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Field Guides Tour Report
Serra dos Tucanos, Brazil 2017
Oct 23, 2017 to Nov 2, 2017
Marcelo Padua

We made quite a journey to find this bird! The Three-toed Jacamar is an Atlantic Forest endemic, and we were able to get some super looks at it. Photo by participant Ben Oko.

As a tour leader, one of the most common questions I get from participants is, which "tour is my favorite?". Although this is a question with no answer as each tour is different, and I love all the tours I lead, there are certain aspects of a tour that I enjoy more than others, and this tour checks the box for most of them. It starts with the facts that the climate is mild and we usually do not face extreme temperatures, but it also has to do with the abundance of species of birds, many of which are endemic, the comfort of the lodge that offers great food and lovely rooms surrounded by great habitat, the diversity of habitats, and the fact that you get to settle in to a room for long enough to actually enjoy it and unpack your suitcase.

This year's tour was a great success. We found most of the targets we set out to find, we enjoyed a good mix of people with great camaraderie, and the weather was kind to us for the most part. So even though I can't choose a favorite tour, I can say with certainty that if I ever had to choose, this would certainly be one of the top contenders. I hope you all have enjoyed this trip as much as I did, and I hope our paths cross again some day on another great tour.

-Marcelo Padua

One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) [E*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) [*]
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna viduata)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis)

Whistling Heron is a really beautiful bird, and we were happy to find this one so close to the road. Photo by local guide Andy Foster.

Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura) – Seen daily at the feeders of the lodge.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [E*]
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – Several individuals near the airport in Rio.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – Also common around Rio's airport.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi) – A few individuals near the Rio Airport and also at REGUA.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thula)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – Seen around the lake at REGUA.
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix) – This species ranked high on AB's list of most wanted birds, so it was very rewarding to find a pair of birds really close to the road and in good light.
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – The South American birds are part of a subspecies called Ruficollis which is quite different from North American Birds.
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus) – This species favors open areas like pastures and we had great looks at them on the day we went looking for the Three-toed Jacamar.
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus)
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – One individual flew right over the heads of the men while we were doing a rest stop and we saw a distant one at REGUA.
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – Andy spotted a perched bird from an outlook by the road, and although it was a bit far, we managed to get good scope looks at it.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) – Seen regularly near the Lodge. [E]
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans) – We pulled one out for great looks on the day we went looking for the Three-toed Jacamar.
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus)
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Abundant around the lake at REGUA.
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) – A common bird in open fields.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus) – A brief look at one individual near Rio's airport on the last day.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)

Gilt-edged Tanager is a real stunner! Photo by local guide Andy Foster.

PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea) – There was one building a nest near the lodge and we got to see it repeatedly during our stay at Itororo Lodge.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi)
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – A few individuals around REGUA. This species is easily distinguishable from the more common Smooth-billed Ani by its larger size, petroleum blue shine and its characteristic light iris.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
STRIPED CUCKOO (Tapera naevia) [*]
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Seen a number of times but we called one in for a great look near the lodge.
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum) – A fierce little individual came in to a mobbing tape and tried to kill a bird that decided to mob it.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – We brought this magnificent owl in for a great look on one of our first nights at the lodge. [E]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) – Often seen flying around the lodge at dusk.
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis derbyanus) [*]
LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR (Macropsalis forcipata) – This bird is always impressive but seeing it near the lodge and so effortlessly is a real treat. [E]
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – We could hear this bird from the dining room almost every night, but sadly It never came closer. [*]
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
SICK'S SWIFT (Chaetura meridionalis)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) [E]
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) [E*]
RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (Glaucis hirsutus) – A brief look at one individual feeding on some flowers by the lake at REGUA.
REDDISH HERMIT (Phaethornis ruber) – We saw three of them at REGUA but most people only saw the last one that stuck around for a while as it was feeding on some flowers near the end of our trail.
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome) – A regular visitor of the feeders at the lodge.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) – Several males and females visiting the feeders at the lodge on a daily basis. [E]
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus) – A nice adult male and some females near the marshy area where the Blue-winged Macaws had a nest.
GREEN-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) – A very obliging male on a lek put on quite a show for our group on the day that we explored the road to Macae de Cima. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Eupetomena macroura) – One of the most common species in towns and around farms. Some folks saw their first one at the garden of the hotel in Rio before the tour even started, but we all got good looks at them several times throughout the tour

Participant Daphne Gemmill got this nice image of a Golden-chevroned Tanager.

VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) – A common sight at the feeders from our our lodge. [E]
SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – A scarce and rather dull looking hummer, but one made an appearance at the lodge's feeder. [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – Common at the feeders and frequently heard on many of the trails we walked on during our visit to the Nova Friburgo area.
VERSICOLORED EMERALD (Amazilia versicolor) – Good looks at one of them on the CEDAE trail.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SURUCUA TROGON (Trogon surrucura) – Common around the lodge and on many of the trails and one that Ben loved looking at, so we called it in for good views several times. [E]
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – Great looks at this flashy Atlantic forest endemic. [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – A fly-by at REGUA.
AMAZON KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle amazona) – A perched bird near the lake at REGUA.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – This species typically lives in the more open Cerrado but is moving into the area with the clearing of the forest.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – A super localized Atlantic Forest Endemic that we saw extremely well near the town of Sumidouro after making a long and successful trip to search for it. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR (SPOT-TAILED) (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – Common and widespread, but always a crowd pleaser. We saw this one in the lowlands at the REGUA reserve.

This Plain Parakeet was one of the visitors to the banana feeder at the lodge. Photo by participant Ben Oko.

Ramphastidae (Toucans)
SAFFRON TOUCANET (Pteroglossus bailloni) – Stunning looks at this scarce Atlantic forest endemic at the beginning of the Theodoro Trail near Nova Friburgo. [E]
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – Several sightings of this colorful Atlantic forest endemic. We even had one in the scope for about 5 minutes at the start of the Cedae Trail. [E]
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) – This is one of 5 distinctive subspecies of the the Channel-billed Toucan.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus) – I am always blown away by how tiny and fierce these minute woodpeckers are. We saw them on a couple of days on our tour and heard them on a couple of other occasions. [E]
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Veniliornis maculifrons) [E]
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) – Also known as Yellow-browed Woodpecker. [E]
GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER (Colaptes melanochloros)
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris) – The Campo Flicker has two very distinctive subspecies that are sometimes treated as separate species. The birds we saw are the nominate form and there is southern form that is sometimes called Field Flicker.
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (BLOND-CRESTED) (Celeus flavescens flavescens) – A spectacular looking Atlantic Forest Endemic that we saw at REGUA near the start of the trail. [E]
LINEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus lineatus) – A large and flashy woodpecker that can be found all the way from Northern Mexico to Southern Brazil.
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – We had a bird on a nest near Pico da Caledonia and another individual near the town of Duas Barras. This species is becoming more widespread as forest is cleared, making more habitat for it.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – This is South America's most common raptor in open country. This opportunistic species is often seen flying along roads looking for road kill to feed on.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)

A lovely portrait of a male Green-crowned Plovercrest, by local guide Andy Foster.

Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) – Despite being one of the most vocal and common species of parakeet in the areas we visited, it actually took us quite some time to get a good look at one. Ironically we ended up getting the best views right from the front porch of the lodge as they visited the feeders. [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) [*]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani) – This parrot has four distinctive subspecies. The birds we saw belong to the melanoblepharus subspecies.
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius) – A memorable sighting of this species as a pair of them came down to eye level near the entrance of the Cedae trail and the male kept displaying his blue wings.
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (MAROON-TAILED) (Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis) – A regular visitor of the feeders at our lodge. [E]
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – Andy knew where a pair of birds was nesting and we got great scope views of them from across the field.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – Unlike most antshrikes, this species lives in the Canopy of trees and is often hard to find, but after putting some effort into it, our group got good looks at this bird on the Cedae Trail. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) – I have seen the word Giant misused many times on bird names, but this is not the case. This beast of a bird is enormous, and despite its size it can often be hard to see. However, we had long and unobstructed views of one on a trail near the lodge. [E]
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) – This is perhaps one of the most striking of the Antshrikes with its Jet black plumage covered in tiny white dots that look like stars on a dark sky. [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) – A difficult species to see as it specializes in foraging in dense bamboo thickets, but we even had one in the scope for a long time on the Macae de Cima Trail. [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ruficapillus ruficapillus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus) – Nice looks at this striking antshrike at REGUA near the start of the trail.
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – This minute antwren is endemic to Southeast Brazil and forages close to the ground, a trait that was greatly appreciated as it provided a much needed relief to our necks that were stiff from looking at birds high up on trees. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) – Great looks at this Atlantic Forest Endemic near the start of the Cedae trail. [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – This species is quite range restricted and can be hard to find, but we had a singing male perched out int the open for several minutes at Pico da Caledonia in Nova Friburgo. [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – This subspecies is already recognized by many authorities as a separate species and may soon be split from the nominate form by Clements.
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – This range restricted species lives in lowland Atlantic Forest, a habitat that is under great pressure from human occupation, and therefore is becoming increasingly rare. We had great looks at them at REGUA. [E]
SERRA ANTWREN (Formicivora serrana interposita) – This species inhabits drier inland areas in Southeast Brazil and we barely made it into its range on the day we drove to Sumidouro.
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) – This handsome antbird is one of several species in the Drymophila genus that we saw on the tour. This particular species inhabits bamboo thickets, and although it occurs in altitudes of up to 1600 meters, it is far more common below 900 meters. So it is no surprise that we found this species at the Cedae trail. [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) – Very similar to the Ferruginous Antbird but this species prefers higher altitudes and has a very different vocalization. We had great looks at them on the Road to Macae de Cima.
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) – The high number of species in the Genus Drymophila on this tour is largely due to the fact that we explore several altitudinal bands. This particular species prefers higher areas and we found it at Pico da Caledonia in altitudes higher than 1800 meters.
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) – This is the closest relative of the Rufous-tailed Antbird but it typically occurs at lower altitudes.

We got a great view of the Itatiaia Spinetail, another endemic of the Atlantic Forest region. Photo by local guide Andy Foster.

DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura)
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) – This is the lowland Drymophila and we saw it briefly at REGUA. [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) – Always a hard bird to get a good look at, as this tiny antwren forages very actively in the canopy as it moves along with mixed species flocks. We had them on two occasions; once at REGUA and on the Cedae trail. [E]
WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera)
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) – This species forages on the ground and that is enough to make it quite unique but it is also a stunning looking bird.
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops)
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata) – We had a hard time finding one this year, but once we found it we had one in the scope long enough for the group to have first and second looks at it.
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – This one was quite the project and it required all of us to stand still for a loooonng time before it showed up, but ultimately our efforts were rewarded with great looks at this shy forest dweller.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) [E*]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) [E*]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – This species isn't just Mouse-colored, it is Mouse-like in the way it moves about in the forest floor, blending in perfectly with the background. So seeing it was not an easy task but with considerable effort we managed to lay eyes on one on one of the Lodge's trails. [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) [*]
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) – Another one of those stand and wait forever kind of birds. Thanks to everyone for putting up with it we had great looks at one.
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) [*]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
RUFOUS-BREASTED LEAFTOSSER (RUFOUS-BREASTED) (Sclerurus scansor scansor) – A challenging bird to see. I think we can all agree that we saw more leaves being tossed than the actual bird itself.

Participant Daphne Gemmill captured the view from her cabin at Itororo Lodge.

OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – Keep track of all the subspecies you see as there are certainly several species involved here.
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – We had a very responsive individual on the Cedae Trail. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – A large woodcreeper that was seen on the road to Macae de Cima.
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) – A Great spot by AB on the Orchid trail at the lodge resulted in great looks at these massive Woodcreepers. [E]
LESSER WOODCREEPER (LESSER) (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [*]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – What a treat! after hearing this one twice with no success in bringing it to view, we found one of them on the Theodoro trail. This species uses its highly specialized bill to probe cracks and holes in bamboo as it searches for insects. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (SCALED) (Lepidocolaptes squamatus squamatus) – This species typically forages with mixed species flocks in the lower canopy, making it hard to get a good look at one, but we saw them on a couple of occasions. [E]
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus)
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – Nice looks at this species during our visit to REGUA. [E]
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus) – The common and widespread Hornero that we saw on a number of occasions on the tour.
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura) – This species is quite common in the Atlantic Forest but we had to work to find one this year, with our only individual seen on the Theodoro trail on the 8th day of our tour.
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus) – This canopy dweller specializes in foraging in in Bromeliads.
SHARP-BILLED TREEHUNTER (Heliobletus contaminatus) – Much smaller and much harder to detect than the Pale-browed Treehunter.
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – This boldly patterned Foliage-gleaner travels with understory mixed species flocks.
BUFF-FRONTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor rufum) – The most common of the Foliage-gleaners on this tour route and one that we saw on a daily basis.
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) – They were not very responsive but we managed to find one near the lodge.
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) – Very similar in appearance to the Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner but it has a different song and a dark cap that extends from the bill to the back of the head.
BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)

This handsome Green-backed Becard was seen from the dining room at the lodge. Photo by local guide Andy Foster.

WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus)
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – The presence of this small furnariid in an area is easily detected by the presence of the impressive nest it builds. Some of them are up to five feet long.
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – Seen incredibly well right around the lodge.
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – A classic case of a bird with a name that is far more impressive than the bird. Nevertheless it was great to see them well, as well as their nests which are responsible for its name.
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – A high altitude specialist that was seen remarkably well. Fortunately, we found this one at the low end of its altitude and did not have to hike all the way to the top of Pico da Caledonia to see it.
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – Cranioleuca spinetails are arboreal and forage in the lower canopy. This one is quite common around the lodge and we had several good looks at them.
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – A common and widespread spinetail that inhabits marshes. We had great looks at one on the edge of the lake at REGUA.
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla) – A forest species that stays close to the ground. This one is quite common and we saw it a few times on the tour.
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) – A couple of people glimpsed one at Pico da Caledonia and we later found another one near the town of Duas Barras but to be honest this was a classic case of Better Views Desired.
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – Easily identifiable by its habit of its body from side to side rapidly and sharply.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola flaveola) – A small bamboo specialist that was seen well on the road to Macae de Cima.

The Rufous-bellied Thrush is Brazil's national bird. Photo by participant Daphne Gemmill.

YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – A common species in open areas, but a relatively scarce bird on this tour route. We had good looks at a pair of birds at the Blue-winged Macaws nest site.
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca) – The most common elaenia on this tour route.
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata) – On the day that we drove to Sumidouro to look for Three-toed Jacamars we had great looks at a pair of birds that landed close to our group and displayed their white crest for us several times.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – More often heard than seen but we managed to bring one into view at REGUA.
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) – A discreet flycatcher that moves through the understory with mixed species flocks. We had a good look at one right at the entrance of the Cedae Trail.
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – This species lives in the mid strata of the forest and is readily Identified by its curious habit of flicking a single wing up in the air from time to time as if it is waving someone hello.
MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – The cheeks don't seem so prominent but this is an abundant species in the areas we visited.
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – A very scarce bird in the areas we visited. It has the habit of jiggling its tail every now and then.
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – When a bird's Latin name means "difficult", you known you are in for a treat when you try to see it. Luckily, we had a very cooperative bird this year that sat quietly for a good while.
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri) – Great looks at it but the legs did not seem that rough through the binoculars. ;-)
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – One of the most common Tyrannulets in the area and one that was often seen right from the gardens of our lodge.
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) – Seen right from the deck in front of the dining area of the lodge.
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi) – Seen from the side of the road on the way between Duas Barras and Sumidouro.
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – The genus Myiornis has the smallest passerines in the world. This tiny guy is much more patterned than its Amazonian counterpart.
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) – There isn't much to look at, but we saw it well on one the lodge's trails.

This Chestnut-backed Antshrike showed nicely for us at REGUA. Photo by participant Ben Oko.

EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus)
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – Despite being named for its nest, the hanging pendulum is not a distinguishing feature of this bird, as many other flycatchers build similar nests.
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – Its flatulent song made it one of the first birds folks learned recognize.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – Also known as Yellow-browed Tody-flycatcher.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum)
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – This bird is widespread and has many subspecies with distinct songs. Always good to keep track of these as there is great potential for splits.
YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER (OCHRE-LORED) (Tolmomyias flaviventris flaviventris)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – Some birds are beautiful and others are dull, but this one is downright cute in a discreet kind of way.
CLIFF FLYCATCHER (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa)
WHISKERED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-RUMPED) (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) – Brief looks at one bird moving through the understory with a mixed species flock.
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus) – Good looks at this one on the road to Macae de Cima as we headed back to the lodge.
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri) [*]
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – Nice view of a pair of birds from the lookout outside of the town of Duas Barras.
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – Good looks at Pico Caledonia.

Participant Ben Oko also captured this image of our Rufous-backed Antvireo. This highly restricted species can be difficult to find, but this one was quite cooperative!

BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – Also seen at Pico Caledonia.
YELLOW-BROWED TYRANT (Satrapa icterophrys) – Great looks at this quiet flycatcher on the road between Duas Barras and Sumidouro.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – Always a nice bird to see and they blew us away with their magnificent displays just a few feet away from us.
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – Distant scope views of this scarce Atlantic forest endemic.
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta) – Another charismatic flycatcher with an endearing display.
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Seen on the lake at REGUA.
LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus) – Great looks at a pair of birds that were sitting lower than usual right by the entrance of the Cedae Trail.
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Our picnic stop on the road to Macae de Cima resulted in great looks at one of these birds that was sitting by the road and catching insects.
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) – This species was formerly known simply as Sirystes, but the species was recently split into four species and this is the nominate form.
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni) – We had one nesting in the gardens of our lodge.

Azure-shoulderd Tanager was another visitor to the lodge's feeder. Photo by participant Daphne Gemmill.

GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – A daily occurrence on this tour.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
VARIEGATED FLYCATCHER (Empidonomus varius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – An austral migrant.
Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill)
SHARPBILL (Oxyruncus cristatus) – This was Daphne's main target on this trip as it was her last family of bird. We got it in spades with excellent scope views of it.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – It is always amazing how difficult this bird can be to locate even when it is very close due to the nature of its song.
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – All I can say is that after having missed this bird last year, I have to admit I was quite apprehensive, but we had not one but two great looks at this bird including one that perched on a dead snag about 20 feet away from us.
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) – Always an incredible sound to hear. Check out the recording I made from our lodge.
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (SWALLOW-TAILED) (Phibalura flavirostris flavirostris) – Terry spotted this one for us and we ended up getting great scope views of it.
Pipridae (Manakins)
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – Formerly known as Blue Manakin. But no matter what you call it, it is simply a spectacular bird.
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) – We had several encounters with this species including males, females and juveniles but the one we all really remember is that adult male that sat at eye level for us.
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus gutturosus) – Brief looks at REGUA.
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor inquisitor)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens)
SHRIKE-LIKE COTINGA (BRAZILIAN) (Laniisoma elegans elegans) – Seen only by Terry.
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis) – Right outside the dining area from our lodge.
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus) – Relatively common. The birds were building a nest by the road to Macae de Cima.
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
CRESTED BECARD (Pachyramphus validus)

The pretty Maroon-bellied Parakeet is another range-restricted species; we had nice views of them at the lodge feeders. Photo by participant Daphne Gemmill.

Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – This species replaces the Rufous-crowned Greenlet in the drier interior. The two species are practically Identical and the song is a key feature in differentiating the two. We barely made it into the range of this species on the day that we drove further inland to search for the Three-toed Jacamar.
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis)
LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET (Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus) [*]
RED-EYED VIREO (MIGRATORY CHIVI) (Vireo olivaceus chivi)
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus) – A bird of the savannas of Central Brazil that is expanding its range due to deforestation.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) – The most common Swallow on the tour.
TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW (Alopochelidon fucata) – We found a bird that was nesting by the road that leads from Duas Barras to Sumidouro.
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) – Seen around the lake at REGUA.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – We managed to see this one near a forest stream at REGUA but it was higher than usual and did not cooperate with us so a couple of people missed it. [E]
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla) – Always a neat bird to see. This species used to be considered a Wren but a new family was created for it a few years back and it is now the only member of its family.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – Even though this is an abundant species they can be hard to see well but we had great looks at a few of them. Especially the males, which are quite striking when in breeding plumage.
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)

This female Pin-tailed Manakin was one of a number that we saw well. Photo by participant Ben Oko.

RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris) – People are always surprised to find out that of all the great birds that live in Brazil it is this one that was chosen as the national bird.
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (RUFOUS-FLANKED) (Turdus albicollis albicollis)
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
CHALK-BROWED MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus saturninus) – Mobbing a Ferruginous Pygmy-owl almost turned out to be the last thing this guy did, but it managed to escape. Barely!
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi)
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus) – Common around the lodge's trails.
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – Formerly known as White-rimmed Warbler.
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus) – A regular visitor of the feeders at the lodge.
OLIVE-GREEN TANAGER (Orthogonys chloricterus) – A monotypic genus.
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – We saw an immature male and one adult male of this striking bamboo specialist.
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – Brief looks at one that was moving around with a canopy flock but we had some strong winds and the flock dispersed.
RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) – Common at the feeders but we never got a good looks at the ruby crown that is usually concealed.
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) – Only seen by Terry and me.
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Great looks at a pair of birds foraging on some fruit on Pico Caledonia.
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota melanonota) – Yet another great bird that we saw right outside the dining area of our lodge.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)

The Magpie Tanager is a striking bird! Photo by participant Daphne Gemmill.

AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – It was nice to be able to compare this species with the duller Sayaca Tanager on the lodge's feeders.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – There aren't many tours in which you can find four species of Thraupis tanagers in the same area.
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (STRIPE-BELLIED) (Tangara cayana chloroptera) – A strongly marked tanager that visited the feeders on a regular basis.
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) – When I think of the exotic birds of the Atlantic forest, this one is the first one that comes to mind for me. What a jewel!
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – Another colorful tanager that was seen with mixed species flocks on the Cedae Trail.
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) – Very similar to the equally spectacular Gilt-edged Tanager but more common on this tour route.
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) – We nailed this one en route between Duas Barras and Sumidouro.
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Common but always a pleasure to see.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Seen briefly at REGUA.
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) – It took a while for everyone to connect with this one but after three encounters with it we all had good looks at it.
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis) – Seen briefly at REGUA before the wind picked up and the flock moved on.
CHESTNUT-VENTED CONEBILL (Conirostrum speciosum) – This is exactly the kind of bird that leaders are grateful for. Aptly named, well marked and seen from the right angle to observe its field marks.
UNIFORM FINCH (Haplospiza unicolor) – Not much to look at but a scarce Atlantic forest endemic.
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Poospiza thoracica) – Great looks at this one at Pico Caledonia.
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola) – Common in towns.
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina) – A common sight in pastures and heavily altered habitats.
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola) – Always sneaking around the hummingbird feeders.
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis) – Seen by just three people.

Our tour is designed to coincide with the optimal season for birding, and we had excellent weather on most days, but it is the Atlantic Rain Forest. Participant Daphne Gemmil captured this photo that shows why we recommend that people bring rain gear for the tour.

THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) – A high altitude specialist that showed well at Pico Da Caledonia.
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus)
Emberizidae (Buntings and New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis) – Good looks at this one from the outlooks outside of Duas Barras.
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – Great looks at this handsome sparrow right outside our restaurant.
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis) – A common and widespread species in South America.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
RED-CROWNED ANT-TANAGER (Habia rubica) – Always with mixed species flocks.
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi) – A bird of open country so not one that we see a lot of on this tour but we had good looks at them on the day we drove to Sumidouro.
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus)
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) – This one was a bit of a surprise for me, but we had great looks at them as the same spot where we found the Whistling Herons.
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) – Abundant in towns.
GIANT COWBIRD (Molothrus oryzivorus) – We watched as these birds tried to use the nests of Crested Oropendolas.
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus) – An active nesting colony with displaying males on the way to Macae de Cima.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) – Great looks at one adult male.
BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA (Chlorophonia cyanea) [*]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus) – Seen nicely in the pastures where we saw the Swallow-tailed Cotinga.

Our tour occurs during the blooming period of thousands of “Quaresmeira” trees (Tibouchina granulosa). Participant Ben Oko captured some of their lovely blossoms along one of the trails.

Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) [*]
BROWN HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta fuscus)
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – We found one on a trail at REGUA. It is probably still there. ;-)
GUIANAN SQUIRREL (Sciurus aestuans)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – Several individuals on the islets of the lake at REGUA.
GOLDEN TEGU (Tupinambis teguixin)
CANE TOAD (Rhinella marina)


We also saw a Broad-snouted Caiman at REGUA.

Totals for the tour: 296 bird taxa and 5 mammal taxa