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Field Guides Tour Report
Serra dos Tucanos, Brazil 2019
Oct 24, 2019 to Nov 3, 2019
Marcelo Padua

Pico da Caledonia stands tall over Nova Friburgo giving us access to many high elevation specialties, including the ultra-rare Gray-winged Cotinga. Photo by participant Jean Bickal.

The Atlantic Forest is one of the most biodiverse biomes in the world holding an incredible diversity of plants, insects and of course birds. This diversity comes in part from the length it covers from North to South but it is specially due to the altitudinal gradient found from the ocean to the mountains that follow the coast line of Brazil and our tour takes advantage of that gradient to explore one of the most diverse forests in the world and doing so while staying in a single lodge. There are few places that can hold a birder’s interest for such a long period of time if you are traveling overseas to search for rare species but this tour does just that. We started the tour with dreadful weather forecasts for the area ( as it is usually the case for this part of Brazil) but if anything the weather was on our side for most of the tour and we birded our way from lowland coastal forest where we were treated to great views of increasingly rare birds like Unicolored Antwrens and Scaled Antbirds to the high peak of Novo Caledonia where we enjoyed magnificent views of Gray-winged and Black-and-Gold Cotingas along with a plethora of high altitude specialists that can only be found in the Atlantic Forest.

This was another great year to be in Nova Friburgo and with a lovely group of people we managed to record an impressive 91 Atlantic Forest species and several other birds that although not endemic to the Atlantic Forest, are endemic to Brazil.

Most importantly we did it all while enjoying the company of a great group of fellow travelers and in a relaxed and very enjoyable way.

Thank you all for joining me on this adventure and I look forward to seeing you all on another birding journey.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
SOLITARY TINAMOU (Tinamus solitarius) [E*]
BROWN TINAMOU (Crypturellus obsoletus) – This is one of those birds that is heard on a daily basis but rarely seen but as we were walking down a road an individual crossed in front of us and walked along the road for a while before disappearing in the forest.
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
BRAZILIAN TEAL (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – On our last day as we made our way back to the airport we spotted a pair of birds with chicks along the highway to Rio
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
DUSKY-LEGGED GUAN (Penelope obscura)
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
SPOT-WINGED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus capueira) [E*]
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
ROCK PIGEON (Columba livia)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis)
PICAZURO PIGEON (Patagioenas picazuro)
PLUMBEOUS PIGEON (Patagioenas plumbea)
RUDDY GROUND DOVE (Columbina talpacoti)
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) [*]
GRAY-FRONTED DOVE (Leptotila rufaxilla)
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
GUIRA CUCKOO (Guira guira)
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Seen at REGUA where they were somewhat abundant around the lake. It was particularly interesting to see one individual chase a Red-rumped Cacique.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana)
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK (NATTERERI) (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis derbyanus) [*]
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus)
Apodidae (Swifts)
WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT (Streptoprocne zonaris)
GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura cinereiventris)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
BLACK JACOBIN (Florisuga fusca) – The most common bird on the feeders.
SAW-BILLED HERMIT (Ramphodon naevius) – This species occurs in a narrow altitudinal band on this tour but we managed to get great looks at a perched bird on the CEDAE trail. [E]
SCALE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis eurynome)
FRILLED COQUETTE (Lophornis magnificus) – This is the hardest of the hummers to see on this tour but our group was lucky to enjoy prolonged views of a perched adult male through the scope.
BRAZILIAN RUBY (Clytolaema rubricauda) [E]
AMETHYST WOODSTAR (Calliphlox amethystina)
GLITTERING-BELLIED EMERALD (Chlorostilbon lucidus)

We enjoyed great looks at several male Green-crowned Plovercrests on a lek. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

GREEN-CROWNED PLOVERCREST (Stephanoxis lalandi) [E]
VIOLET-CAPPED WOODNYMPH (Thalurania glaucopis) [E]
WHITE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Leucochloris albicollis) – Seen and heard often.
WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE (Hylocharis cyanus cyanus)
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
ASH-THROATED CRAKE (Mustelirallus albicollis)
BLACKISH RAIL (Pardirallus nigricans)
SLATY-BREASTED WOOD-RAIL (Aramides saracura) [E]
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata)
RUFOUS-SIDED CRAKE (Laterallus melanophaius)
Aramidae (Limpkin)
LIMPKIN (Aramus guarauna)
Charadriidae (Plovers and Lapwings)
SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis)
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana)
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
COCOI HERON (Ardea cocoi)
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis)
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata)
WHISTLING HERON (Syrigma sibilatrix)
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus)
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax)
BOAT-BILLED HERON (Cochlearius cochlearius)
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus)
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – The birds we saw on the tour belong to the ruficollis group and can easily be distinguished from the North American counterparts by its light collared hind collar
LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE (Cathartes burrovianus)
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus leucurus)
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) – Swallow-tailed kites are among the most graceful of raptors and we enjoyed good looks at them from our lodge but seeing them gliding along from above at Pico Caledonia was a real treat.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus)
RUFOUS-THIGHED KITE (Harpagus diodon)

Tour participant Jean Bickal brought along a moth trap and shared her findings with us. This Pantherodes pardalaria was one of her great finds.

PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea)
CRANE HAWK (BANDED) (Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis) – One of many great birds spotted by Todd.
SAVANNA HAWK (Buteogallus meridionalis)
ROADSIDE HAWK (Rupornis magnirostris)
WHITE-RUMPED HAWK (Parabuteo leucorrhous) – A very scarce species in the Atlantic forest but we had great looks at one individual flying at eye level at Pico Nova Caledonia.
WHITE-TAILED HAWK (Geranoaetus albicaudatus)
Strigidae (Owls)
TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL (Megascops choliba) [*]
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL (Glaucidium brasilianum)
BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) – We found a pair of birds on our way to the airport on the very last day of the tour.
RUSTY-BARRED OWL (Strix hylophila) – Great looks at this Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SURUCUA TROGON (ORANGE-BELLIED) (Trogon surrucura aurantius) [E]
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (CHRYSOCHLOROS) (Trogon rufus chrysochloros)
Momotidae (Motmots)
RUFOUS-CAPPED MOTMOT (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) [E]
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata)
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-EARED PUFFBIRD (Nystalus chacuru) – Excellent scope views of a bird sitting on a post.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
THREE-TOED JACAMAR (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) – A scarce and highly localized Atlantic Forest endemic but we knew exactly where to find them. [E]
Ramphastidae (Toucans)
BLACK-NECKED ARACARI (Pteroglossus aracari)
SPOT-BILLED TOUCANET (Selenidera maculirostris) – Fabulous scope views of this colorful toucan on the CEDAE trail. [E]
TOCO TOUCAN (Ramphastos toco) – Toco Toucans are birds of open grassland areas but with the clearing of the forest they are moving into many areas where they did not occur. We saw a pair of birds nesting on a tree where we used to see Blue-winged Macaws nesting near some pasture.
CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (ARIEL) (Ramphastos vitellinus ariel) [*]
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
WHITE-BARRED PICULET (Picumnus cirratus)
YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER (Dryobates maculifrons) [E]
BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Celeus flavescens flavescens) – Excellent looks at this stunning Celeus Woodpecker at REGUA
WHITE-BROWED WOODPECKER (Piculus aurulentus) [E]
CAMPO FLICKER (CAMPO) (Colaptes campestris campestris)
Cariamidae (Seriemas)
RED-LEGGED SERIEMA (Cariama cristata) – A pair of singing birds through the scope.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
BARRED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur ruficollis)
SOUTHERN CARACARA (Caracara plancus) – Often seen along roads as they patrol them looking for a free meal.
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima)
APLOMADO FALCON (Falco femoralis)

Black-billed Scythebills use that huge bill to probe bamboo cavities, but this one found a huge katydid and it was not about to let it go to waste. Photo by participant David Woods.

Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
PLAIN PARAKEET (Brotogeris tirica) [E]
BLUE-BELLIED PARROT (Triclaria malachitacea) – By far the hardest parrot to see on this tour but we managed to bring a pair in for close inspection on the CEDAE trail. [E]
SCALY-HEADED PARROT (Pionus maximiliani)
BLUE-WINGED PARROTLET (Forpus xanthopterygius)
MAROON-BELLIED PARAKEET (MAROON-TAILED) (Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis) [E]
BLUE-WINGED MACAW (Primolius maracana) – A couple of sightings on the day we drove to Sumidouro.
WHITE-EYED PARAKEET (Psittacara leucophthalmus)
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)
SPOT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – This species lives high in the canopy of trees and it is typically hard to see but we had one individual almost at eye level allowing us to enjoy one of the best views I ever had of this species. [E]
GIANT ANTSHRIKE (Batara cinerea) [E]
LARGE-TAILED ANTSHRIKE (Mackenziaena leachii) [E]
WHITE-BEARDED ANTSHRIKE (Biatas nigropectus) [E]
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTSHRIKE (SOUTHERN) (Thamnophilus ruficapillus ruficapillus)
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus palliatus)
SOORETAMA SLATY-ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – Formerly known simply as Slaty Antshrike, this is one of several taxa that were elevated to species level a few years ago. We found them during our visit to REGUA. [E]
VARIABLE ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens)
STAR-THROATED ANTWREN (Rhopias gularis) – Formerly placed in the Myrmotherula genus but recent studies have shown that it is only distantly related to the genus and it was moved to the monotypic genus Rhopias that was resurrected for the species. [E]
SPOT-BREASTED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus stictothorax) [E]
PLAIN ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus mentalis mentalis)
RUFOUS-BACKED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) – Excellent views of this high altitude specialist during our visit to Pico Nova Caledonia. [E]
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (SILVERY-FLANKED) (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) – Considered by many a separate species. This subspecies is endemic to the Atlantic Forest. [E]
UNICOLORED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula unicolor) – A scarce species that is only found in lowland Atlantic Forest. [E]
RUFOUS-WINGED ANTWREN (SOUTHERN) (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus)
FERRUGINOUS ANTBIRD (Drymophila ferruginea) [E]
BERTONI'S ANTBIRD (Drymophila rubricollis) [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila genei) [E]
OCHRE-RUMPED ANTBIRD (Drymophila ochropyga) [E]
DUSKY-TAILED ANTBIRD (Drymophila malura) [E]
SCALED ANTBIRD (Drymophila squamata) [E]
STREAK-CAPPED ANTWREN (Terenura maculata) [E]

The Itatiaia Spinetail is naturally rare as it has a very small range and is restricted to high altitude, so we were very fortunate to find this species at Pico Caledonia, especially after a fire had burned much of its habitat. Photo by participant David Woods.

WHITE-SHOULDERED FIRE-EYE (Pyriglena leucoptera) [E]
WHITE-BIBBED ANTBIRD (Myrmoderus loricatus) – This is certainly one of the most spectacular Antbirds out there and we had incredible views of a male displaying its white interscapular patch. [E]
Conopophagidae (Gnateaters)
BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER (Conopophaga melanops) [E]
RUFOUS GNATEATER (Conopophaga lineata)
Grallariidae (Antpittas)
VARIEGATED ANTPITTA (Grallaria varia) – This was a hard one to see but after working on it for quite a while we managed to get scope views of a perched individual.
Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos)
SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN (Psilorhamphus guttatus) [E]
WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) [E*]
MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO (Scytalopus speluncae) – The bird we saw is sometimes treated as a separate species called Serra do Mar Tapaculo [E]
Formicariidae (Antthrushes)
RUFOUS-CAPPED ANTTHRUSH (Formicarius colma) – Great looks at this scarce bird on the CEDAE trail
SHORT-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza campanisona campanisona) [*]
SUCH'S ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza meruloides) [E*]
RUFOUS-TAILED ANTTHRUSH (Chamaeza ruficauda) – We managed to pull this one across the path for some good views. [E]
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (OLIVACEOUS) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – The most common of the woodcreepers seen on the tour. There are several subspecies of this bird scattered around South America and evidence suggests that there are multiple species involved, so keep track of where you see them.
PLAIN-WINGED WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla turdina) – A nice view of this species on the CEDAE trail. [E]
PLANALTO WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
WHITE-THROATED WOODCREEPER (Xiphocolaptes albicollis)
LESSER WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus fuscus fuscus) [E*]
BLACK-BILLED SCYTHEBILL (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – We had a great time watching these birds foraging along the Theodoro Trail. It was fascinating to see those bills in action probing the bamboo in search of larvae. [E]
SCALED WOODCREEPER (SCALED) (Lepidocolaptes squamatus squamatus) [E]
STREAKED XENOPS (Xenops rutilans)
WING-BANDED HORNERO (Furnarius figulus) – We found a pair of nesting birds.
RUFOUS HORNERO (Furnarius rufus)
SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPER (Lochmias nematura nematura)
WHITE-COLLARED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabazenops fuscus) – An elegant Foliage-gleaner that, like many other Atlantic Forest species, is closely related to the presence of Bamboo.
PALE-BROWED TREEHUNTER (PALE-TAILED) (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus) – A canopy specialist that forages mainly in Bromeliads. We saw it well at the CEDAE trail [E]
BLACK-CAPPED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Philydor atricapillus) – Seen with understory mixed species flocks on the CEDAE trail [E]
WHITE-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia amaurotis) [E*]
OCHRE-BREASTED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Anabacerthia lichtensteini) [E]

Breathtaking vistas like this one are a constant reminder that we can explore a range of altitudes leading all the way to the sea. Photo by participant David Woods.

BUFF-BROWED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata)
WHITE-EYED FOLIAGE-GLEANER (Automolus leucophthalmus) [E]
RUFOUS-FRONTED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – We had great looks at the bird on the day we drove to Sumidouro but the nests are even more impressive than the birds.
ORANGE-EYED THORNBIRD (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) – An Atlantic forest endemic that was common around our lodge.
FIREWOOD-GATHERER (Anumbius annumbi) – close up views on the day we drove to Sumidouro
ITATIAIA SPINETAIL (Asthenes moreirae) – We barely make it to the altitude at which this unique bird lives and we were very concerned that a recent fire might have wiped out the habitat for it but there was enough habitat for the bird to hang in there and we had great looks at one. [E]
PALLID SPINETAIL (Cranioleuca pallida) – A common arboreal spinetail that was seen or heard on most days of the trip [E]
YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) – Found in the wetlands of REGUA
GRAY-BELLIED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis cinerascens) [*]
RUFOUS-CAPPED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
SPIX'S SPINETAIL (Synallaxis spixi)
PALE-BREASTED SPINETAIL (Synallaxis albescens) – This is a species of open areas and it was a surprise finding one for the first time on the tour but, like many other species, it is expanding its range due to the clearing of forest to create pastures.
Pipridae (Manakins)
SERRA DO MAR TYRANT-MANAKIN (Neopelma chrysolophum) – Not an atractive species but an Atlantic forest endemic. [E]
SWALLOW-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia caudata) – Formerly known as Blue Manakin. This species is colorful and fascinating with the elaborate displays of the males as the colaboratively display on a perch as they try to attract females. [E]
PIN-TAILED MANAKIN (Ilicura militaris) [E]
WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN (Manacus manacus gutturosus)
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
HOODED BERRYEATER (Carpornis cucullata) [E*]
SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA (SWALLOW-TAILED) (Phibalura flavirostris flavirostris) – Not an abundant species in the areas we visit but our go to spot proved to be great for it once again. [E]
BLACK-AND-GOLD COTINGA (Tijuca atra) – Great views on the lower areas of the Caledonia mountain. [E]
GRAY-WINGED COTINGA (Tijuca condita) – After quite a bit of searching we were treated to some excellent looks at this extremely rare species. [E]
BARE-THROATED BELLBIRD (Procnias nudicollis) [E]
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
GREENISH SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis virescens) [E]
SHRIKE-LIKE COTINGA (BRAZILIAN) (Laniisoma elegans elegans) – Wow. Always a very hard bird to see and we had absolutely brilliant views of it this year. [E]
GREEN-BACKED BECARD (Pachyramphus viridis)
CHESTNUT-CROWNED BECARD (Pachyramphus castaneus)
WHITE-WINGED BECARD (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – One of the several small flycatchers that are full of character seen on this trip
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – Good views during our visit to REGUA
GRAY-HOODED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes rufiventris) [E]
SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – We were able to observe the unique behavior of this flycatcher as it flicks a single wing up as if it was waving us hello.

This Paraguayan Hairy Dwarf-Porcupine (formerly known as Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf-Porcupine) was a mammalian highlight of our tour. Photo by guide Marcelo Padua.

MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes ventralis) – Several sightings including a pair of nesting birds.
OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes oustaleti) – The most scarce of the Tyrannulets on this tour but we were able to find one with a mixed species flock on the CEDAE trail this year. [E]
SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET (Phylloscartes difficilis) – As the latin name suggests this is a dificult species to see as it lives in high altitude and is often tucked into some dense vegetation but we had outstanding views at Pico Caledonia [E]
SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT (Corythopis delalandi)
EARED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis auricularis) – Great looks at this cute flycatcher that belongs to the genus that holds the smallest passerines in the world. [E]
DRAB-BREASTED PYGMY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus diops) [E]
EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus orbitatus) – Another lowland species that we saw extremely well at REGUA [E]
HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) [E]
OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps) – We found a pair of nesting birds near our lodge.
GRAY-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum poliocephalum) [E]
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (SOORETAMA) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens sulphurescens) – Another species that has multiple subspecies scattered throughout South America and will likely get split in to several different species
SMALL-HEADED ELAENIA (Elaenia sordida)
HIGHLAND ELAENIA (Elaenia obscura) [*]
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster)
OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA (Elaenia mesoleuca)
WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET (Serpophaga subcristata) – Great looks at these tyrannulets on the day we drove to Sumidouro
ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET (BURMEISTER'S) (Phyllomyias burmeisteri burmeisteri) – It is not often that we can say that we had scope views of a Tyrannulet on a tour.
PLANALTO TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
GRAY-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) [E]
BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER (Myiophobus fasciatus)
EULER'S FLYCATCHER (EULER'S) (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri)
CRESTED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus lophotes) – We found a pair of birds near the town of Duas Barras on our way to Sumidouro
VELVETY BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – A pair of nesting birds on the building by the telecomunications tower at Pico Caledonia [E]
BLUE-BILLED BLACK-TYRANT (Knipolegus cyanirostris) – Also seen at Pico Caledonia and always interesting to see how the two occupy the same area allowing us to study the differences between the two birds.
STREAMER-TAILED TYRANT (Gubernetes yetapa) – A fabulous species that is often found along marshes on our way to Sumidouro
SHEAR-TAILED GRAY TYRANT (Muscipipra vetula) – This atlantic forest endemic is hard to see as their vocalization is quite soft and they tend to sit at the very top of trees motionless for great periods of time but we heard a bird on the road to Macae de Cima and managed to get a good look at one. [E]
MASKED WATER-TYRANT (Fluvicola nengeta)
WHITE-HEADED MARSH TYRANT (Arundinicola leucocephala)

Participant David Woods captured this gorgeous Chestnut-headed Tanager right outside our lodge.

LONG-TAILED TYRANT (Colonia colonus)
GRAY-HOODED ATTILA (Attila rufus) – Excellent looks at this rather vocal Atlantic Forest endemic. [E]
SIBILANT SIRYSTES (Sirystes sibilator sibilator) [*]
SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus swainsoni)
BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
CATTLE TYRANT (Machetornis rixosa)
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Seen every day on the tour and we even found some nesting birds.
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua)
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis)
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus)
PIRATIC FLYCATCHER (Legatus leucophaius)
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus)
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)
GRAY-EYED GREENLET (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – Very similar to the much more common Rufous-crowned Greenlet from which it is separated mainly by the song. We missed it at our usual spot but found a pair on the road to Macae de Cima
RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET (Hylophilus poicilotis) [E]
CHIVI VIREO (MIGRATORY) (Vireo chivi chivi) – After many years of being considered a subspecies of Red-eyed Vireo this very different taxon was finally elevated to species level.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
CURL-CRESTED JAY (Cyanocorax cristatellus)
Donacobiidae (Donacobius)
BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS (Donacobius atricapilla)
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca)
TAWNY-HEADED SWALLOW (Alopochelidon fucata)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea)
WHITE-RUMPED SWALLOW (Tachycineta leucorrhoa)
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon)
LONG-BILLED WREN (Cantorchilus longirostris) – We saw the nominate subspecies of this Southeast Brazil endemic.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
PALE-BREASTED THRUSH (Turdus leucomelas)

We loved all the Foliage-gleaners, Spinetails and Antbirds, but birds like this Brassy-breasted Tanager are the real reason people come to Brazil to watch birds. Photo by participant David Woods.

YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH (Turdus flavipes) – Common but more often heard than seen. We had great scope looks at a singing male.
WHITE-NECKED THRUSH (RUFOUS-FLANKED) (Turdus albicollis albicollis) [*]
RUFOUS-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus rufiventris)
CREAMY-BELLIED THRUSH (Turdus amaurochalinus)
Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
PURPLE-THROATED EUPHONIA (Euphonia chlorotica) [*]
VIOLACEOUS EUPHONIA (Euphonia violacea)
CHESTNUT-BELLIED EUPHONIA (Euphonia pectoralis) – A close relative of the Golden-sided Euphonia that is found in the Amazon [E]
HOODED SISKIN (Spinus magellanicus)
Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)
GRASSLAND SPARROW (Ammodramus humeralis)
HALF-COLLARED SPARROW (Arremon semitorquatus) – We had great looks at this Atlantic Forest endemic right around our lodge. [E]
RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW (Zonotrichia capensis)
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
WHITE-BROWED MEADOWLARK (Leistes superciliaris) – Formely known as White-browed Blackbird
CRESTED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius decumanus)
RED-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus haemorrhous)
SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis)
CHOPI BLACKBIRD (Gnorimopsar chopi)
CHESTNUT-CAPPED BLACKBIRD (Chrysomus ruficapillus) – Common in Marshy areas
YELLOW-RUMPED MARSHBIRD (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
Parulidae (New World Warblers)
MASKED YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
TROPICAL PARULA (Setophaga pitiayumi) [*]
GOLDEN-CROWNED WARBLER (Basileuterus culicivorus)
WHITE-BROWED WARBLER (Myiothlypis leucoblephara) – This melodious species is readily heard in the forests around Nova Friburgo. It was formerly known as White-rimmed Warbler due to the white ring around its eye.
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
CINNAMON TANAGER (Schistochlamys ruficapillus)
MAGPIE TANAGER (Cissopis leverianus)
CHESTNUT-HEADED TANAGER (Thlypopsis pyrrhocoma) – A striking species that specializes in bamboo. [E]
BLACK-GOGGLED TANAGER (Trichothraupis melanops)
FLAME-CRESTED TANAGER (Tachyphonus cristatus) – Seen at REGUA with canopy flocks.

This cheeky White-tufted-ear Marmoset did not think highly of us. Photo by participant David Woods.

RUBY-CROWNED TANAGER (Tachyphonus coronatus) [E]
BRAZILIAN TANAGER (Ramphocelus bresilius) [E]
DIADEMED TANAGER (Stephanophorus diadematus) – Excellent looks at this stunning species during our visit to Pico Caledonia.
FAWN-BREASTED TANAGER (Pipraeidea melanonota melanonota) – Seen right from the garden of our lodge.
SAYACA TANAGER (Thraupis sayaca)
AZURE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Thraupis cyanoptera) – It was great to see this species side by side with Sayaca Tanagers to point out the differences between the two species.
BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER (STRIPE-BELLIED) (Stilpnia cayana chloroptera)
GREEN-HEADED TANAGER (Tangara seledon) [E]
RED-NECKED TANAGER (Tangara cyanocephala) – One of these little Atlantic Forest gems that looks like somethings you would see in mugs, towels and every kind of souvenir one person could imagine. [E]
BRASSY-BREASTED TANAGER (Tangara desmaresti) [E]
GILT-EDGED TANAGER (Tangara cyanoventris) [E]
SWALLOW TANAGER (Tersina viridis)
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana)
RUFOUS-HEADED TANAGER (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) [E]
YELLOW-BACKED TANAGER (Hemithraupis flavicollis insignis)
BAY-CHESTED WARBLING-FINCH (Castanozoster thoracicus) – Great looks at these handsome birds on the visit to Pico Caledonia. The few hours we spend up there really pay off. [E]
SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)
WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH (Emberizoides herbicola)
BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT (Volatinia jacarina)
LINED SEEDEATER (Sporophila lineola)
WHITE-BELLIED SEEDEATER (GRAY-BACKED) (Sporophila leucoptera cinereola)
DOUBLE-COLLARED SEEDEATER (Sporophila caerulescens)
BANANAQUIT (Coereba flaveola)
GREEN-WINGED SALTATOR (Saltator similis)
THICK-BILLED SALTATOR (Saltator maxillosus) [E]
BLACK-THROATED GROSBEAK (Saltator fuliginosus) – A bird of open grasslands that we saw on the day we visited Sumidouro. [E]

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis)
WHITE-TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus jacchus)
CAPYBARA (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)
GOLDEN TEGU (Tupinambis teguixin)


Totals for the tour: 296 bird taxa and 3 mammal taxa