Field Guides had not offered Spectacular Southeast Brazil tours since 2018, and Marcelo and I were anxious about any number of details. At the top of the list was the fact that Brazil did not go on to daylight savings time. This shift was instigated a couple of years ago by ousted Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro, and we can now hope that it will be reversed by the current Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (= “Lula”). Not having DST meant loss of the first, often critical hour of birding, as sunrise in far eastern Brazil was around 05:00, and it’s just not possible/practical to have breakfasts earlier than 05:00 most places. It also meant that the important final couple of hours of daylight were that much “later”, such that we might finish up the day’s birding ahead of sunset, drive back to the hotel, and it’s already 7:00-7:30. We would have to plan around this as best we could. After that, there was the standard string of variables that professional birding guides the world over worry about for a living (weather, mucky roads, personalities in the group, early breakfasts being on time, planes being on time, more weather, busted air conditioners in vans… and, of course, the birds, but that’s the fun part, because the birds are always out there to be found). Did I mention weather? Oh yes, weather proved to be a monster this year, being much colder (and sometimes quite wet) at several venues than we’d ever experienced during these 30+ years of SE Brazil tours (see below). On the other side of the ledger, ours were two truly wonderful groups of tour participants! We had a great time birding together every day.
Everyone arrived in Vitória, Espírito Santo in good health, great spirits, and with all of their luggage, Yee-HAWW! Most folks chose to arrive a full day or more early, so we arranged a lunch plus early afternoon birding outing which produced, among other things, excellent views of a pair of Pygmy Nightjars, a species not available on the rest of our tour route, so that was an auspicious start to the birding (we’d be willing to do that again next year if at least half of the group arrives into Vitória a full day ahead).
Our first “official” morning, in the foothills above Vitória, was kind of a washout, literally, as it rained the whole time and our second van, with less tread on the tires and a driver relatively inexperienced on muddy roads, got stuck when it did a slow-motion slide off the roadbed into the deeper mud at the edge. Unable to do anything about it immediately, we left it there, with the driver trying to arrange a tractor from the ranch we could see not too far away. Everybody piled into the lead van and we made it to the forest another mile or so ahead. Since it was the very first morning and most everything was new, and despite the steady, light rain, we had a fun hour or so of birding and even found a couple of more difficult birds: Black-billed Scythebill and Gray-hooded Flycatcher. Meanwhile, the other driver managed to get the van unstuck, and we continued on our merry way to the promised-land of the Cherry-throated Tanager, with a great lunch stop that featured very active bird feeders that produced several flashy hummers and tanagers. We then met up with folks from the Cherry-throated Tanager monitoring team at the Kaetés Reserve. The team is funded by the Brazilian equivalent of the USFWS and at least one Brazilian NGO, supplemented by contributions provided by visitors like us hoping to take advantage of the team’s monitoring efforts to see the tanagers. Boy, did that pay off grandly for us – and for team tanager! I pretty much knew that it was going to, because the team leader had told me, a couple of weeks earlier, that they were watching a nest with 3 eggs, with an update just a couple of days ahead of our arrival that the young were doing great and expected to fledge either the afternoon of our arrival, or in the next 1-2 days! Happily, the nest was very active and easy to scope from a wide trail, so everyone LOVED leisurely watching this mega-rarity well on our first afternoon, and again the next morning, in great light. When we were there, exactly 19 individuals in two localities were known to survive, plus the three chicks in the nest. All three fledged the day after our visit, and are still doing well, so now there are at least (maybe, “at most”) 22 individuals, making the Cherry-throated Tanager among the rarest birds on the planet (yet still, in second-place in Brazil to Stresemann’s Bristlefront, which is down to less than five -- and not including any possibly extinct species, like Purple-winged Ground-Dove, Kinglet Calyptura, and Rio de Janeiro Antwren). Weather was great on these opening days around Kaetés, and we picked up a number of other endemics including White-necked Hawk, Black-throated Trogon (Atlantic Forest [AF] endemic subspecies chrysochloros, soon to be split), White-bibbed Antbird, Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Bare-throated Bellbird, Swallow-tailed and Pin-tailed manakins, Crested Black-Tyrant, and the strange, monotypic endemics Brown and Olive-green tanagers.
Next up was nearby Santa Teresa, where we thoroughly enjoyed a hummingbird feeder extravaganza at a private property where we saw 16 species in an hour or so, all practically at arm’s-length (multiple Frilled Coquettes and Amethyst-throated Woodstars were voted best in show), then had lunch and zipped over to a remnant forested area where we used to get Wied’s Tyrant-Manakin, and sure enough, the birds were still there despite much of the forest having been cut or damaged by developers of a condominium. Crescent-chested Puffbird also showed very nicely there. Santa Teresa also produced close views of a pair of Spot-billed Toucanets, Salvadori’s Antwren, Greenish Schiffornis, Sharpbill, and Rufous-brown Solitaire among a host of flycatchers and tanagers.
The biggest logistics-infrastructure blow to this year’s tour was the loss of lodging at the Linhares Reserve, which was closed after the disastrous rupture of a dam far up the Rio Doce that killed lots of people and heavily polluted the river system with mining waste. The reserve was not at all affected by this, but the legislation involved with “proximity to” certain geographic conditions has caused it to be closed, at least temporarily; we’re hopeful it will be reopened by next year or maybe 2024, and that it will continue to have a good restaurant. As it was this year, we had to stay two nights in another, substandard (for FG Brazil tours) but clean and reasonably quiet hotel. Furthermore, the reserve is open only 6 am to 6 pm, which means you get in late (because of no DST), and cannot stay past sunset, which caused us to miss important night-birding. On the positive side of things, we enjoyed birding from a new, subcanopy tower that’s been put in fairly close to the reserve entrance, which turned out to be very productive. Overall, we did well at Linhares, with outstanding views of Variegated Tinamou (one stopped in a shady spot in the middle of a wide path… what?!), Least Pygmy-Owl (nominate form, endemic to AF), Minute Hermit, Ringed (AF Black-breasted) Woodpecker, Red-browed Parrot, Maroon-faced Parakeet (Ochre-marked heard only, dang it), Blue-winged Macaw, Black-headed Berryeater, and Cinereous Mourner (very rare anywhere in the AF). The “biggie” at Linhares is Red-billed Curassow -- we had a fabulous view of a female, and good views of a male we spooked out of a clearing. Linhares is the only “reasonably sure” place to see this regal bird.
After flying to Rio de Janeiro and lunch, we headed into the Serra do Mar mountains at Nova Friburgo, stopping at a roadside trail where we picked up Star-throated Antwren and Rufous-breasted Leaftosser. Next morning dawned calm with a nice, high overcast – really good conditions for birding nearby Pico de Caledonia. We used two 4-WD vehicles to get up to the higher elevations on a very steep, mostly cobblestone road. We found a superb pair of Large-tailed Antshrikes and a few more common birds fairly quickly, but we didn’t hear even a distant Gray-winged Cotinga, our target bird for the morning (it occurs only around the 6800-foot range here, in the Serra dos Órgãos). With a good dose of patience and a little more suspense than I was comfortable with, we eventually coaxed a bird into view, and it stayed put in a tree swaying wildly in the wind for about a minute, plenty long enough for everyone to get on it well – whew! We also enjoyed a killer view of White-throated Woodcreeper. After packing up and a big churrascaria lunch, we traveled along toward the town of Teresópolis with an important stop for Three-toed Jacamar, which performed beautifully for us, and we picked up Serra Antwren and Hangnest Tody-Tyrant as well.
Next morning, we birded bamboo-dominated forest patches en route to Itatiaia National Park, pulling up a fine male Blackish-blue Seedeater, then getting Dusky-tailed Antbird, Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant, and Half-collared Sparrow. But the highlight that morning was our local guide Ricardo spotting us a singing male Black-and-gold Cotinga! That was a very welcome bird to get in the scopes as it can be tough to see at Itatiaia. Dinner was on and most welcome at the comfy Hotel do Ypê, which sits at about 3000 feet elevation near the end of the paved road in Itatiaia National Park. We learned that weather there had been very nice the past three days, which is always scary…
It was raining fairly hard as we drove out of the park the next morning to climb back into the mountains a bit farther south, en route to the Agulhas Negras road, the highest-elevation road in Brazil. Rain had let up by the time we made it to the head of the road, and we quickly saw Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Rufous-backed Antvireo, and a little farther along, also Serra do Mar Tyrannulet and Black-capped Piprites (Yip Yip!!)… but it was generally quiet and slower than usual. As we continued our way up toward treeline, things went downhill, with rain increasing to the point that we couldn’t think of getting out of the vehicles. We had a brief window of birdability around our picnic lunch at the guard station, just enough to find Itatiaia Thistletail and Velvety Black-Tyrant, and, luckily, we managed good scope views of a male Green-crowned Plovercrest. The rest of the day was looking to be a washout, with widespread lousy weather over the high country, so we headed back to the hotel to enjoy the show at the feeders, which were bustling with hummers and tanagers especially because of the chilly, wet conditions. Unfortunately, poor, cold weather continued the next two days, and birding was decidedly muted, but we did come away with scope studies of Surucua Trogons (3 orangey-yellow bellies, 1 bright-red, all in the same spot), spectacular views of Slaty Bristlefront and Tufted Antshrike, Large-headed Flatbill (nominate subspecies endemic to AF, distinctive voice, sure to be split some day), and Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, but for the first time ever, no Saffron Toucanet, which we missed on Part 1 (North of the Tropic), something I would never have imagined could happen.
Weather improved greatly on our departure day from Itatiaia, and as we made our way toward the coast, driving through miles and miles of deforested mountain slopes, Marcelo spotted a large raptor on a power pole – an immature Chaco (formerly Crowned) Eagle! It stayed put long enough for everyone to enjoy leisurely scope views -- a fabulous bird to get, easily missed on the entire month of tours. After lunch, we continued down to the coast to go for the ultra-rare, Endangered, Black-hooded Antwren. The spot we’d had good luck finding the bird on our most recent (2018) tour had been wiped out by excavation for road repair, which was depressing. However, over the next hour or so, we heard at least 6 birds and finally managed to provide good views of at least one male for everyone in the group, a thumping success! Ubatuba was 2-3 hours farther along, and we made it there on-schedule for caipirinhas and a fine churrascaria dinner near our hotel.
Ubatuba is situated at the foot of the Serra do Mar mountains, which meet the sea just above shining white beaches – it’s a gorgeous area, with great birding. I was happy to see that our regular birding venues were all in good shape. Birding at Fazenda Angelim was excellent, as always, and we soon found a cooperative Spotted Bamboowren, Spot-backed Antshrike, Pale-browed Treehunter, and Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant plus a good variety of common but flashy species, and Peggy spotted a juvenile Tawny-browed Owl sitting out at the forest edge! We were also very lucky to have close studies of a family group of the rare Buffy Tufted-ear Marmoset. Despite lots of scanning and playback, however, we had not a whisper of Buff-bellied Puffbird, or Buff-throated Purpletuft, despite lots of fruiting mistletoe in the trees the purpletufts have always frequented in the past (I like to think they were on nests, probably not far away…). Our visit with Jonas, at his world-class hummingbird array “Folha Seca”, was every bit as exciting as ever – it was really great to see him and his hummers -- what an awesome place it is! On that drizzly, chilly afternoon there were Black Jacobins and Festive Coquettes all over the place, along with numerous Saw-billed Hermits and a dozen other species of hummers, not to mention the gobs of brilliant Brazilian, Green-headed, and Red-necked tanagers, euphonias, and dacnis.
The last full day of Part 1 saw us getting away from Ubatuba early to make a couple of stops at higher elevations in the Serra do Mar to go for Squamate Antbird (nailed it), Giant Antshrike (no sign, darn it), and Rufous-tailed Attila (nailed it, they had barely arrived from Amazonian wintering quarters), before getting to a marsh for the recently described Marsh Antwren, which was a nail-biter with a very happy ending. Our plan (hope) was to make it to our hotel near the airport of the largest city in South America to meet the four new participants arriving for Part 2 (South of the Capricorn) at around 5:30. We somehow made it there a little ahead of 5:30, and got everyone checked in and ready for a quick final checklist session and buffet dinner before sending seven folks to the airport for 9:00pm flights home. Marcelo’s wife and daughter, Renata and Lia (4), were there to meet us and have dinner, which was great.
Part 2 got into gear with a mid-morning departure for Intervales State Park, about a 5-hour drive out of São Paulo. Our first morning, under a clear blue sky and significantly cooler-than-usual temperatures, was a beautiful walk around the park HQ area. We started with a close Swallow-tailed Cotinga nest, getting to see the male relieved of incubation duties by the female, followed minutes later by a Red-and-white Crake that appeared out of the reeds to eat cracked corn that our excellent Intervales guide, Luiz, tossed out, followed by a stop to see Orange-breasted Thornbird, Sooty Tyrannulet, and a pair of Blackish Rails, followed minutes later by a frenzy of spinetails, tanagers, thrushes, and finches coming in to recordings. I’ve never seen rare Black-legged Dacnis, male and female, so close and for so long, truly wonderful! Some folks also connected with a fly-by Red-ruffed Fruitcrow that morning. All in all, our three full days at Intervales, all dry and quite chilly, were a fabulous birding experience, with a few additional highlights being an excellent view of a Black-fronted Piping-Guan (and another scoped on a distant ridge), an extended family of Spot-winged Wood-Quail pigging out on cracked corn literally at our feet, Saffron Toucanets (finally!), 2-3 Mantled Hawks, Rusty-breasted Nunlet (Marcelo spotted it in dense bamboo; rarely seen in SE Brazil), Dusky-throated Hermit, Purple-crowned Plovercrest, superb views of a singing pair of Blue-bellied Parrots that blasted in out of nowhere to land nearby, a couple of cooperative pairs of White-bearded Antshrikes, White-breasted Tapaculo and the undescribed “southern” Mouse-colored Tapaculo, the undescribed species of “Slaty” Bristlefront, Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, Oustalet’s, Bay-ringed, and Sao Paulo tyrannulets, a fabulous study of a Cinnamon-vented Piha on a nest(!), superb scope studies of a singing adult male Buffy-fronted Seedeater (there were a few around due to the abundance of fruiting bamboo), Temminck’s Seedeater (just one imm male, but it was singing full-on), Olive-green Tanagers, and lots more. We finally got in a little owling and were able to find Long-trained Nightjar (a wowee! bird), and close views of Long-tufted and Black-capped screech-owls.
After Intervales, our next destination was the coast of southern São Paulo at Ilha Comprida, a very long, narrow barrier island where rare Red-tailed Parrots regularly come to feed. By mid-afternoon, it was raining fairly hard, but as we neared the little town of Cananeia, we spotted several Red-tailed Parrots in trees right along the main highway! Everyone got to scope them fairly well (if also fairly wet!), but next morning on the island was better, with very good light. We also had fine views of Long-billed Wren, Restinga Tyrannulet, a fabulous Black-backed Tanager, and the nominate subspecies of Fuscous Flycatcher. We zipped back to the hotel to check out and head south toward Curitiba. As we neared the São Paulo/Paraná state border, I called a stop at a wide pull-out just to stretch legs and watch/listen for Vinaceous-breasted Parrots. We stood at the crest of a very deep, steep-sided ravine with a trashed car and other junk in the weedy bottom of it. We were just chatting away when I heard a Half-collared Sparrow super-far off, in the bottom of the ravine. We had seen it well on Part 1, but then missed it at Intervales for the first time in years, so I decided to try slipping down into the ravine a ways to get as close as possible to the bird. I thought, “What the heck, I guess it could show up for a minute way down there.” I played a recording for probably about a minute, and suddenly there was a bit of movement downslope, then a dart across an opening, and maybe 30 seconds later, the sparrow popped up at close range, the lasers shot out, and everybody got on it easily. Nice! It was a much-desired lifer for Hank, who gleefully showed us the lucky rock he had picked up at Intervales, which certainly must have helped!
Our two days in Curitiba were, as always, long ones, but our efforts paid off with a Sickle-winged Nightjar (unfortunately in flight only, but this is the only way to see the crazy wing-shape), and good views of Scaled Chachalaca, Marsh Antwren (nominate form here), Speckle-breasted Antpitta (the unnamed southern form), Azure Jay, Glaucous-blue Grosbeak, and Green-throated Euphonia. Wetland Tapaculo basically gave us the slip despite two of them singing a lot, one on either side of the road. A few folks managed a mere 1-second glimpse of one as it came into the back edge of an opening we made in the grass (see, or better, try to see, the video below). Our final early morning at Curitiba was dedicated to finding a Canebrake Groundcreeper, which we managed to see very well near its nest inside a large, cement culvert, of all places!
Birding around marshes and brushy grasslands in the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul on chilly but sunny days was very productive, highlighted by superb views of a singing male Tropeiro Seedeater, a rare endemic described new to science only a few years ago! Also fabulous were Plumbeous Rails, Straight-billed Reedhaunter (feeding young out of the nest), Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Lesser Grass-Finch, Sharp-tailed Tyrant, Black-and-white Monjita, Saffron-cowled Blackbirds, Yellow-rumped Marshbirds, Grassland Yellow-Finch, and Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch. It was scary to see that there were no Black-bellied Seedeaters, which are always easy around there – once they’ve arrived from the wintering grounds, that is. We were fortunate indeed to finally spot, at truly “the last minute”, four adult males that dropped out of the heavens to land in roadside grasses, perhaps having arrived at their breeding patch at that very moment. Birding the magnificent Araucaria-dominated forests around São Francisco de Paula was also fantastic as we got to see a regal pair of (over-due!) Robust Woodpeckers, a close Mottled Piculet, Olive Spinetail, Gray-bellied Spinetail, Striolated and Araucaria tit-spinetails, Scalloped Woodcreeper, the undescribed “Speckle-breasted” Antpitta some had missed earlier, Brown-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant, and Chestnut-headed Tanager. Blacksmith Thrush (formerly Eastern Slaty-Thrush) just had not made it back on to the southern breeding grounds by tour time. On our final evening, we visited the little towns of Gramado and Canela, founded by German immigrants, about an hour’s drive from São Francisco de Paula. Both towns are famous in Brazil for their elaborate Christmas decorations, which were already in shining and shimmering shape by 19 November, and we had a festive final dinner in Canela.
The last day of the tour was mostly a transfer to Porto Alegre, in the lowlands of Rio Grande do Sul. We made sure to get down there in plenty of time to do some birding and get to the airport for flights home. All went perfectly to plan, even including a stop to pull out a Curve-billed Reedhaunter, and another for easy Rufous-sided Crakes and hundreds of nesting ibises, egrets, and herons, plus White Woodpecker and a few other birds new to the list. Lunch at a classic, old churrascaria was great, and check-in for the flight to São Paulo was relaxed, with the flight right on time.
In the following list, the designation “N” marks species seen only on Part 1 (North of the Tropic), an “S” marks species seen only Part 2 (South of the Capricorn), and * denotes species heard only. Marcelo and I thoroughly enjoyed birding with you all, and very much look forward to birding lots more of Brazil with you in the future – there is so much to see!
KEYS FOR THIS LIST
One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) [E]
Seen on both tours this year. A nice Atlantic Forest endemic.
LITTLE TINAMOU (Crypturellus soui) [*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus)
VARIEGATED TINAMOU (Crypturellus variegatus)
N - A fantastic moment at Vale Natural Reserve, in Sooretama. We were looking for something else close to an intersection and an adult tinamou came in to the road and remained in there for several minutes.
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa)
RED-WINGED TINAMOU (Rhynchotus rufescens)
S - Seen crossing the road a couple of times.
SPOTTED NOTHURA (Nothura maculosa)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
YELLOW-BILLED PINTAIL (Anas georgica)
YELLOW-BILLED TEAL (Anas flavirostris)
EAST BRAZILIAN CHACHALACA (Ortalis araucuan) [E]
N - After an hour looking for it, we saw two birds at Melo Leitão Municipal park in Santa Teresa.
SCALED CHACHALACA (Ortalis squamata) [E]
S - Great moment near Antonina, three birds responded to the recording and came in close to us.
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)
This bird used to be hard to see 20 years ago due hunting and now a days is very adapted to live in different habitats.
BLACK-FRONTED PIPING-GUAN (Pipile jacutinga)
S - One the most wanted birds in SE Brazil; we had a couple of great views in Intervales State Park.
RED-BILLED CURASSOW (Crax blumenbachii) [E]
N - Another target for the northern part of the tour; both male and female seen well at Vale Natural Reserve.
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [E]
Heard at Itatiaia National Park, on the northern part. The local guides at Intervales are still doing a great job feeding a family of wood-quails, and people on the southern part had an unforgettable moment in there.
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) [*]
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
Probably the most common pigeon on both parts.
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea plumbea)
RUDDY GROUND DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
SCALED DOVE (Columbina squammata)
BLUE GROUND DOVE (Claravis pretiosa) [*]
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE (Geotrygon montana)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
EARED DOVE (Zenaida auriculata)
Originally from the Central and Northeast parts of Brazil, this bird is well adapted to live close to the cities and is becoming more common in the whole country.
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri)
Great bird seen nicely on both parts.
PYGMY NIGHTJAR (Nyctipolus hirundinaceus vielliardi)
The subspecies "vielliardi", restricted to the Espírito Santo state (as far as we know!) has a darker grey color, exactly like the rocks where they live.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis)
SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR (Eleothreptus anomalus)
Nice bird, hard to see everywhere.
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) [E]
S - Maybe the most incredible nightjar in Brazil, that very long tail is amazing to see in flight as we saw it at Intervales State Park.
OCELLATED POORWILL (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus)
N - Nice looks at Caetés Reserve.
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
SOOTY SWIFT (Cypseloides fumigatus)
A great group of birds seen flying over Ilha Comprida, on the southern part.
GREAT DUSKY SWIFT (Cypseloides senex)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis)
N - A single bird seen in Ubatuba.
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) [E]
A great SE Brazil endemic, only found in lowlands.
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus)
DUSKY-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis squalidus)
S - Fantastic looks at birds on their lek at Intervales.
MINUTE HERMIT (Phaethornis idaliae) [E]
N - YES! Great bird and fantastic looks at Vale Natural Reserve.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) [*]
PLANALTO HERMIT (Phaethornis pretrei)
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) [E]
WHITE-VENTED VIOLETEAR (Colibri serrirostris)
BLACK-EARED FAIRY (Heliothryx auritus)
A couple of nice looks on both parts.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) [E]
N - Coquettes are little precious gems. It's amazing how perfectly beautiful these birds can be in such a small body. The frill, the crest, the shiny and iridescent colors. This one is a nice example of it.
FESTIVE COQUETTE (Lophornis chalybeus) [E]
N - Mr Jonas's place is the best place in the world to see this bird. This year, in particular, the cold and rainy weather made a big difference for us and all the hummers and tanagers were very excited out there.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
Nice looks, mainly on the feeders at Ypê Hotel.
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
Another little precious bird. One of the smallest birds in Brazil, always nice to see it.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)
GREEN-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) [E]
N - A recent split; both plovercrests were seen really well this year, one on each part. This one was seen, despite the bad weather, on the high part of Itatiaia NP, on its lek.
PURPLE-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis loddigesii) [E]
S - A male seen well at Intervales.
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura)
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena cirrochloris)
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Chrysuronia versicolor)
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis)
Nice looking hummer, common along the SE Brazil.
GLITTERING-THROATED EMERALD (Chionomesa fimbriata)
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Chionomesa lactea)
RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis sapphirina)
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Chlorestes cyanus)
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis) [*]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) [*]
PLUMBEOUS RAIL (Pardirallus sanguinolentus)
S - Fantastic moment on the southern part. Two birds came in to the recording really close to the group.
UNIFORM CRAKE (Amaurolimnas concolor) [*]
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) [E]
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius)
Heard on the northern part and seen, impossibly better, around Porto Alegre, on the very last day of the tour.
RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE (Laterallus leucopyrrhus)
S - Another great view, thanks to the local guides of Intervales State Park for feeding the family in the park.
BLACK-NECKED STILT (WHITE-BACKED) (Himantopus mexicanus melanurus)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleuca)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus)
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus)
N - A few individuals seen in Ubatuba.
BLACK SKIMMER (Rynchops niger)
WOOD STORK (Mycteria americana)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens)
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Nannopterum brasilianum)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
N - A single one, seen on the way to Caetés Reserve.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nyctanassa violacea)
S - Only one bird seen by the mangroves around Antonina, Paraná state.
SCARLET IBIS (Eudocimus ruber)
S - Fantastic bird. The population is getting bigger now a days on the southern coastal area of São Paulo and border with Paraná states.
WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi)
GREEN IBIS (Mesembrinibis cayennensis)
BARE-FACED IBIS (Phimosus infuscatus)
BUFF-NECKED IBIS (Theristicus caudatus)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja)
S - A bird flying over our heads right after the Marsh Antwren showed itself.
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura)
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus)
HOOK-BILLED KITE (Chondrohierax uncinatus)
S - A single individual seen at Intervales State Park.
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis)
N - Fantastic looks at Caetés Reserve, a bird doing a flight display over the road.
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)
S - Great looks at Intervales.
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus)
S - Seen once, flying against the hill on the way down to Cananéia.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus)
N - Another great moment in Ubatuba, where we saw a bird soaring with some vultures over the Angelim Reserve.
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon)
Nice looks on both parts, especially the one seen in the scope, perched for several minutes at Intervales.
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
LONG-WINGED HARRIER (Circus buffoni)
S - What a bird!! Seen twice on the southern part, this bird has a very elegant flight over the tall grass fields.
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis)
N - A pair of birds seen from the Reserva Natural Vale canopy tower later in the afternoon.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-NECKED HAWK (Buteogallus lacernulatus) [E]
N - Fantastic bird and amazing moment at Caetés Reserve. We were about to get to the place to see the Cherry-throated Tanager, and an adult hawk flew from the road border and landed in front of the cars, remaining there for a few minutes.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga)
CHACO EAGLE (Buteogallus coronatus)
N - Another highlight on the northern part; on the way down to the coast, we spotted an immature bird perched on an electricity pole right by the road. The huge raptor remained there for a couple of minutes and then took off to the other side of the hill.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE (Geranoaetus melanoleucus)
S - An adult bird seen in perfect light flying over heads.
MANTLED HAWK (Pseudastur polionotus) [E]
N - A few nice looks, including a perched one at Intervales.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus)
LONG-TUFTED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) [E]
S - A great SE/S Brazil endemic. The Intervales State Park is pretty much the northern border of its range.
BLACK-CAPPED SCREECH-OWL (Megascops atricapilla) [E]
S - Great looks during our owling at Intervales.
LEAST PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium minutissimum) [E]
N - Superb looks from the RNV canopy towers.
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia)
GREEN-BACKED TROGON (Trogon viridis)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) [E]
Both races (T. s. surrucura and T. s. aurantius) seen very well during the tours.
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (CHRYSOCHLOROS) (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) [E]
Another nice looking bird seen on both tours.
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Great bird and great moments on both parts this year.
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona)
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana)
CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) [E]
N - Surprisedly quiet this year, we saw a pair of birds really well on the northern part.
RUSTY-BREASTED NUNLET (Nonnula rubecula)
S - Always hard to see, this shy little bird was seen once, foraging about eye level at Intervales.
SWALLOW-WINGED PUFFBIRD (Chelidoptera tenebrosa)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) [E]
N - Great Atlantic Forest endemic. We saw a family of these nice looking birds near Carmo.
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) [E]
S - After many days looking for it, three birds were seen nicely at Intervales.
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) [E]
Both male and female seen very very well on both parts, including a nest at Intervales.
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco)
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel)
RED-BREASTED TOUCAN (Ramphastos dicolorus) [E]
A few nice looks on both parts.
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) [E]
N - A nice male seen on the very first day.
OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET (Picumnus temminckii) [E]
S - Male and female seen nicely in Ubatuba.
MOTTLED PICULET (Picumnus nebulosus) [E]
S - A hard bird to get, this year they were very quiet. We were lucky to hear and see a female on the southern part.
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus)
S - A group of birds seen flycatching in Porto Alegre, on the last morning of the tour.
YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes flavifrons) [E]
A beautiful bird seen very well on both parts.
WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Dryobates spilogaster) [E]
RED-STAINED WOODPECKER (Dryobates affinis)
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) [E]
S - After almost 30 days looking for it, we finally saw a pair of birds on the São Francisco de Paula National Forest.
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus)
RINGED WOODPECKER (ATLANTIC BLACK-BREASTED) (Celeus torquatus tinnunculus) [E]
N - Rare bird alert!!! This race, endemic to the Atlantic Forest is only found in fragments with good forest and these areas are hard to find. The Reserva Natural Vale is one of these places and their canopy tower helps a lot!
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens flavescens)
Another beauty seen on both parts.
YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER (Piculus flavigula erythropis)
N - The "red-throated" race, endemic to the Atlantic Forest, seen well in the Espírito Santo state.
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (GREEN-BARRED) (Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
CAMPO FLICKER (FIELD) (Colaptes campestris campestroides)
S - Nice looks near São Francisco de Paula.
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis)
CRESTED CARACARA (SOUTHERN) (Caracara plancus plancus)
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
CHIMANGO CARACARA (Milvago chimango)
LAUGHING FALCON (Herpetotheres cachinnans)
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)
S - We saw a bird hunting insects at dusk over the grass fields with a great sunset in the background. Great moment near Curitiba.
MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta monachus)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
PILEATED PARROT (Pionopsitta pileata) [E]
Seen flying over on the northern part. We had fantastic looks near to our lodge in Intervales. A pair of birds was seen feeding almost everyday.
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) [E]
S - Maybe the most wanted parrot in SE/S Brazil. This birds has a weird sound, similar to a thrush, easy to recognize in the forest.
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (REICHENOW'S) (Pionus menstruus reichenowi) [E]
N - This race has a nice bluish belly, different from the Amazonian one.
VINACEOUS-BREASTED PARROT (Amazona vinacea) [E]
S - A couple of fantastic looks on the southern part of the tour.
RED-SPECTACLED PARROT (Amazona pretrei) [E]
S - Fantastic bird!! We had some great looks, in perfect light around Passo da Ilha State Park. We saw bigger numbers of birds this year than last time in there.
RED-BROWED PARROT (Amazona rhodocorytha) [E]
N - Brazil is not called The Parrot Land for nothing!! This is another great example of great birds we can see on this tour. We saw a few individuals flying over our heads from the RNV canopy tower.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa)
RED-TAILED PARROT (Amazona brasiliensis) [E]
S - The first bird we saw when we arrived in Cananéia. This was one of the target species for that area and to see those birds like that was very special.
ORANGE-WINGED PARROT (Amazona amazonica)
COBALT-RUMPED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
Seen nicely on both parts.
OCHRE-MARKED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura cruentata) [*]
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura frontalis)
MAROON-FACED PARAKEET (Pyrrhura leucotis) [E]
N - One of the main targets for the lowlands of Espírito Santo, thanks to our friend and local guide Brener, we saw a group of 12 birds from the RNV canopy tower. Unforgettable moment for all of us.
PEACH-FRONTED PARAKEET (Eupsittula aurea)
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana)
N - A few great looks from the RNV canopy tower.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) [E]
Nice looking bird, usually moving through the canopy with flocks, we saw it well on both tours.
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) [*]
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) [E]
N - One of the greatest birds in SE/S Brazil. We had some fantastic views of both male and females on Pico da Caledônia mountain.
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) [E]
In the same genus of the Large-tailed Antshrike, this huge antbird is also really special and it was seen well on both parts.
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) [E]
S - Maybe a "Top 5 bird" for this tour, the southern part of the tour was above the average this year. The birds were quiet in general but we managed to see both male and a female foraging in some patches of bamboo at Intervales.
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus)
N - A nice looking antbird, with heavy black and white streaks on the chest in contrast with a beautiful chestnut color on the back. Great bird and great looks on the northern part of the tour.
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) [E]
N - Nice Atlantic Forest endemic seen very well on the very first morning.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens gilvigaster)
S - The "gilvigaster" race with the buffy flanks, seen well on the southern part.
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) [E]
A little jewel of the Atlantic forest seen on both parts.
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) [E]
N - This one is only found on the high altitudes like Itatiaia National Park where we saw it.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa)
N - Another possible split, the subspecies "luctuosa" is found basically in the lowlands of Bahia and Espirito Santo states.
SALVADORI'S ANTWREN (Myrmotherula minor) [E]
N - A Top 5 bird this year, after a few days looking for it, we found a nice mixed-species flock near Santa Teresa and a beautiful adult male was seen very very well moving with the flock.
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) [E]
Nice bird, usually foraging with understory flocks seen on both parts.
RUFOUS-MARGINED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) [E]
N - Nice looks at Itatiaia NP.
BLACK-HOODED ANTWREN (Formicivora erythronotos) [E]
N - YES!! A bird only found between the cities of Paraty and Angra dos Reis, by the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, this bird is a precious gem of SE Brazil. We heard about 5 individuals but only one of them showed itself.
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) [E]
N - Nice looks near Carmo, state of Rio de Janeiro.
MARSH ANTWREN (Formicivora acutirostris) [E]
S - A male seen very very well in a huge marsh near Antonina, Paraná state.
MARSH ANTWREN (SAO PAULO) (Formicivora acutirostris paludicola)
N - Considered by some authorities as a subspecies, the race "paludicola" is restricted to the state of São Paulo and distinguished from the nominate one by the males with a black breast instead of grey.
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
As all the Drymophila genus members, this one is a beauty! Usually foraging near to bamboo patches with some other insectivorous species.
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
S - Very similar to the Ferruginous Antbird but with a different song. We saw it well at Intervales.
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) [E]
N - A treasure from the highlands of SE Brazil. This bird is only found in good forest up above 1300m. We saw a pair of them really really well at Itatiaia NP.
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) [E]
N - Seen nicely close to Petrópolis, state of Rio de Janeiro.
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]
Another nice looking antbird usually seen moving along with mixed-species flocks.
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) [E]
N - A special moment at Caetés reserve. A male and female seen close to the trail for a few minutes.
SQUAMATE ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus squamosus) [E]
What a bird!!! Usually seen walking on the ground looking for bugs, we saw it very well on both tours.
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) [E]
Great bird, endemic to the Atlantic Forest, seen on both tours.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata lineata)
N - The nominate race, this one has a long call with fast notes. We saw it nicely near to Petrópolis.
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata anomala) [E]
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) [*]
[SPECKLE-BREASTED] ANTPITTA (Hylopezus sp. nov.) [E]
S - Fantastic moment at São Fco do Sul National Forest. We found a place to call this beauty close to us near to the trail.
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) [E]
One of the best moments we've had at Ubatuba, after a few minutes looking for it, we managed to see this elusive bird moving thought the trees and for a few seconds completely in the open.
SLATY BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis ater) [E]
N - Another Atlantic Forest treasure seen well at Itatiaia.
[SLATY] BRISTLEFRONT (Merulaxis sp. nov.) [E]
S - Still unnamed, this race occurs from the southern part of São Paulo to the south and it's distinguished mainly by its much slower song.
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) [E]
S - Great looks at Intervales.
MARSH TAPACULO (Scytalopus iraiensis) [E]
S - A few people managed to see it moving underneath the grass near Curitiba.
PLANALTO TAPACULO (Scytalopus pachecoi) [E*]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) [E]
N - Another inhabitant of the highlands of SE/S Brazil.
[MOUSE-COLORED] TAPACULO (Scytalopus sp. nov.) [E]
S - As the undescribed Bristlefront, this one is still waiting for a formal description.
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) [*]
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) [*]
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) [E*]
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor) [E]
Seen well on both tours.
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
A big Woodcreeper seen on both tours.
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) [E]
The biggest one!! This huge woodcreeper was also seen on both parts.
LESSER WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris) [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [E]
BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER (BUFF-THROATED) (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus) [E]
STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER (Dendroplex picus)
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) [E]
N - One of the most beautiful examples of the power of evolution, that long curved beak is a perfect weapon to find bugs in deep holes.
SCALED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) [E]
SCALLOPED WOODCREEPER (Lepidocolaptes falcinellus) [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus)
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura)
Nice bird to see on any tour.
CURVE-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnornis curvirostris)
S - A nice surprise, this year we had some time to see this bird on the way to Porto Alegre.
LONG-TAILED CINCLODES (Cinclodes pabsti) [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (RUFOUS-TAILED) (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti) [E]
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus contaminatus) [E]
N - Great looks at Itatiaia.
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus camargoi) [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
Seen well on both tours.
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Dendroma rufa)
CANEBRAKE GROUNDCREEPER (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) [E]
S - Thanks to our friend Thiago, we saw a pair of birds nesting in big pipe in Curitiba.
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
STRIOLATED TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura striolata) [E]
ARAUCARIA TIT-SPINETAIL (Leptasthenura setaria) [E]
S - A great bird, endemic to the Atlantic Forest, this bird spends almost its whole life on the Araucaria pine trees.
FRECKLE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus striaticollis)
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) [E]
ORANGE-BREASTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus ferrugineigula) [E]
S - Thanks to our friend Luis, a local guide at Intervales, we saw it really well.
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi)
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) [E]
N - A great Atlantic Forest endemic, this little one lives on the grassy fields habitat above 1500m.
STRAIGHT-BILLED REEDHAUNTER (Limnoctites rectirostris)
S - A bird seen carrying nest material (or something like that) on the southern tour.
OLIVE SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca obsoleta) [E]
S - Close related to the Pallid Spinetail, we saw it well on the S. F. do Sul National Forest.
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus)
Seen well on both tours.
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) [E]
S - A pair of birds seen well on the southern tour.
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) [E]
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
WIED'S TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma aurifrons) [E]
N - Tyrant-manakins are usually quiet and shy birds. We managed to see two of these rare ones near to Santa Teresa.
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) [E]
Heard on the first tour and seen well at Intervales.
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) [E]
Another great Atlantic Forest endemic, it's not a rare one but it's one of the most beautiful manakins in Brazil.
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) [E]
Brazil is full of manakins but this one is, at least, a top 3 bird. We had an unforgettable moment at Caetés reserve. A male responded to the recording and landed below eye level for a few minutes right in front of the group.
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus)
WHITE-CROWNED MANAKIN (WHITE-CROWNED) (Pseudopipra pipra cephaleucos)
N - A female (or young male) seen at VNR.
RED-HEADED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra rubrocapilla)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) [E]
Atlantic Forest has two berryeaters, the only species in Brazil, and we saw both birds very well on the tours. This one was seen on both parts.
BLACK-HEADED BERRYEATER (Carpornis melanocephala) [E]
N - More rare than the Hooded Berryeater, this species is only found in lowlands. This year we saw a single bird at RNV.
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (Phibalura flavirostris)
A great year for it! Thanks to our local guides we saw birds on the nests on both tours.
RED-RUFFED FRUITCROW (Pyroderus scutatus)
S - A couple of brief looks at Intervales.
SCREAMING PIHA (Lipaugus vociferans)
CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA (Lipaugus lanioides) [E]
Seen briefly on the first part and an adult was found incubating by the local guides at Intervales.
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Lipaugus ater) [E]
N - With a long high pitch whistle song, this beautiful bird may be heard along the nice valleys of the highlands of SE Brazil. We made a stop between the cities of Teresópolis and Petrópolis and Ricardo found two adult males singing on their favorite trees.
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Lipaugus conditus) [E]
N - One of the rarest birds in Brazil, only found above 1600m and restricted to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Every time we go to try for it we have no idea what's gonna happen, especially due the unpredictable weather up there. This year, after some time looking for it, we finally managed to call one close to us, right in front of the group. I'm sure that was the best look in many years. Congratulations you guys!!!!
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) [E]
Maybe the most special sound of SE/S Brazil, it's really nice to see the bright white bird sitting on top of the bare trees singing for a while along the valleys. We were very lucky and saw it nicely on both tours.
BLACK-TAILED TITYRA (Tityra cayana)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor)
BROWN-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (BROWN-WINGED) (Schiffornis turdina turdina)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
Good looks on both tours.
CINEREOUS MOURNER (Laniocera hypopyrra)
N - A fairly common bird in the Amazon, the population in the Atlantic Forest is restricted to a few big fragments like RNV in the Espírito Santo. Thanks to our friend Brener, local guide, we saw it well.
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
A nice colorful Becard seen well on both parts.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD (Pachyramphus marginatus)
Seen on the first part and heard only on the second one.
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus)
Nice looks on both parts.
ROYAL FLYCATCHER (SWAINSON'S) (Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni) [E]
S - Sometimes considered as a separated species, the AF population is close related to the nice clear water streams where it builds its nest close by. Thanks to the local guides at Intervales, we saw an adult flycatching over the water.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis)
BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (BUFF-RUMPED) (Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi) [E]
WING-BARRED PIPRITES (Piprites chloris)
S - Seen briefly at Intervales.
BLACK-CAPPED PIPRITES (Piprites pileata) [E]
N - One more jewel of the mountains of SE/S Brazil. The Itatiaia National Park is one of the best places to see it and we did it really well!!
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis)
Seen on both tours.
RESTINGA TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes kronei) [E]
S - That was a memorable moment!! We found a nice habitat and after sometime looking for the bird, a pair of them came close to the recording. It was interesting because one bird was all grey, with no yellow/brown feathers.
SAO PAULO TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes paulista) [E]
Fantastic looks on both tours.
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) [E]
Another one seen well on both tours.
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) [E]
BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes sylviolus) [E]
S - Great bird, endemic to the Atlantic Forest. Intervales State Park is a great place to see it and we did a good job!
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E]
A couple of nice looks on both tours.
BROWN-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus obsoletus zimmeri) [E]
S - After some days looking for it, we found a responsive bird on the second tour.
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) [E]
Seen well on both tours.
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus kaempferi) [E]
S - Nice bird with a small range, between Santa Catarina and Paraná states. The place where we usually see it was not available this year but we had a Plan B and found the bird somewhere else.
FORK-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus furcatus) [E]
N - This was a great year for this bird. We saw it very well a few times in Itatiaia and Ubatuba.
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)
A fairly common bird seen on both tours.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) [E]
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (Tolmomyias flaviventris)
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (SWALLOW) (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET (Ornithion inerme)
N - Seen briefly at RNV.
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola)
SHARP-TAILED TYRANT (Culicivora caudacuta)
S - Common in the Cerrado habitat, this tiny little bird may be found in some areas outside of the original habitat. Some grassy fields have similar habitats and we found a pair of birds on the second tour.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps)
SMALL-HEADED ELAENIA (Elaenia sordida)
Seen well on both tours.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA (Elaenia parvirostris)
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca)
S - Nice looks along the second tour.
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans)
S - Fantastic looks on our first morning at Intervales.
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata)
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri)
GREENISH TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias virescens) [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (Lathrotriccus euleri)
FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER (FUSCOUS) (Cnemotriccus fuscatus fuscatus) [E]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes)
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) [E]
N - Nice looks on the first tour.
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys)
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus)
S - Seen a few times on the southern tour.
WHITE MONJITA (Xolmis irupero)
GRAY MONJITA (Nengetus cinereus)
S - Great scope studies on the southern tour.
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) [E]
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa)
It's always nice to see this bird, especially doing the duet display.
BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA (Heteroxolmis dominicana)
S - A big Monjita seen a couple of times. This bird is usually seen moving along the fields with groups of Saffron-cowled Blackbirds.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
LARGE-HEADED FLATBILL (Ramphotrigon megacephalum megacephalum) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA (Attila phoenicurus)
Both Rufous-tailed and Gray-hooded attilas seen along the two tours. Well done you guys!!
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator)
GRAYISH MOURNER (Rhytipterna simplex simplex) [E]
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
SHORT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus ferox)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus)
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) [E]
N - Great looks on the northern tour.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
THREE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER (Conopias trivirgatus)
S - A kind of Kiskadee miniature, Intervales is a great place to see it.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana)
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis)
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
CHIVI VIREO (MIGRATORY) (Vireo chivi chivi)
AZURE JAY (Cyanocorax caeruleus) [E]
S - Our first view of these birds was near Antonina and the group was looking for food in a barbecue area where people leave food behind.
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
WHITE-THIGHED SWALLOW (Atticora tibialis)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN (Progne tapera)
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa)
Seen on both tours.
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
THRUSH-LIKE WREN (Campylorhynchus turdinus) [*]
MOUSTACHED WREN (Pheugopedius genibarbis) [*]
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris)
S - Nice looks at Ilha Comprida.
CHALK-BROWED MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus saturninus)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)
COCOA THRUSH (Turdus fumigatus) [*]
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes)
One of the most beautiful thrushes in Brazil, this one also has a very complex song.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis)
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
This is the breeding season in SE/S Brazil and this was probably the most heard bird along the tours.
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
HELLMAYR'S PIPIT (Anthus hellmayri brasilianus)
S - We made a stop to make a try for it and the bird was already singing atop of a fence post.
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica)
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) [E]
S - Fantastic looks near to Curitiba.
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) [E]
Heard only on the first part and seen well on the second tour. We made a stop on the way to Curitiba and a bird called from a way off, but with patience, the bird came really close to the group.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
GOLDEN-WINGED CACIQUE (Cacicus chrysopterus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CAMPO TROUPIAL (Icterus jamacaii)
N - Seen mainly along the road on the first tour.
SCREAMING COWBIRD (Molothrus rufoaxillaris)
S - Two individuals seen in a parking lot at Ilha Comprida.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
GRAYISH BAYWING (Agelaioides badius badius)
S - A few individuals seen on the second tour.
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus)
SAFFRON-COWLED BLACKBIRD (Xanthopsar flavus)
S - Great bird, seen in small flocks moving along the marshes.
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) [E]
RIVERBANK WARBLER (Myiothlypis rivularis)
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) [E]
Seen on both parts, some birds are often seen coming to the feeders at Ypê Hotel.
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica)
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) [*]
BLACKISH-BLUE SEEDEATER (Amaurospiza moesta) [E]
N - A hard bird to get anywhere. We saw it by the road near Teresópolis in a big patch of bamboo.
GLAUCOUS-BLUE GROSBEAK (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea)
S - After sometime looking for it, a male finally responded to the recording in a huge marsh not too far from Curitiba. After that a female also came in close.
BROWN TANAGER (Orchesticus abeillei) [E]
S - Three birds seen moving along with a canopy flock at Intervales.
RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
A gorgeous bird seen on both tours this year.
CHERRY-THROATED TANAGER (Nemosia rourei) [E]
N - Well, it's hard to describe that moment. There are about 25 birds left, in two different fragments. We are so lucky to have a group of great researchers who are doing a GREAT job following the groups and collecting some very important data about them. This year they found a nest at Caetés Reserve with 3 young birds on it and we spent some great time watching the adults coming to feed them several times. We are very thankful to the researchers working hard to keep the species safe.
GRAY-THROATED WARBLING FINCH (Microspingus cabanisi)
S - Nice looks on the southern tour.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Loriotus cristatus)
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) [E]
Gorgeous bird seen well on both tours.
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) [E]
Endemic to the mountains of SE/S Brazil we had some fantastic looks on both tours, including a nest found by the local guides at Intervales.
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota)
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) [E]
GOLDEN-CHEVRONED TANAGER (Thraupis ornata) [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum)
BLACK-BACKED TANAGER (Stilpnia peruviana) [E]
S - Male and female seen right before the Restinga Tyrannulet show up.
CHESTNUT-BACKED TANAGER (Stilpnia preciosa) [E]
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (Stilpnia cayana)
TURQUOISE TANAGER (WHITE-BELLIED) (Tangara mexicana brasiliensis) [E]
N - Distinguished from the Amazonian race by the white belly (instead of yellow) this is a potential split.
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]
One more precious stone from Atlantic Forest and lucky for us, a common one.
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) [E]
Fairly common on the first part of the tour and seen briefly a couple of times at Intervales.
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS (Dacnis nigripes) [E]
S - One of the most wanted species in SE/S Brazil. Very similar to its cousin Blue Dacnis, the females are very different with a brown color instead of green, despite the black legs, of course.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus)
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis)
BICOLORED CONEBILL (Conirostrum bicolor)
N - Great looks in a huge mangrove area at Vitória.
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) [E]
LONG-TAILED REED FINCH (Donacospiza albifrons)
S - A pair of birds seen well near Curitiba.
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING FINCH (Castanozoster thoracicus) [E]
BLACK-AND-RUFOUS WARBLING FINCH (Poospiza nigrorufa)
S - Usually found close to marsh areas, we saw it a few times on the southern tour.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH (GRASSLAND) (Sicalis luteola luteiventris)
LESSER GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides ypiranganus)
S - Both Lesser and Great Pampas-Finches seen on the second part.
GREAT PAMPA-FINCH (Embernagra platensis)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
BLACK-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila melanogaster) [E]
S - After some time looking for it, 3 adult males were seen flying over the road. We stooped the cars and had some great looks!!
CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEED-FINCH (Sporophila angolensis)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
TEMMINCK'S SEEDEATER (Sporophila falcirostris) [E]
Seen on both tours.
BUFFY-FRONTED SEEDEATER (Sporophila frontalis) [E]
TROPEIRO SEEDEATER (Sporophila beltoni)
S - A very special bird, native from the natural fields of the south. We had fantastic looks of male and female on a great sunny morning.
PILEATED FINCH (Coryphospingus pileatus)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
SOOTY GRASSQUIT (Asemospiza fuliginosa)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) [E]
Another one seen on both tours.
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) [E]
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus geoffroyi) [E]
BUFFY-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus aurita) [E]
N - A rare mammal to see now a days. We saw a small group at Fazenda Angelim.
MASKED TITI MONKEY (Callicebus personatus) [E]
N - Nice looks at Augusto Ruschi Municipal Park.
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) [*]
BROWN CAPUCHIN (Cebus apella)
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) [E]
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus)
EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus europaeus)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
BROWN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta variegata)
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (Tursiops truncatus)
S - A few individuals while we were on the ferry to Ilha Comprida.
PAMPAS FOX (Pseudalopex gymnocercus)
S - Four different individuals seen on the second tour.
CRAB-EATING FOX (Cerdocyon thous)
SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (Nasua nasua)
N - Seen at Reserva Natural Vale.
Totals for the tour: 500 bird taxa and 14 mammal taxa