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Field Guides Tour Report
Serra dos Tucanos, Brazil 2014
Sep 6, 2014 to Sep 16, 2014
John Rowlett & Andy Foster

The extraordinary Gray-winged Cotinga, by participant Gregg Recer

Another excellent, brief trip to the Atlantic Forest! We had our usual 100 or so endemics, our genial group was physically and intellectually energetic, there were no major health problems, and the weather was painless because rainless--although the late dry period, combined with the slow end to winter at this latitude, hurt us a bit in the total species department. Normally we see all six Drymophilas very well; this year we heard them all but saw only four, and even those were rather silent compared to past trips. Normally, we see all the "big five" antshrikes, but this year we heard only three and saw but two! Song was a bit slow in general. Solitary Tinamous were only beginning to sing. The Black Jacobins had just returned (no coquettes yet), and Olive-green Tanagers were still flocking at the banana feeders (they return to the forest once the days warm up). On the other hand, we had four species new for the tour: Common Potoo (sitting on an egg, I suspect), a covey of Spot-winged Wood-Quail (simply heard on prior trips), a Robust Woodpecker flyover, and a splendid pair of Green-throated Euphonias (which we had heard only twice prior to this trip). And all but for the potoo, endemics.

We had arrangements to use Nilton, our 4x4 driver, to ferry us up Pico da Caledonia, but his vehicle developed differential problems on the way up and he had to arrange, differentially, for a backup, an interruption which cost us about two hours. Yet one of the highlights that day was watching a rare Gray-winged Cotinga eating fruit only 25 feet away for about 20 minutes! We finally walked away. Other tour highlights included late morning views of a roosting Tawny-browed Owl, about four Spot-winged Wood-Quail, an outstanding Plovercrest showing off at the lek, exceptional views of Spotted Bamboowren, an extraordinary experience with a pair of Tufted Antshrikes, the always so-cool Oustalet's Tyrannulet, a very accommodating Sharpbill, commanding Bare-throated Bellbirds, a knee-buckling encounter with Chestnut-headed Tanager (one of my favorites), a crazy Red-legged Seriema, and my first Southern River Otter for the Atlantic Forest. Gorgeous habitat and a grounds full of spectacular birds frequenting the feeders rounded out, daily, a humdinger of a tour.

I want to thank my co-leader Andy Foster for his unfailing good cheer despite the temporary separation from Cristina and Olivia, not to mention his expertise and avian know-how; the staff of Serra dos Tucanos that has over nine years provided superlative service, food, and desserts; and each of you for making guiding birding tours a continuing exciting source of pleasure. A special thanks to Gregg for contributing to SmugMug some handsome photos to remind us all of the beauty we collectively absorbed.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) – As the weather warmed up, this species began delivering its rich whistle upslope behind the lodge. [E*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]
TATAUPA TINAMOU (Crypturellus tataupa) – Andy saw one crossing the road where we saw White-bibbed Antbird.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – About 10 birds at REGUA.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Good studies in the fruiting trees at the entrance to Portao Azul.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) – What a delightful surprise seeing a family group of these endemics cross the road at Serra dos Orgaos NP and settle down for some good views through the vegetation below the road. [E]
Podicipedidae (Grebes)

Common Potoo, likely on an egg, by guide John Rowlett

LEAST GREBE (Tachybaptus dominicus) – One on that "sterile lake" along the Portao Azul track.
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – Plentiful over Rio.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Anhingidae (Anhingas)
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) – One at REGUA.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – An adult at REGUA.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – One beauty at REGUA.
Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)
ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Platalea ajaja) – Several feeding in the shallows just out of Rio.
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Daily.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Also daily.
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – One en route from the airport to Serra dos Tucanos; then three later near Duas Barras. We noted the pale brownish areas at the base of the primaries, as seen from above, and we observed their habit of flying very low over the savannahs they course.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – A pair seen circling overhead by most at the rest stop near Duas Barras.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – One bird way up the distant slope behind the lodge that could be seen on the nest through the spotting scope.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis) – Nice views.
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) – Several seen well.
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – One seen in Orgaos NP.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Delightful studies of a pair which hung out at the lodge, one even eating from the banana feeder! Their rollicking duets were heard mostly in the late evening. [E]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – A pair seen near the cattails along the road to Duas Barras.

Yes, a WILD Red-legged Seriema, by participant Gregg Recer

PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – Less common than Common; a few at REGUA.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Common at REGUA.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A pretty bird, seen well.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – Adults and young at REGUA.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
SOUTH AMERICAN TERN (Sterna hirundinacea) – Several seen near Rio on our way to the airport.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia) [I]
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro) – A big pigeon!
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) – Mostly heard, but one was seen along the Cedae track.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – Daily.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – Several flybys along the Macae de Cima road.
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla) – One along the Cedae track; heard along the Theodoro trail.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Several enjoyed.
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira) – Seen first along the roadside by Gregg, then by all en route to Duas Barras.
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) – A responsive bird seen at REGUA.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) – Great views of a pair roosting near headquarters at REGUA.
TAWNY-BROWED OWL (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) – What an unexpected treat to see one of a pair we spooked during the day at REGUA. We had wondered if one of the birds might by drawn into view in response to playback during the day, and by golly it worked! We had fine looks through the scope! [E]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – We enjoyed watching passerines mob a bird near the Tropical Screech-Owls at REGUA. Good study.
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – Seen on several occasions on a light fixture on the outskirts of Macacao da Cachoeiras. That's what you call a stakeout.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – Fabulous study of a bird at REGUA that looked to be sitting on an egg. The first time we've had this species on the tour.
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris) – Big groups on numerous days.
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris) – Widespread; mostly seen over the lodge early and late.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – A daily delight at the lodge hummingbird feeders. [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – Almost daily at the feeders! A great way to see this species, as it can be difficult in the field. [E]

Saw-billed Hermit, by participant Gregg Recer

RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – One mobbing the Pgymy-Owl at REGUA.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – Seen by some along the Portao Azul track.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – Two along the Macae de Cima road. [E]
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Lovely males and females at the lodge; a few also seen elsewhere away from the feeders. [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina) – One female seen en route to Duas Barras.
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – One female, one male seen of separate days.
PLOVERCREST (EMERALD-CRESTED) (Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi) – One of the highlights of the trip was getting such stunning looks at a male lekking along the Macae de Cima road. That crest and those colors are devastating. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – A good-looking male with a long tail was regular at the lodge hummingbird feeders.
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – This beauty is regular at the feeders, males and females. [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – Seen daily at the lodge feeders; a pugnacious, modestly clad hummer with a "bull neck." [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – Seen on several occasions, but it prefers higher elevations than the lodge, so we had none at feeders.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor) – A male was a frequent visitor to the lodge feeders.
SAPPHIRE-SPANGLED EMERALD (Amazilia lactea) – A couple of birds seen nicely on the Duas Barras-Sumidouro day.
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus cyanus) – Seen perched near the Pygmy-Owl at REGUA.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – A lovely endemic seen well on several occasions. [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus chrysochloros) – Two seen along the Cedae track; a stunning male seen along the Theodoro trail.
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – Darn. I think the lack of rain and the cool temps kept this bird from showing; we heard it well up slope behind the lodge but couldn't get it into view. They were not to be found in some of the usual sites away from the lodge, though we did hear one at REGUA. [E*]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – Up-close looks at three birds near Sumidouro (where we had the Curl-crested Jays) that came into playback.

White-eared Puffbird, by guide John Rowlett

CRESCENT-CHESTED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila striata) – Fine looks at a bird at the Three-toed Jacamar spot, Sumidouro. The only Malacoptila in the Atlantic Forest. [E]
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – Tremendous study of this scarce endemic near Sumidouro, its six toes in evidence through the scope! Its manner of "nervously" looking about to spot aerial prey is characteristic of all the small jacamars. This one is placed in a monotypic genus. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – Nice and close above the trail at REGUA where we saw the Tufted Antshrikes so well.
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – Good views of three birds along the Cedae trail. What a handsome toucanet! We also had a female at Serra dos Orgaos NP. [E]
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) – Seen our first afternoon at the lodge, and heard almost daily from then on, as birds closed the day communally with their vocalizations from exposed perches. This taxon is quite different in appearance from other conspecifics in northern South America.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – Heard quite often and finally seen well near Sumidouro, where we saw a nest cavity as well. [E]
WHITE WOODPECKER (Melanerpes candidus) – A small group flew overhead at the Curl-crested Jay place. Exciting!
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) – A female our first afternoon at the lodge; then a male at REGUA. [E]
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris) – A smart-looking flicker! Seen nicely on several occasions along the road to Duas Barras.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (BLOND-CRESTED) (Celeus flavescens flavescens) – A pair of this flashy endemic seen in the lower part of Orgaos NP; later, a pair was seen at REGUA. Big for a Celeus. [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – Tremendous experience with a handsome male along the road near Duas Barras.
ROBUST WOODPECKER (Campephilus robustus) – What a surprise as one of these big Campephilus flew high overhead at Serra dos Orgaos NP! Playback would not entice its return. [E]
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – What an incredible show to witness a seriema atop the building at some 6500 feet up Pico da Caledonia! The lead vehicle had pushed it up the road for some distance before it finally took refuge atop this structure. Memorable photos documented this bizarre event. We also saw a distant bird on the nest from the rest stop near Duas Barras. [N]
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – Here and there.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – A harbinger of drier country; most frequent on our Sumidouro day.
Psittacidae (Parrots)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (MAROON-TAILED) (Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis) – Best seen on the feeders at the lodge. [E]
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Aratinga leucophthalma) – Seen well, especially so at the Serra Antwren spot en route to Duas Barras, where we saw the white round its eye.

The local and endemic Three-toed Jacamar, by participant Gregg Recer

BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – The tiny Forpus of the area.
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – Seen well on the feeders at the lodge, as well as group flyovers. [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani) – The common Pionus of the area; seen mostly in flight, though we had three settled in the lower part of Serra dos Orgaos NP.
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – Painful only to hear this cool endemic. Several left the dense trees along the Cedae track, exclaiming loudly as they took flight. Alas, a frequent experience with this species. [E*]
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – Our first male along the Portao Azul track; then a couple of pair along the Theodoro trail. What a bird!
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – Alas, heard only. I think the cool, dry conditions really affected the suppressed activity of this species. [E*]
TUFTED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena severa) – Stunning views of a pair along the trail at REGUA. [E]
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – Seen nicely at REGUA.
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – This endemic Thamnophilus was seen at REGUA. Recall that "sooretama" is an indigenous word for "Atlantic Forest." [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens) – Seen fairly frequently in forested areas.
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – This little endemic is now placed in a monotypic genus. We had several along the Cedae track. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – Seen our first afternoon behind the lodge. Also heard along the Cedae track. [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – Seen well on the flanks of Pico da Caledonia. [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – Seen well at REGUA. Watch for this taxon to be split. [E]
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – Both sexes seen very nicely in the mixed flocks at REGUA. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus) – Seen by some of the group at REGUA. This, the nominate taxon, is likely to be split. [E]
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) – Fantastic views of this virtually all-black-bodied Formicivora en route to Duas Barras. The taxon interposita is a candidate for a split. [E]
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – Seen extremely well along the Theodoro trail on our last day. [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) – Seen along the Macae de Cima road. Very similar to Ferruginous in appearance, but this species has a buzzy vocalization--as with all of its congeners but for Ferruginous. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – Seen by most on the slope of Pico da Caledonia. [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – Seen nicely along the Portao Azul track and along the Macae de Cima road. [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) – Great views along the Portao Azul track. This is one of the six endemic Drymophilas from the Atlantic Forest, the evolutionary center of this genus. [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) – This species was heard only along the trail at REGUA. We failed to get it into view with playback, another casualty to the cool, dry conditions, I believe. [E*]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – Several good looks at this Terenura along the Cedae track, the sole member of its genus in our area. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) – Darn, heard only. [E*]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza loricata) – Four birds heard and seen along the Macae de Cima road. These were difficult as they sneaked low through the brush, all the while vocalizing their distinctive song. [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)

Black-cheeked Gnateater, by participant Gregg Recer

RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata) – One seen along the Cedae track. Heard only later along the Macae de Cima road. [E]
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) – A very handsome gnateater; seen well our first afternoon along the trail above the lodge. Gregg got a nice photo. [E]
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) – Another highlight! This aberrant tapaculo was seen along the Macae de Cima road; fortunately, it worked its way high into the vines in response to playback, enabling us a better view at this usually difficult-to-see species. [E]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – Heard on the slopes of Caledonia, but unresponsive to playback. [E*]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – A delightful performance by this ground-hugger along the Cedae track. With playback we worked the bird across several openings permitting it to be seen by all.
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – Always too distant to respond to playback. [E*]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – Seen properly along the Theodoro trail; also heard elsewhere in good forest. [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (Sclerurus scansor scansor) – Two seen along the Theodoro trail in response to playback. [E]
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – Seen well almost daily. This taxon, endemic to the Atlantic Forest, will be split. [E]
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – Another endemic, seen along the Cedae track. A very plain woodcreeper with few distinguishing marks. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – One seen quickly along the Cedae track, but it would not hang around for lengthy views. [E]
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – Great views, first along the trail above the lodge our third afternoon, then at Serra dos Orgaos NP after we'd seen the wood-quail. A big guy with a big bill! [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) – Several seen nicely in various areas. A fairly small woodcreeper of forested areas. [E]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – One heard only along the Portao Azul track. This, too, was a casualty of cool, dry weather. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (SCALED) (Lepidocolaptes squamatus squamatus) – Great looks at this, one of the prettiest and well marked of the woodcreepers. [E]
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – Several seen nicely en route to Sumidouro, best perhaps at the site where we saw Tawny-headed Swallows. [E]

The endemic Gray-capped Tyrannulet, by participant Gregg Recer

RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – Common in the dry Sumidouro area. [N]
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – Seen well, finally, along the roadside at Serra dos Orgaos, near where we saw the wood-quail. They never appeared below the lodge's bridge during our stay. This taxon is endemic to Brazil.
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – The most handsome foliage-gleaner. Seen nicely along the Portao Azul track. [E]
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus) – Heard at Serra dos Orgaos, but we failed to see this unresponsive individual. [E*]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Another handsome foliage-gleaner which we saw on several days, our first along the Cedae track. [E]
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – The commonest member of its genus in our area; we had numerous encounters.
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – A pair seen nicely along the Theodoro trail; this foliage-gleaner is a delicately featured member of its family. [E]
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) – Heard at REGUA, but unresponsive to playback. [E*]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – Seen along the Duas Barras-Sumidouro route.
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – Seen very well at the beginning of the Portao Azul track, where we had several responsive birds. [EN]
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – Great looks at a pair on their large nest of sticks situated atop a tall tree beyond Duas Barras.
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – Smashing views of a pair up the steps at Pico da Caledonia; now placed in the canastero genus, Asthenes. [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – Seen best along the Portao Azul track; this genus of spinetail prefers the trees rather than the bushes. [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – We actually saw the yellow chins!
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – Seen well at our lunch spot along the Portao Azul track. [E]
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – Ditto! The first time we've had these two species together in the same habitat. [E]
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola flaveola) – Seen at the Three-toed Jacamar spot.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Seen on our Sumidouro day in the drier stretches.
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca) – Seen along the Theodoro trail. This elaenia prefers wetter areas than the former.
SOOTY TYRANNULET (Serpophaga nigricans) – One seen by some of the group at the Tawny-headed Swallow stop.
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata) – Seen well on the upper slopes of Caledonia.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – Seen several times at REGUA.
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) – Seen first along the trail above the lodge; then very nicely at the parking lot where we had lunch at Serra dos Orgaos, where it was feeding on small berries. [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – Seen almost daily in low numbers.
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – Seen on several days, first at Pico da Caledonia.
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – A great little tyrannid! Seen awfully well jiggling its cocked tail along the Cedae track. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – Seen very well on Pico da Caledonia. Its back is the color of an immature Chestnut-sided Warbler. [E]
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – Seen first along the Portao Azul track, its plaintive whistle making it easy to detect.
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – Several seen, but the close pair along the Macae de Cima road were seen best. Gregg got a very good photo. [E]
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – This miniscule tyrannid was seen extremely well along the Cedae track; the smallest passerine in the Atlantic Forest.

The endemic Gray-hooded Flycatcher, by participant Gregg Recer

DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E*]
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – Seen quite well at REGUA, its eye-ring obvious. [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Two seen well on our Duas Barras-Sumidouro day. [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – Seen well several times, the first along the Portao Azul day.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – Gray-headed or Yellow-lored, which is better? [E]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – Almost daily. This nominant taxon will be split. [E]
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Nice, close looks at a bird perched just off the trail at REGUA. One of Gregg's favorites.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – A different taxon from the Andean bird and may be split. First at the Tawny-headed Swallow place.
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) – One seen along the Cedae track, another along the trail at REGUA. [E]
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri) – The Empidonax-looking tyrannid we saw on a few days, almost always in the bamboo. This Atlantic Forest taxon, an austral migrant wintering north of southeastern Brazil, had already returned to its nesting grounds. [a]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – These sexually dimorphic tyrannids were seen well on several occasions; the female is quite tastefully appointed.
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – Singletons seen at two sites on our Duas Barras-Sumidouro day.
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – The endemic Knipolegus we saw well high on the slope of Caledonia. [E]
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – A pretty flycatcher seen well at various spots on our Duas Barras-Sumidouro day.
WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA (Xolmis velatus) – Distant views of birds near Duas Barras that we saw through the scope.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – A real humdinger! This big, lovely flycatcher performed its ritual duet handsomely for us at the Curl-crested Jay spot.
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – Several seen, most of them at the wetland, REGUA.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Males and females seen at REGUA, including a female on the nest. [N]
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – Several seen perched, as is their wont, high atop dead snags.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa) – Fairly common in open country.
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Seen, finally, by all on the lodge grounds, its spirited vocalization heard almost daily. [E]
SIRYSTES (EASTERN) (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – Good looks at a pair along the Portao Azul track; watch for a split here.
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – One seen and heard at the Three-toed Jacamar spot, Sumidouro.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Daily, often at the lodge pond.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – Seen on several days, best perhaps near Duas Barras.
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis erythropterus) – Seen along the Portao Azul track.
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Daily, often at the lodge pond. We noted the faint wingbars, a reliable field mark when seen well.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Seen on a couple of days.
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius) – Heard along the trail at REGUA; another austral migrant that had returned from Amazonia to breed in the Atlantic Forest. [a*]

An upside-down Black-and-gold Cotinga reaching for fruit, by participant Gregg Recer

TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Not uncommon, but seldom seen on our tour.
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – A couple of these migrants seen at the Tawny-headed Swallow spot.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – Fantastic looks at this representative of a monotypic family! A milestone bird for Lynda and a sighting very welcome to all, especially considering the great looks.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) – Heard at a great distance (except for playback from another birder!) at Serra dos Orgaos NP. Our inability to get well into habitat along the boardwalk there prevented us from having a realistic chance of seeing it. [E*]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – This remarkable bird was seen perched along the road up Caledonia for all to marvel at. We heard it delivering its haunting, drawn-out whistle as others were delivering theirs nearby and across the valley. This bird inspired ornithologist E. G. Holt to lyricize his journal entry describing the pursuit of this bird during his 1928 expedition through the Serra do Itatiaia. And, in reference to its "long-drawn, plaintive whistle," he gave this cotinga the nickname "Saudade," "a poetic Portuguese term signifying memory imbued with longing," he explained. That about sums it up! [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – This congener of Black-and-gold is likely one of the two rarest birds we saw on the tour--indeed, of all Atlantic Forest endemics. We had fabulous, lengthy studies of a male as it fed on small fruit right beside the road, emitting from time to time its own very exciting abbreviated, high-pitched whistle which we had been at pains to locate for several hours! The species was discovered in a skin tray by ornithologist David Snow while he was surveying Black-and-gold Cotinga skins for his monograph on the Cotingidae. A specimen labeled as a female Tijuca atra (indeed, similar morphologically) was upon close inspection a new species of Tijuca! [E]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Another great endemic and a big, wonderful, all white cotinga (but for that bare, green throat)! What an admixture of sound, that voice of those males! One of the highlights of the tour was just seeing these extraordinary birds so well. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (SWALLOW-TAILED) (Phibalura flavirostris flavirostris) – A single bird seen briefly but definitively atop a tree before the entrance to the Theodoro trail. Great spotting, Cathy! Unfortunately we were unable to refind it after it left its perch suddenly. It may have been a bit early for their widespread return since the conditions had been so cool and dry. [E]
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – Great looks at a responsive bird along the Macae de Cima road. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – A fancy manakin seen on several occasions, the first along the trail above the lodge. Also seen in Serra dos Orgaos NP. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – This beautiful manakin, the Chiroxiphia endemic to the Atlantic Forest, was seen well a number of times, first along the trail above the lodge, but no better than at a lek along the road at Serra dos Orgaos NP near where we saw the wood-quail. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus gutturosus) – Seen well, finally, at a lek in REGUA; then, to our delight, again at our lunch stop at the tower in REGUA.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) – Heard along the Macae de Cima road, but no luck getting a view. [E*]
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – Fine looks at a pair in the early stages of nest-building in the lower section of Orgaos NP. [N]
Vireonidae (Vireos)

View from Pico da Caledonia, by participant Gregg Recer

RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi) – Two birds, singing, seen along the Cedae track. [a]
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) – Several seen well at Orgaos NP and on our Duas Barras-Sumidouro day. [E]
RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE (Cyclarhis gujanensis) – Seen often and heard almost daily.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus) – Several birds were seen very well in response to playback near Sumidouro; a big, fine-looking jay!
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – Seen almost daily.
TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW (Alopochelidon fucata) – Four birds seen nicely between Duas Barras and Sumidouro, at the--well, at the Tawny-headed Swallow place, a small farm house located near a stream with steep dirt banks nearby.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Seen almost daily.
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) – Seen near Duas Barras.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Daily, and often the first passerine singing on the lodge grounds (at about 4:30-5:00A).
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – What a sad story! This poor, good-looking guy on the lodge grounds has been unable to find a mate for four years running. [E]
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – Seen en route to Duas Barras. The ritualistic behavior of these birds is fascinating to watch.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – One on the lodge grounds and one at Orgaos NP.
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas) – Almost daily on lodge grounds and elsewhere.
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – Daily; the Turdus with the Robin-like song.
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus) – Daily at the lodge, frequently feeding on the bananas.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (Turdus albicollis albicollis) – One seen by some along the Theodoro trail.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
CHALK-BROWED MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus saturninus) – Seen on our Sumidouro day and en route to REGUA.
Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits)
YELLOWISH PIPIT (Anthus lutescens) – A fabulous study of this pert pipit as it sang near Duas Barras.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – Almost daily. The common Basileuterus on our route.
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – What a great look we had at this warbler as the pair jumped about before us along the Theodoro trail! [E]
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)

A beautiful Diademed Tanager, by participant Gregg Recer

MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – A big, distinctive tanager with a long tail and piercing yellow eyes.
HOODED TANAGER (Nemosia pileata) – Seen well at REGUA.
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – Seen many times at and near the lodge feeders, this endemic is often hard to see once the warm, wet weather comes and they depart into the forest to breed. We noted their black bills and pink legs. [E]
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – One of my favorite tanagers and Atlantic Forest endemics. We saw a male, spectacularly, along the Macae de Cima road. [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops) – Quite a few seen here and there in forested habitat.
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – Seen a number of times, often males with their crests visible.
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – Almost daily; a frequent visitor to the feeders, this species is sexually dimorphic, the males black with a red crown and white wing-linings, the females coffee-colored with some obscure streaks on the breast. [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – The male is a striking bird every time it is seen! No doubt among the most eye-popping in its genus. Seen almost daily, often at the feeders. [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – A highland tanager, this beauty was seen on the slopes of Caledonia.
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota melanonota) – Seen nicely at a fruit tree with a flock of Rufous-headed Tanagers on the Portao Azul track.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca) – A regular if not numerous visitor to the feeders.
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – A subtly pretty Thraupis which visited the lodge feeders regularly; also seen in the forest. [E]
GOLDEN-CHEVRONED TANAGER (Thraupis ornata) – Another endemic Thraupis, this one frequenting the feeders as well; also seen in the forest. [E]
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – A very widespread Thraupis which can appear differently colored in different lights.
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (STRIPE-BELLIED) (Tangara cayana chloroptera) – Seen on numerous occasions, this taxon is endemic to the Atlantic Forest, its group (the Stripe-bellied form) distinctly marked, so watch for it to be split.
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – A stunning green-headed tanager with an orange rump! A frequent visitor to the lodge feeders and a photogenic subject from the photo hide. [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – Another great Tangara, beautifully adorned, but seldom a visitor to the feeder, making photos of this one trickier. [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – Or is this endemic prettier? An impossible choice no doubt. Brassy-breasteds are seldom found as low as the lodge, so this Tangara is usually seen in the forest. [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – Some say this one is the prettiest of all, which would be hard to deny. We had great looks on several occasions, first at the beginning of the Portao Azul track, then near Duas Barras. [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis) – This widespread tanager was seen on several occasions on two days.

A striking Blue-naped Chlorophonia, by participant Gregg Recer

BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – A regular at the lodge feeders and elsewhere.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Always a knockout; seen almost daily, often at the feeders.
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – Great looks on several days, perhaps best in a fruiting tree along the Portao Azul track. [E]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis) – Seen in a mixed flock along the trail at REGUA; extremely responsive to playback. This taxon is endemic to the states of Espirito Santo and Rio, so very localized.
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – Seen nicely at the Three-toed Jacamar spot and at REGUA.
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – A male seen on Pico da Caledonia as we watched for Gray-winged Cotinga. [E]
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza thoracica) – A lovely endemic seen well on Caledonia, usually in small flocks. [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – In southeastern Brazil, Saffron Finch is actually indigenous! Seen on numerous occasions.
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila leucoptera cinereola) – A pair, a bit separated, seen as we looked down upon them at the Blackish Rail marsh en route to Duas Barras.
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – All over the feeders, daily!
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis) – Seen along the Macae de Cima road; this saltator is frequently kept as a cage bird because of its song.
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – Nice looks at a singing male along the Cedae track. [E]
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – Great views of this fancy endemic at the start of the Portao Azul track. [E]
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – Here and there.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – A pair visited the lodge feeders on a couple of days.
YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK (Caryothraustes canadensis) – A group of about six seen in the lower part of Orgaos NP.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – Seen best, perhaps, at the Tawny-headed Swallow place, though also seen later the same day.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – A small group hung around the lodge grounds on most days.
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous) – Seen on various occasions, the largest group attending nests in the lower part of Orgaos NP. [N]
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – Nesting--and flying about--near the beginning of the Portao Azul track; also seen along Macae de Cima and in Orgaos NP. [N]
Fringillidae (Siskins, Crossbills, and Allies)

Young White-tufted-ear Marmoset, by participant Gregg Recer

VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea) – One of the common Euphonias in the Atlantic Forest, this species was seen daily at the lodge; an extraordinary mimic, this one has a yellow throat.
GREEN-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chalybea) – Great views of a pair of these Euphonias along the road at Orgaos NP. Though heard last year, this was the first time we've actually seen them on the tour! [E]
ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia xanthogaster) – A widespread Euphonia seen almost daily at the feeders.
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) – The largest Euphonia in southeastern Brazil; seen almost daily at the feeders and heard elsewhere. [E]
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) – A beautiful bird! Without the feeders, would we ever see these birds?!
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) – A few in the towns. [I]

WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) – A few of these came into the feeders, where we had our best looks.
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus) – Heard roaring along the Portao Azul track. [*]
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – One seen nicely, thanks to Mike, in Orgaos NP.
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans) – The regular Sciurus.
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – Quite a number seen in the wetland at REGUA.
SOUTHERN RIVER OTTER (Lontra provocax) – One spotted--again by Mike--at the "sterile lake" along the Portao Azul track. This is the first one I've seen in southeast Brazil.


Totals for the tour: 270 bird taxa and 6 mammal taxa