we could hardly focus on it! [E]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – M
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris) – M
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – M [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – M [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – M [E]
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – M [E]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi) – M
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) – E

Many bird species are closely associated with plants, but very few are as specialized as the Araucaria Tit-Spinetail, which hardly ever feeds -- or even perches -- in any tree other than an Araucaria. Photo by participant John Drummond.

BEARDED TACHURI (Polystictus pectoralis) – M - This tiny flycatcher has become very scarce due to the conversion of its breeding habitats into pastures. We visited a pristine area and had great looks at a displaying male.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps) – ME - Seen on the main tour and heard-only on the extension. There are several subspecies and they will certainly be split. The bird we saw was the nominate subspecies.
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris) – M
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca) – M - We found this species nesting on the grounds of our hotel in Rio Grande do Sul. [N]
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura sordida) – M
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans) – M
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) – M - So close we could hardly use our binoculars! [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – M
SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT (Phylloscartes eximius) – E - Along with the Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher, this is one of the main targets of the extension -- and we nailed them both.
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – M
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) – M - It took a bit more work than usual, but in the end, we had great looks at this Brazilian endemic. [E]
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) – M [E]
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – M [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – M [E]

The Lesser Grass-finch is inhabits marsh edges in southern Brazil. This individual was particularly cooperative. Photo by participant John Drummond.

GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) – M [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – M
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – M [E]
MANY-COLORED RUSH TYRANT (Tachuris rubrigastra) – M - One of many species seen on the tour that we found thanks to an added boat trip that took us to our friend's reserve.
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta) – M
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – E
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – ME [E]
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) – M
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – M - Another great Brazilian endemic which we saw extremely well on our visit to our friends' reserve. [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – M [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – M [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – M
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – M [E*]
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – M
RUSSET-WINGED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus leucoryphus) – E - This species is very scarce and there are very few places where people can actually see one. Those who went on the extension had great looks at one of them.
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) – M - Seen very well by our group; a few even managed to see its magnificent crest open. [E]
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – M
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (BUFF-RUMPED) (Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi) – M [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – M
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri) – M
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) – M [E]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – M
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – M - A female seen briefly.
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – M
GRAY MONJITA (Xolmis cinereus) – M
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – M - Good looks at some perched on fences along the road on the drive out of Intervales.
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis dominicanus) – M
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – M
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – M [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – M
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – M
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – M
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) – M [E*]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus) – M
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – M [E]

White-eared Puffbirds are birds of open areas; with the clearing of vegetation along the roadsides, they have even moved in along the road to Intervales. photo by tour participant Chuck Holliday.

SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – E [*]
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni) – M
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – ME
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – ME
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – ME
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus) – M
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – ME
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – ME
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius) – M
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – ME - A common bird throughout both the main tour and the extension, but it was particularly fun to watch them mob a caracara.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – M - We had excellent looks at this distinctive species, which is the only species in its family.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – M - Thanks to an excellent spot by Dave, we enjoyed this bird in the scope for about 10 minutes. [E]

Our local guides at Intervales had a lot of birds staked out for us; this Tropical Screech-Owl was one of them. Photo by participant John Drummond.

RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus) – M
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) – M [E]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – M - We had great scope looks at a male belting out his extraordinary song. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris) – M - We found them building a nest and therefore ended up having great looks at them. [N]
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – M [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – E [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus) – M
BAND-TAILED MANAKIN (Pipra fasciicauda) – E
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris) – M
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-TAILED TITYRA (Tityra cayana) – ME
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – M [E]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – M
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – M
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus) – M
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi) – ME
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) – ME [E]
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – M
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – M [E]
PLUSH-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax chrysops) – ME - This is a common bird around Intervales, but seeing it on the main tour was a bit of a surprise.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – M
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – ME
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – ME
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera) – M
WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW (Tachycineta albiventer) – E
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) – M
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – ME
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) – ME
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – M
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – M [*]
CREAMY-BELLIED GNATCATCHER (Polioptila lactea) – E - With a tiny range, this gnatcatcher is one of the main targets on the extension, and we had great looks at them.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – M
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) – ME
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – ME
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus) – ME

Participant Martha Vandervoort joined the extension and snapped this incredible shot of some of the many cascades that make up the Iguazu Falls.

SLATY THRUSH (EASTERN) (Turdus nigriceps subalaris) – M - It was a great surprise to find one of these birds singing right on the grounds of our hotel in the city of Curitiba.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis) – ME
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
OCHRE-BREASTED PIPIT (Anthus nattereri) – M
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus) – M
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis) – ME
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) – ME
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – ME - It was fascinating to observe the distraction behavior of this species on the main tour.
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – M [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis) – ME
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) – M [E]
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – ME
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – M - We had multiple looks at this very distinctive species, which is the only member of its genus. [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – ME

Many flycatchers can be dull and hard to identify, but the Streamer-tailed Tyrant is certainly not one of them. Photo by participant John Drummond.

FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – ME
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – ME [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – M [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – M [E]
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota) – M
BLUE-AND-YELLOW TANAGER (Pipraeidea bonariensis) – M - A pair of juveniles near Curitiba.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca) – ME
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – M [E]
GOLDEN-CHEVRONED TANAGER (Thraupis ornata) – M [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – M
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara peruviana) – M [E]
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Tangara preciosa) – M - It was great to have this gorgeous Brazilian endemic showing up at the feeders at our hotel in Rio Grande do Sul. [E]
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – ME [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – M [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – M [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – ME
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) – M - Our group was treated to prolonged views of a foraging bird. [E]
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – ME
GUIRA TANAGER (Hemithraupis guira) – E
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – M [E]
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – E
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – M - The bird may not look like much, but it was fun to watch it displaying. [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons) – M
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – ME
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris) – M
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus) – M
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis) – M
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – M
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola) – M
TAWNY-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila hypoxantha) – M
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) – M [E]
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis) – E
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens) – M
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) – M [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni) – M - This is the first year that we've had this bird on the checklist with its official name! Up until now, we had seen this bird on our tour and just called it "new seedeater". This was yet another bird that was shown to us by the person who described the species.
RED-CRESTED FINCH (Coryphospingus cucullatus) – E

Participant Chuck Holliday captured this great shot of an Azure-Shouldered Tanager right in the garden of our lodge at Intervales.

BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – ME
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis) – ME
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) – M [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) [E]
SAFFRON-BILLED SPARROW (Arremon flavirostris) – E
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – ME
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – ME - Seen on the main tour, and heard-only on the extension.
GLAUCOUS-BLUE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) – M
ULTRAMARINE GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa brissonii) – E
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Sturnella superciliaris)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi) – M
YELLOW-WINGED BLACKBIRD (Agelasticus thilius) – M - Seen on our added boat trip to our friends' reserve.
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – M

This Pallid Spinetail is in the genus Cranioleuca which, unlike spinetails from the genus Synallaxis, forages up in trees. Photo by participant John Drummond.

SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus) – M - This bird is closely associated with the Black-and-white Monjita, a behavior that is not yet understood, but which we could clearly see on the tour.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) – M
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) – M
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – E
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus) – M - Showing up regularly at the feeder we set up at Intervales.
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous) – ME
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea) – ME
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – M - Always hard to see, but when you find the fruit they like, you end up getting great looks at them. [E]
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) – ME [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – E
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus) – M
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) – ME

BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – E [*]
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
GIANT ANTEATER (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – M
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – M
AZARA'S AGOUTI (Dasyprocta azarae) – E
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus) – M
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) – M
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous) – ME
PAMPAS DEER (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) – M


Totals for the tour: 404 bird taxa and 12 mammal taxa